Salankayanas

Written by Alok Mohan on January 3, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Salankayanas.
Salankayanas, the parama bhagavatas, werè an ancient brahmin family of Andhrapradesh. 
Political history of Salankayanas can be traced from ten records, nine of which are copper plate records, and one is a lithic record. These are written in Prakrit and Sanskrit languages. As per these records seven king ruled from 320 A.D. to 446 A.D. They were the
feudatories of Ikshvakus and had ruled Andhra Pradesh, from their capital Eluru, from 3rd century AD to 5th century AD. Salankayana was their gotra name. According to Matsya-purana and Pravara-manjari of Purushottama, ‘Salankayana’ was the name of their ancestor, a rishi, who was a descendent of Salanka, and one of the sons of Visvamitran. 
Salankayana means ‘Nandi’, the sacred bull of Lord Siva.
Samudragupta, who could easily defeat many rulers in Andhra but was given strong resistance by Hastivarman of Salankayana dynasty and
Vishnugopa, the Pallava ruler.  He had no choice but to leave South India without annexing any territory to his empire. Vijayadevavarman, the Salankayana king, had  declared himself to be a Paramamahesvara. He was an ‘asvamedhyajin, a meditator on
the feet of Bappa Bhattaraka.
Hastivarman 1, had founded Salankayana dynasty after defeating, Pallavas and Kadambas. He  waged wars against several petty chiefs of the neighbouring region, like Mataraja of Kaurala etc, and established his kingdom.
 Hastivarman 1, faced Samudragupta’s invasion and was defeated. 
However Samudragupta couldn’t establish his independent rule & had to depend on Salankayana kings, for administrative control.
He was immediately succeeded by his son Nandivarman who ruled Vengi between A.D. 350 and 390. He extended his territory towards the South of the Krishna river by subduing the other petty rulers.
Inscription number 33. 
Copper-plate Inscription of Vijaya-Devavarman.
Regnal Year 13.
Provenance: Not known, Possibly some place in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi of the southern class
Language: Prakrit
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind., IX pp.56-59.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in EP.Ind.. IX between pp. 58 and 59.
2. On the left margin expressed by the spiral symbol.
3. Vengipura has been identified with the village Padda-vegi, 11 km.  from Eluva in west Godavari district.
Footnote 2.
1. Serial number of all inscribed sides, except the first, is engraved on left margin.
2. Identified with modern Eluru, in West Godavari District.
3.  बभुर = बर्भु  the pravara of Balhrava gotra was a descendant of Visvamitra.


Footnote 2.
1. The adjective is evidently meant for
Chitraratha-Svamin and hence should have been compounded with his name.
2. Possibly Mududa is a Dravidian word most probably signifying a village official. cf. the modern word
motadu is used in some parts of Guntur and Nellore districts, in the sense of a village Official or
servant supervising the distribution of water irrigating rain-fed or tank-fed lands. The Kanukollu plates of Nandivarman 1, read mutuda.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om !  From the prosperous and victorious Vengilpura, The villagers of Ellura headed by Mududa must be addressed (as follows) by the word of the glorious Maharaja Vijaya-Devavarman, the performer of the horse-sacifice, the
salankayana, the fervent Mahesvara, who is devoted to the feet of the lord (his father, (and) who meditates on the
feet of the holy chitrarathasvamin:
For this Ganasarman of Babhru gotra (a grant of) twenty-20-nivartanas of land in a handsome locality a house-site ( for himself) and a house-site for the two classes of servants, who work for half the crop and protection of immunities have been ordered by us.
Accordingly, he must be exempted with all the immunities.
(In) the victorious year thirteen-13 (of the reign), (on) the tenth 10th tithi of the dark fortnight of Pausha. (Here follow two of the usual imprecatory stanzas) 




Mattepad Plates of Damodaravarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 2, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The ANANDAS
(First half of fourth century A.D.)
 Anandas ruled Andhra from 335-425 A.D.
They operated from Kandarapura (present day Chejerla mandal) of Guntur district. Anandas resumed power consequent to the fall of Iksh-vaku dynasty.
They flourished between second half of the 4th century and the first half of the 5th century.
There are only two copper- plate grants of Anandas and one stone inscription. Only three kings of the kingdom, Kandara, Attivarman, and Damadoravarman, are known. The founder of the Ananda Gotrikas was Kandara, who also founded the capital city of Kanadarapura. King Kandara, a devotee of Shiva, also won battles against the pallavas and drove them out of Amaravati region. King Damadoravarman was the successor and son of King Attivarman.
The Ananda dynasty  was overthrown by salankayanas.
Inscription number 32.
Mattepad Plates of Damodaravarman Regnal Year 2.
Provenance: Village Mattepad, Ongole taluk, Guntur district,
Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Early Southern Brahmi of early 4th century A.D.
Language: Partly Sanskrit, partly Prakrit.
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind. XVII, pp.327-30.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XVII facing pp. 328.
2. The serial number of each inscribed face of the plates, is engraved on its left margin.
3. The city must have been founded by king Kandara who is
mentioned as an ancestor of Attivarman (= Hastivarman)
(Ind. Ant,. IX,. pp.102, 11.2-2). A much defaced sanskrit inscription at chezarlai, west of Guntur, mentions the
daughter of Kandara of Ananda gotra; (see Venkayya’s Report for 1900, pp.5, 35)
4. Fourth plate second side  Incised below the line, below the syllables ददज्जस्स.
English Translation of the inscription.
From Kandarapura, the city of victory The villagers of Kangura be told on orders from the glorious Maharaja
Damodaravarman of Ananda lineage, who meditates on the feet of the Lord Buddha, the truly enlightened one (and) who is the origin of the production (who has caused the performance) of many Hiranyagarbha sacrifices, and of (gifts of) thousands of fertile cows:
For the sake of our salvation as far as the seventh generation, the village of Kangura has been granted by us
with ali exemptions, to these (following) Brahmanas, of various ancestries and schools (of the vedas), engaged in
austerities and study of sacred texts. Knowing this (the villagers) should render service (to them.)
The allotment of shares is (now) made to these Brahmanas, with specification of (their) gotras(ancestries) and charanas (schools of the veda).
First then, To Rudrarya of Kaundinya gotra 1 share, To Nandyarya
the Kaundinya 1 share, To skandarya, the Kaundinya (1) share,
To Bhavarya, the Kaundinya 1 share, To Agnyarya, the Kaundinya,
1 share, To sryarya, the Kaundinya, 1 share, Again to Bhavarya the Kaundinya 1 share, To skandarya,
the Kaundinya 1 share, To sabaarya the Kaundinya 1 share, To Agnyarya the
Kaundinya 1 share, To Virarya, the Kaundinya 1 share, To
Damarya, the Kasyapa, ( of Kasyapa gotra) (1) share; To Kumararya, the Kasyapa, 1 share, To Venvarya, the Kasyapa 1 share, to Devarya, the Kasyapa, 1 share, to Nandyarya the
Kasyapa 1 share, to Dronarya of Vatsa gotra 1 share, to Bhadrarya of Agastya gotra 1 share.
In the year of victory 2, on the thirteenth (tithi) of the bright fortnight of Karttika, this charter plate was given.
(Here follow two of the usual benedictory and
imprecatory verses)
Footnote: 1 and 2. Halanta m is engraved below the double danda.

Brihatphalayanas.

Written by Alok Mohan on January 2, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Brihatphalayanas.

Brihatphalayana dynasity, was an ancient kingdom of Andhra Pradesh.  Brihatphalayanas ruled after the Ikshvakus around the third century from their headquarters at Koduru.
As is the meaning of brihat (vastness) & Palayana, which means moving, the kingdom was dynamic in approach & had progressed in all spheres of life i e art, culture, religion & infrastructure.
This copper plate inscription is the only source to know the history of this dynasty. This inscription, written in prakrit language, was issued by Jayavarman in his regnal year 10.
Jayavarman describes himself  as the devotee of Maheswara and calls him Raja and patronize of Brahmanism. This period witnessed growth of sanatana dharma and decline of Buddhism. Jayavarman gifted the village of Patur in tenali Taluk to eight Brahmanas.
Inscription number 31.
Kondamudi Copper-plate Inscription of Jayavarman.
Regnal Year 10.
Provenance: Kondamudi, Tenali taluka, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Cursive Middle Brahmi of the southern class, of the 4th century AD.
Language: Prakrit.
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep, Ind., VI, pp. 315-19.
Footnote 1.
1. The script of these plates closely resembles that of the Mayidavolu plates of Siva-skanda-varman (Supra, V, 21, Ep.Ind, VI, pp.84 to 88)
while the Sanskrit legend around the margin of the seal, is in archaic characters, which differ totally from those employed on the plates. Just as here different scripts are used or sanskrit and Prakrit words, so
also in the Inscriptions of the Tamil country Grantha, script is used for sanskrit, and the vatteluttu and
the Tamil scripts are used for Tamil Words.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, VI.
3. The eight copper plates are marked with the numerical Symbols. 1 to 8, on the left margin, on level with the
second line. It is to be noted that while plates ii to viii, bear the serial number on the first side, the first plate bears it on its second side, indicating that the inscription proper begins from here The writing on the first side of the first plate does not form part of the inscription itself, but is a docket, which
was added probably after completing the rest of the 15 pages.
4. The first two syllables are broken away at the top. The lower portion of Letter व is preserved on a separated piece of the plate, according to Hultzsch, and could not be shown with the facsimile of the plate.
He suggests the restoration as सिव -पतो
(Sanskrit शिव – प्राप्त: ) on the analogy of सुखप्पत्तो
the Dhammapada and takes it in the sense of शिव – प्राप्त: = अधिगत – कल्याण:
= fortunate, as an adjective of
Jayavarman. In my view the phrase must be a mangalacharana, and hence I consider it equivalent to
शिव: प्रीत:  = God Siva is pleased.
Footnote 2.
1. A dash resembling the symbol for 1 is used as a mark of punctuation at the end of 12 lines and after 3 words in the middle of lines.
2.   दिवढ़  represents the. दिवढ़ढ = one and a half. See Pischels, Granmatik der Prakrit – Spracher,  pp.320. Cf. Hindi and Panjabi word ड़योढ़ा.
3. Read कत्तून दिवढ़ा
Read
4. कातून
5. Sanskrit     अव्ययेन  = अक्षरेण = वाचा
Footnote 3.
1. Nothing is known about Jayavarman or his gotra from other records. Community of script would place him in the same period as Sivaskandavarman of Mayidavolu plates.(Supra, IV, 21, Ep.Ind, VI, pp. 84 to 89 ) That he belonged to an early
period is also proved by the archaic script of the seal attached to the present inscription and similarity
language and phraseology of these plates with the Nasik inscriptions of Gautami putra satakarni (Numbers 4 and 5.) (Supra, I, 159 & 160 )
and vasishthiputra Pulumayi (No.3)
(Supra, I, 166) and Karle inscription  (Supra, I, 167 ) See also Bhagwan Lal Indraji, Bombay Gazetteer, XVI, ( For Nasik inscriptions.) and Inscriptions
from the cave-temples of western India (for Karle inss.)
He is distinct from the Jayavarman of a minor branch of Eastern Kalingas, ruling from Svetaka. The latters two Parlakimedi grants dated in the Ganga years 100 (596 A.D.) and 120 (616 A.D.) are known.
Footnote 3.
1. Causative from namadhatu. अवयव cf. Dasa Kumara Charita, pp. 161, (Bombay ed. )  द्रव्याणां केनचिदवयवते:
English Translation of the inscription
The God Siva is pleased,
From the camp of victory the city of Kudura king. Sri Jayavarman, who is favoured by the feet of Mahesvara and who belongs to the lineage of
the Brihatphalayanas orders (his) officials at Kudura:
For conferring on our selves victory
and for increasing the length of (our) life, we have, now given the village Pantura in the (district of) Kudurahara as a brahmadeya assigning 24 shares to 8 Parcel off that village Pantura from this (district) having made (it) a brahma-deya. And to this village Pantura, because of its being a brahma-deya, we grant the following
immunities:-
it is to be out of bounds (for state officials). free from being meddled with, free from digging salt, free
from collective penalties by the state and endowed with immunities of all kinds. Exempt (it) without fail with (all)
these immunities and having made this village Pantura a brahma-deya, cause a charter to be drawn up to this effect.
The order was issued by word of mouth. (The charter) was signed by (the king) himself .
Fortune, wealth, power and victory was given in the firm of blessings by the donee to the king.
(This) set of plates as prepared on the 1st day of the 1st fortnight of winter of the 10th year by the Mahadandanayaka Bhapahanavarman,the best of the Mahatagi family.
First plate first side.
Charter pertaining to the brahmadeya, village of Pantura in Kudurahara, granted to 8 people, the Brahmanas,
the chief person among whom is Aya-sarvagupta.
Seal
Of the Maharaja Sri Jayavarman of Brihatphalayana gotra.
Footnote 4:
The shares listed add up to only 20/2. The remaining 3/2 unassigned shares were probably meant to be set
aside for the village common. people, that is, to the Brahmanas, (namely) To the householder
Arya Sarvagupta of the Gautama gotra (8 shares); To Arya Suvijna of the Tanava gotra (3 shares) To Arya Gogin (3 shares) to Arya Bhavan of the Kaundinya gotra, (2 shares) To
Arya Rudravishnu of Bharadvaja gotra, (one and a half share)
To Arya Isavaradatta of the Karshnayana gotra (one and a half
share) To Arya Rudra-Ghosha of the Aupamanyava gotra (1 share)
and to Arya Skandarudra of the Kausika gotra (half a share)
Footnote 5.
1. It may possibly be a mistake for Manava gotra.
2. Senart, Ep.Ind, VII,  derives from the
to hurt’, and hence ‘to write’,  But in the present case it is expressly stated that instead of writing, the king issued the order orally.
Hence Hultzsch concludes that the word is used here in the sense of
affixing signature to the original document, which was deposited in the royal secretariat, and from which the
Copper plates were prepared. In the plates the royal signature is represented by the seal on which they are strung.

Chendalur Copper-plates of Kumaravishnu

Written by Alok Mohan on January 1, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Five copper-plates “ were found by a farmer, of Ongole taluka of the Nellore district, while he was digging house-site for laying it’s foundation. The pot containing these plates were
buried in a pot full of paddy husk.
 The first plate and the last plate, contain writings inside only. The plates have no rims. In the upper and lower borders they are not as broad as in the middle. 
Pallavas maintained a well-organized administrative system. Pallava state was divided into Kottams. Again Kottam was administered by officers appointed by the king. The king was at the center of administration in which he was assisted by able ministers. He was the fountain of justice. He maintained a well-trained army. He provided land-grants to the temples known as Devadhana and also to the Brahmans known as Brahmadeya. It was also the responsibility of the central government to provide irrigation facilities to the lands.
Palavas carried out extensive development work for the welfare of their subjects. Several irrigation tanks were dug. Land tax was the primary source for cresting revenue for the kingdom. Lands owned Brahmadeya and Devadhanas were exempted from tax, while traders and artisans paid taxes. 
Pallava inscriptions throw light on an efficient administrative set up. They constituted village assemblies, which were called Gram Sabhas. They recorded, ownership of all cultivated lands within their kingdom, and also looked after cultural and religious affairs.
Inscription number 30.
Chendalur Copper-plates of Kumaravishnu 2.
(Beginning of the 5th century (A.D.)
Provenance: Chendalur, Ongole taluka, Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi palaeographically almost similar to the script of Pikira, Mangalur and Uruvupalli grants.
Language: Sanskrit.
Footnote 1.
1. Of the kanchi branch. The wording resembles the Pikira, Manglur and Uruvapalli grants of simhavarman. But the pedigree in the latter three differs from that in the present grant, and thus direct and continuous connection can be established between both the sets of kings, though Skandavarman is the common ancestor, But after him the
line divides into two different branches- the main branch ruling at Kanchi, and the other in Nellore-Guntur region
(See supra, IV, 27, n.1)
Metres: Vv.1-4, श्लोक ( अनुष्टुब )
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind, VIII, pp. 233-36.
First plate.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., between pp.234 and pp.235.
2. on the left margin.
3. On the left margin below the plate number.
4. Of the two  homonyms, Pallava king
Who calls himself Vijaya Skandavarman, in his Omgodu and Gunapadeya plates (Supra, IV, 23, 24)
and is called अभ्युच्चित – शक्ति – सिधि – सम्पन्न 
and प्रतापोपनत – राज – मंडल  as here in Omgodu, Pikira and Vilavathi plates of simhavarman 3, (supra IV, 26-28)
although these very epithets are applied to some other kings, like viravarman elsewhere.
Second plate second side.
Footnote 3.
1. On the left margin.
2. Also mentioned in two Eastern chalukya grants (Ind.Ant.VII, pp.187,  text 1.12 and XX, pp.105, text 1.16) as कर्म – राष्ट्र and as कम्म-राष्ट्र
in a third one. (Ep.Ind., VIII, pp.239, 1.25)
Fourt Plate Second Side.
Footnote 4. 
1. In the left margin.
2. Modern Chandalura in Nellore district.


English Translation of the inscription.
Hail ! Victory has been achieved by Bhagavan.
Hail !
From the victorious Kanchipura, the pious Maharaja, the illustrious Kumaravishnu, who is consecrated for the true vow of constant effort of pleasing and nourishing his subjects,
who is shining with the fame of victories won in daring
engagements in many wars, who is ever ready to rescue dharma
(virtue) sunk because of the depravities of the Kaliyuga, who is desirous of winning all the collections of virtues of
of royal sages, who is desirous of victories of piety, who meditates 
on the feet of the Lord (Bhagavat), a fervent Bhagavata, of Bharadvaja gotra, devoted to the feet of the lord (his) father, and of the family of the Pallavas who are the abode of the
fortunes of other kings overcome by their own valour and have
properly performed several horse-sacrifices, who is the son of
the truthful Maharaja the illustrious Buddhavarman, of immeasurable
personality, who had caused to be produced all the blessings
through devotion to the lord, who had the collection of qualities
emulating (those of the primeval kings the grandson of Maharaja Sri Kumaravishnu of truthful spirit, the fifth Lokapala among the Lokapalas, expert in nourishing (his) subjects, one who
had increased the pile of religious merit by gifts of many cows, gold, land etc.who was the worshipper of gods, brahmanas preceptors and the old and whose humility had increased, who
was the great grand son of Maharaja Sri-Skandavarman, the unique
hero on the suface of the earth, who had subdued the circle of
kings with his valour, (and) who was endowed with augmented power 
and success, addresses the (following) order to the villagers, in village of Chendalura in Karmanka-rashtra and to all (royal) employees (naiyogika)
and superintendents (vallabha) having jurisdiction here (i.e. in this district) that inthe village of Chendalura in Kavachakara subdivision of this Kamanka district.
We have given all this field measuring four hundred and thirty two pattikas out of an aggregate (samudayatah) area of eight hundred pattikas on all the four sides, lying as the king’s property
to the Brahmana Bhavaskandatrata of the Kaundinya gotra and
the chhandoga sutra and a resident of Abhirupa under the terms and conditions applicable to gifts to Brahmanas, with the exception of the land enjoyed by temples, for cultivation
(hala-nayayana) accompanied by all immunities for the increase
of our life-span, power, victory and supremacy (aisvarya) in
the second year of our reign of growing victory in the month Karttika, on the fifth tithi of the bright fortnight. Having
understood this, they must exempt this  brahmadeya field with all the immunities, and cause it to be exempted. And whosoever
transgresses this our edict that wicked man is liable to corporal punishment. and with reference to this there are also
the following) verses sung by Brahman:
(Here follow four of the customary verses)
Thus it has been ordered. Let cows and brahmanas rejoice. Let there be welfare to (all) men.
Footnote.
1. Hultzsch reports that anusvara is there, but has failed to come out on photo-lithograph.

Chura Plates of Vijaya-Vishnugopavarman.

Written by Alok Mohan on December 31, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 29.
Chura Plates of Vijaya-Vishnugopavarman.
Pallava history can be studied in two parts:-
1. Early history of Pallavas
2. Successors of Simhavishnu.
Study of the early history of Pallavas is purely based upon these inscriptions especially copper-plate grants of the  kings. This chura grant supplies us following genealogy.
Skandavarman – Vishnugopavarman-Simhavarman-Vijaya-Vishnugopavarman


Most of these records of the Pallavas were issued from Kanchi as Kanchi must be the headquarters of the dynasty. However Pallavas had lost Kanchi, once, probably during the fight between the Gupta king Samudragupta and the Pallava king Vishnugopa. Pallavas again captured Kanchi, probably defeating the Cholas, who took over this when Vishnugopa was busy with Samudragupta.
The first ruler of this dynasty was Skandavarman, who is also referred as Yuvaraja, in these inscriptions.
He assumed the title of Dharma Maharaja as he had performed Asvamedha and various other Vedic sacrifices.  We get very meager information in these charters, however it is possible to  get information relating to the administrative and social aspects of Pallava kingdom. We hear of Yuvarajas evidently crown princes who perhaps participated in government and issued the charters. The kings wore titles like Bhattaraka. Gift of tax-free lands to Brahmins, was an important act of charity by the kings. Political & administrative system of pallava dynasty, was inherited from Satavahana dynasty. Pallavas followed sanatna dharma and were worshippers of Siva & Vishnu and always performed Vedic sacrifices.
The Pallavas from Simhavarman of the sixth century AD to Kampavarman of the early tenth century were the most important power in south india, for a period of atleast five centuries.
Provenance: Uncertain. Probably Daggupadu Village Narasarsaopet
taluk, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi of the Southern class of 7th century AD.
Language: Sanskrit, with a few Telugu expressions.
References: C.R. Krishnamacharlu, Ep.Ind.. XXIV, pp.137-43.
Footnote 1.
The characters reveal a great affinity with those of the Kondanaguru grant of the Eastern Chalukya Indravarman.
(Ep.Ind, XVIII, No.1 and Plate opp pp.2) and Ipuru plates of Vishauvardhana 3, (ibid., No.6 and Plare opp.  pp.60).
Hence the present copy of the grant is assignable to the early part of the 7th century A.D. The original charter
must have been lost during the intrusion into the Karma-rashtra of the Eastern chalukya Kubja-Vishnuvardhana in early 7th century, necessitating the issue of fresh copies of the grants of this king and his father Simha-varman
(e.g. Omgodu grant).
From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXIV, between pp.142 and 143.
Second Plate First Side.
Footnote 2.
Maharaja Vishnugopavarman is identical with Yuva-maharaja vishnugopavarman mentioned in the Mangadur Pikira (Supra, IV, 27, L.10) and  Uruvapalli and Omgodu (Supra, IV, 26, L.12) grants issued by simhavarman. The supposition of Hultzsch (Ep,Ind.. VIII, pp.160) that he never came to the throne has to be
rejected on the evidence of the present grant. We have definite evidence to show that he ruled for 25 years
under the royal nane or title Vijayasiddhi (See Ep.Ind., XVIII, pp. 55 ff.)
Footnote 3.
Second plate second side.
1. He may be designated as VishnugopaI 2, of the Pallava dynasty.
2. The Telugu expression Muyuru-Kutuva, is the meeting
place of three villages. Melitapah is a stepped platform or stacking ploughs (meli means modern medi).
Footnote 4.
Third plate First side.
1. The villages Lagubamru, Paguhuru and Nagolami may be identified respectively with the modern villages
Daggupadu, Pavuluru and Nagalla, all in the Bapatla, Guntur district. The gift-village Chura would, therefore, be the deserted village shown in the New Atlas sheets between Nagalla and Daggupadu. In other sheets it is shown as suravaripalem. Karma rashtra is referred to in the Eastern chalukya
inscriptions. Earlier in the Jaggayyapeta Prakrit inscriptions of the Ikshvaku king Siri-virapurishadatta,
(Luders List Nos. 1202 to 1204 Hutzsch, Ep.Ind., IX, pp.50) It is called Kammaka-Ratha.
In later epigraphs it was known as the Kamma_nandu.
2. Muditi-talakah is an ancient (mudi) tank.
Footnote 5.
1. Dvedaya and Vveđai appear to be corrupt, but rudha (rooted in tradition) forms of Sanskrit Dviveda.
The village name Dvedaigoma-puram occurs in the Tandantottam plates of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman (S.I.I,. II, pp. 519 and 532 and in chola inscriptions (Ibid, pp.259 ff and Ep.Ind.. XXII, pp.54)
2. अ of  अस्य has been combined in sandhi with ति at the end of the last hemistitch.
Footnote 6.
1. Palatkata may either be identical with the modern village of Peda-Palakaluru in the Guntur district, as suggested by Dubreuil, or with Palukuru in the Kandukur taluk of the Nellore district as suggested by Krishmacharlu,
Pallakada-sthana, from where uruarupalli plates of simhavarman were issued, may also be the same as
Palatkata (see Ind.Ant, V, pp.51).
English Translation of the inscription.
Victorious is the Lord. Hail ! From the illustrious and victorious seat of Palatkata the devout worshipper of
Bhagavat, the pious king the illustrious Vijaya-Vishnugopavarman of Bharadvaja gotra, (and) of (the family of the Pallavas, the performer of many asvamedha sacrifices and the abodes
of good fortune who (vijayavishnu gopavarman) was ever initiated into the vows of sacrifices, which were honoured with the pious thoughts of devotion to the Lord (bhagavat) and
were the producers of all the blessings who is luminous with fame from victories won in sudden encounters in many battles, who is ever engaged in rescuing Dharma, sunk by the evils of
Kaliyuga, who possesses the virtues of kingly sage, who meditates on the feet of the Lord Vishnu), who is devoted to
the feet of his majestic father, (and) who is the son of the illustrious Maharaja Simhavarman,who was true in spirit, who was promoter of prosperity of the gods (i.e. temples), the
Brahmanas, the teachers and the seniors, who was excessively courteous, who had increased his store of piety by gifts of many cows. gold and land etc. who was adept at nursing his subjects (and) who was fifth (i.e. additional) among the Lokapalass, who (Vijaya-vlshnugopavarman) was the grandson of the illustrious Maharaja Vishnugopavarman, who was the
unique hero on the surface of the earth, and who was rich in accomplishments, who Vijaya-Vishnugopavarman) was the great grand son of the illustrious Maharaja Skandavarman, who was
greatly devoted to the Vedas (or the Brahmanas), who was the repository of brilliant khatriya power earned by his own arms, who had established all the ethical standards according to the
law, who was stead fast in the path of duty, (sthiti-sthitasya.)
whose spirit was boundless, who had subdued the circle of Kings with his valour, commands the villagers, all the
administrators on local duty, the mobile Officers (sancharan-takan) and the royal superintendents in the village named chura, in the province of Karma.
To the west of this village is the village named  Lagubamru. Its (i.e. of the donated village chura) eastern
boundary is the eastern tank, touching in the east, the great highway to Iradi. To the south is the platorm or stacking
ploughs on the meeting place of three villages, admixed with
( svarita) (i.e. touching) the boundary of the village Paguharu.
To the west is the boundary of the village Nagolami. The northern boundary is the northern tank towards the north, Thus measured upto the four limits is an area (or farm of one
hundred and eight nivarttanas. In the sane village, is a piece of land, situated on a house-site, towards the south
and) approaching the middle of the village and the central banyan tree, and to the south of the ancient tank situated in an enclosure (vatika-sthana) (measuring) one nivarttana.
These have been granted with the libation of water, on account
the summer solstice, to chesamisarman of Kasyapa gotra, who
is well-versed in the four Vedas, is a resident of Kundur, (and)
who is the grandson of vishnusarman, and the son of vriddhasarman,
a scholar two Vedas. These have been given to him for the increase of longevity, power and victory with all the immunities, according to the law of gifts to the Brahmanas. The sinner, who
transgresses this charter of ours, will deserve corporal punishment. And in this context these are also verses spoken by a Rishi.
(Here follow three of the customary verses.)

Vilavatti Grant of Pallava Simha-varman

Written by Alok Mohan on December 30, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 28.
Vilavatti Grant of Pallava Simha-varman 3, (Regnal) Year 10.
Study of Pallava history may be carried out in two parts: 
(1) Early Pallavas: Those who ruled before 600 A D.
(2) Imperial Pallavas: Those who came after 600. 
Simhavarman 3, a Siva devotee was among the early Pallava rulers.During his reign, expansion of pallava kingdom started
Subsequently the expansion was achieved by the crown prince, Simhavishnu, and this accomplishment made the later pallava kings very powerful. Simhavishnu, also known as Avanisimha, Chatrumalla, etc., is mentioned in the Velurpalayam plates as the son of Simhavarman. The Mattavilasa Prahasanam in its prologue mentions him. Bharavi, the great Sanskrit poet, adorned his court. He had a brother by name Bhimavarman. Simhavishnu’s biggest accomplishment was the large southern extension of pallay kingdom.
 He is famous like Kadungon for having destroyed the Kalabhras. His kingdom, thus extended, reached down to the Kaviri as can be seen from Pallangoil plates. He also defeated the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Malavarayas. He was a Vaishnava. He excavated the Siyyamangalam Cave Temple.
Provenance: A Village Vavveru, Kovur taluk, Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Southern class of Brahmi with some letters of box-heads type, some with nail-heads and the rest
with short head-lines or even without them.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: C.R Kishnamacharlu, Annual Reports on south Indian epigraphy for the year 1933-34, No.1 of Appendix. A ibid. Pt.II, pp.30, Ep.Ind,  XXIV, pp. 296-303.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXIV, between pp.302 and 303.
2. Paddukkara is represented by the modern village of Padugupadu, about 15 km. south-east of Vavveru, and within a couple of kilometers from Kovuru.
Footnote 2.
1.  Note that प्रपौत्रस्य here and पौत्रस्य
in 1.7 qualify
Vishnugopasya in 1.9, and not the next word which goes with simhavarma in 1.13, This is an obvious mistake, as is clear from the genealogical sections of Omgodu and Pikira Plates. of simhavarman 3. ( see IV,23 and 2 7 respectively).
2. Emended as in Uruvupalli and Pikir grants.
Footnote 3.
1. Emended as in other grants.
2. It is evidently identical with the later Munda-nadu or Mundai-nadu of the Nellore inscriptions. For references
see Ep.Ind., XXIV, pp.301, n.5.
3. Vilavatti may either be identified with Vavveru, where the plates were discovered, or with vidavaluru, about
20 km east of it.
4  There was a solar eclipse in the 4th year of simhavarman’ s reign in the month of chaitra (see Ep.Ind., XV, pp.253).
Dr. schram’ s Tables of the Eclipses of the Sun in India, record an eclipse on the 17th May, 440 A D. The month of
Chaitra in certain years overlaps the month of May, particularly when there is an adhi-masa chaitra. Accepting 
440 AD. as his 4th regnal year, the initial year of simhavarman’s reign works out to 436 A.D. and the date of the
present plates will come to 446 AD.
Footnote 4.
1. Pravaranchara and certain other professions in this list cannot be clearly defined. See the opinion of
Krishnamacharlu and the editor N.P. Chakravarti in Ep.Ind,. XXIV, pp.298 and n.5 respectively.
2. Emended to बंट – ग्रामेयका: = भाग  – ग्रामेयका: Officers of subsidiary villages.
English Translation of the inscription.
L1.1-14. Hail ! The Lord is victorious. At the illustrious and victorious seat of Paddukkara, the illustrious Maharaja
simhavarman of (the family of the Pallavas, the performers of many asvamedha sacrifices, who (simhavarman) is the abode of majesty of other kings subdued with his prowess, who is of Bharadvaja gotra who is a devout worshipper of Bhagavats, who is devoted to the feet of his majestic father, who contemplates on the feet of the Lord, who is desirous of pious victories, who is desirous of winning the entire pile of virtues found in royal sages; whose valour is worth envy who is ever
engaged in rescuing Dharma (piety) sunk in the sins of the evil age, who is the son of the Yuva-Maharaja, the
matchless Sri vishnugopa, who was luminous with fame earned in courageous encounters in may battles, who was highly courteous, who worshipped the gods, the
Brahmanas, the teachers and the elderly people, (simhavarman,) who is the grand son of the great soul
Maharaja Sri Skandavarman, who was the fifth (i.e. additional) Lokapala, who was adept in nursing his subjects, whose collection of pious deeds (dharma) had greatly increased by gifts of many cows, gold, land and other things, who had brought about all the
blessings by his noble thoughts of devotion in the Lord, to whose valour the circle of kings had submitted, who
was endowed with a high level of power and success, (simhavarman,) who was the great grandson of the unique
hero on the surface of the earth, the illustrious, Maharaja viravarman of immeasurable spirit, who stood
(firmly) in all the established bounds of morality as laid down in law, who was the repository of brilliant Kshatriya valour totally earned by his own arms, who was a great devotee of the Brahmanas, commands all the superintendents and their touring
Officers (sancharinah) and also the (entire) area (kshetram) of the village in the Vilavatti village, in the Munda state, as follows;-
L1.14-22: This village, together with it’s hamlet ( sa-grasakah) along with all immunities, with the exception of plough-land, assigned for use to the temple (deva-bhoga-hala Varjam) has been granted, for the increase of our
longevity, strength and victory. In our reign of growing victories, in the tenth year, on the fifth day of the bright half of (the month of sravana, to Vishnusarman, of Gautama gotra and a scholar of the samaveda. In this
village, whatever taxes are payable by the metal and leather workers, weavers of cloth for marketing (apana – Patta-kara), the hawkers of cloaks (pravaranchara,) rope-acrobats (rajju-pratihara) and shopkeepers (apanajivika) The amounts payable by barbarians and outcastes (nahala), mask-acters (mukha-dharaka), water diviners (kupa-darseka), weavers
(tantravaya), taxes on gambling, marriage and barbers. and the
(tithes) payable by the artisans, enjoying the privileges of all
immunities and such other taxes that belong to us, have been
granted to him, making them into a Brama-deya (Brahminical gift).
The Officers of the subsidiary villages should execute our orders and others should (duly) render or and cause to be
rendered (unto the donee the said) immunities. And whosoever
violates this charter of ours that sinner shall deserve corporal punishment. And also there are verses uttered by
sages”
L1.23-31 (Here follow six of the customary verses).
Executed at the oral command of his Majesty (and) the charter was written by Achyuta, the confidential secretary.
Hail !
Footnote.
1. cf. Sancharantakah in uruvupalli grant and sasana-sancharinah in the Pikira grant.
2. Evidently the king addressed his command to the people, living in that kshetra or area.
3. See Krishnamacharlu’s interpretation in Ep.Ind., XXIV, pp-298.

Pikra Copper-plate Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on December 29, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 27.
Pikra Copper-plate Inscription of Simha-varman 3. Regnal Year 5.
Script: Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.

we have many Sanskrit inscriptions, of Pallava dynasty. For example Omgodu Plates, Pikira Plates, Mangalur Plates, Vilavetti Plates, Uruvappalli Plates, Nedungaraya Plates, Vesanta Plates, Sakrepatna Plates.
From these plates,  we get following genealogy:
Kumarvishnu -Skandavarman-Viravarman- Vijaya-Skandavarman   -Yuva-maharaja Vishnugopavarman – Simhavarman – Skandavarman – Nandivarman

Jaina work Lokavibhaga refers to 22nd regnal year of Simhavarman, the lord of Kanchi, as corresponding to 380 Saka.
Provenance: Village Nelatur, in Ongole taluk, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh.
It formed unclaimed property of a
dead Bairagi. (Now in central Museum, Madras).
Metres: VV..1-3 श्लोक ( अनुष्टुब )
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind. VII, pp.159-63.
Footnote 1.
Several branches of the Pallavas are known, to wit those of Kanchi and those of Nellore Guntur region.
Mutual relationship of these branches is not known. Many names occur
again and again , not only in one branch, but also in other cognate branches, leading to considerable confusion The present grant was issued  by simha-varman of Nellore-Guntur region.
This branch ruled from 375 to 585 AD. The kings of this branch: known are: Virakurchavarman, Kumaravishnu,  Skandavarman 1,
Vira-varman 1, Skandavarman 2. Vishnugopavarman I
smhayarman (the present donor and Vishnugopavarman 1, Simhavarman
the present donor and Vishnugopavarman 1,
For further information on Pallavas, see D.C. Sircar Geneology and chronology of the Pallavas, the classical Age,
(History & Culture of Indian People, Vol.3, pp.275-83).
2. From the facsimile ia Ep.Ind.. VIII, (between pp.160-61).
Second Plate Second Side.
Footnote 2.
1. The first, the second plate second side and the fourth plate second side, are numbered respectively 1, 2& 4, on the left margin.
2. Expressed by a symbol.
3. First engraved पोबनत  and then corrected to पोपनत
4. On the left margin.
Third Plate Second Side.
Footnote 3.
From अपचि or अपचाय  to respect to worship. Hultzsch’ s
emendation, वृद्धोपचायिनो is unnecessary.
A superfluous stroke like medial a is attached to the right of ma and of  दर्दो  Read साहसावमर्द्धो
3. Hultzsch emends it to वल्लभ
and translates the phrase as to the general overseers (sarvadhyaksha), the
favourites (vallabha) and the official messengers (sasanasamcharin) who are appointed to this (district). But वल्लभ or वल्लव, here stands or superintendents or chiefs of cowherds. (See Apte’s Sanskrit & English Dictionary).
Fifth Plate.
Footnote 4.
1. Here follows an unknown symbol. It may be a flourish designed to fill up the gap at the end of the line, suggests Hultzsch,
2. on the left margin.
3. Corrected by the engraver from अर्हति.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om ! Victory to the lord ! Hail from the prosperous camp of victory pitched at Menmatura, the great grandson of the
glorious Maharaja Viravarman, the only hero on the surface of the
earth, of unassessable personality, who stood by the established
order, who had established, according to the sacred law, all the ethical standards, who was the store-house of mighty radiation of a Kshatriya that he had acquired with the prowess of his own arms and who was extremely devoted to the Brahmanas, the
grandson of the great soul, the glorious Maharaja Skandavarman,
who was among the Iokapalas, the fifth Lokapala, who was capable protector of is subjects, who had collected increased merit by gifting away many cows, gold, land etc.. who had brought about all the blessings through devotion to the Lord and through
virtuous thoughts, to whom the circle of kings had bent down, because of his valour, who was endowed with augmented power and success (and) the son of the truthful Yuvamaharaja, the illustrious Vishnugopa, who was resplendent with the fame of
victories won in daring engagements in many wars, who was the worshipper of gods, brahmanas, teachers and the old and whose humility had thereby increased, who was ever ready to rescue dharma (virtue) sunk because of the depravities of the

Kaliyuga the righteous Maharaja (of afore-listed pedigree) .
the illustrious simha-varman, whose heroism is worth emulation,
who is desirous of winning all the collections of virtues of royal sages, who is desirous of victories of piety, who meditates on the feet of the Lord  Bhagavat, who is devoted to
the feet of the lord (his) father, the fervent Bhagavata, the Bharadvaja, (of the family) of the Pallavas, who are the abodes of the fortunes of other kings overcome by their own valour
and who have performed according to rule many horse-sacrifices,
addresses (the following) order to the villagers in the village called, Pikira in Munda rashtra, to the official at this place and to all the supervisors, the cowherd-chiefs and the official
messengers “This village has been given by us, having made (it
a Brahmadeya to vilasasarman of the Kasyapa gotra and of the Taittiriya (sakha) accompanied by all immunities, with the exception of the cultivated land enjoyed by gods (i.e.
temples) for the increase of our length of life, power and victory on the third tithi of the bright fortnight of
Asvayuja in the fifth year of our reign of growing victory.
Therefore this village must be exempted and caused to be
exempted with all immunities. And he who will transgress this our edict that wicked man is liable to corporal punishment
And with reference to this there are also (the following)
verses of the Rishi (viz. Vyasa)
(Here follow three customary verses)

Narasaraopeta Plates of Simhavarman 3

Written by Alok Mohan on December 28, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 26.
Omgodu (Narasaraopeta) Plates of Simhavarman 3
Simhavarman 3, reigned in the first half of the 6th century AD.  He is the father and predecessor of Simhavishnu.
Nandi Varman 1, was his predecessor.
He performed several Asvamedha sacrifices, during his reign.
This is a Sanskrit charter issued by Dharmamaharaja Simhavarman of the Bharadvaja-gotra, in his 4th year, in the month of Vaisakha, sukla-paksha, panchami, registering a gift of the village Omgodu in Karmma-rashtra to the scholar Devasarman, a resident of Kundur, who belonged to the Kasyapa-gotra and Chhandoga-sutra.
Regnal Year: 4
Provenance: Somewhere in Narasaraopet taluk of the Guntur
district, Andhra Pradesh. Now in Madras Museum.
Script:  Southern Brahmi of 7th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: H Krishna Sastri, Ep.Ind. pp. 252-55.
Footnote 1.
1. See Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1916, pp.113, paras 3 and 4.
2. It appears to be a 7th century copy of the original grant made in 5th 6th century A.D.
3. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XV between pp. 254-55.
4.  त is incised below the line.
5. The name of the skandhavara is inadvertently left out. Another record discovered from the same place was
issued from Tambrapa-sthana.
Footnote 2.
EP.Ind. VIII, p.161, ).
1. The reading in Pikira grant is:
(Infra, IV, 27, LL.3-4) and Ep.Inf, VIII, pp.161)
2. d in in ddha is a correction from sh which as erroneously incised above dha.
Footnote 3.
1. Gotro is incised above the line
2. The reading in Mangadur plates is:-   र्कतुनां शतर्कतु कल्पानां श्री
That in Pikira plates is यथावदाहृतानेकाश्वमेधानां (Infra IV, L-13)
3. Read ओंगोड़ू, as in the grant of Vijaya-Skanda-Varman 2,
(supra, IV,. 23, Ep Ind, XV, pp.246-52, L.10)
4. ल.  (   = r ) in    काण्टके  
is the bandira or sakata- repha of the Telugu alphabet. Theoretically, it is a cerebral र.
5. Rai is incised over an erased conjunct syllable, which ended in Ya.
Footnote 5.
द  दत्ता is incised below the line.
English Translation of the inscription.
Victorious is the lord ! Peace ! From his
prosperous and victorious Camp, the pious king, Srisimhavarman
of Bharadvaja gotra, a devout vaishnava, who contemplated on
the feet of Lord vishnu and was devoted to the feet of his majestic father, desirous of winning Dharma (piety) desirous of winning all
the pile of royal virtues, ever engaged in rescuing Dharma fallen under the evils of Kaliyuga = the evil age) and
belonging to (the family of the beloved Pallavas, who meticulously performed many sacrifices and (hence) were
like (Indra) the Performer of a hundred sacrifices, (and) who had with their Prowess occupied (overrun) the seats of wealth of the other kings (Dharma- maharaja –  Sri Simhavarman) who
was the son of the truthful Crown prince, the illustrious vishnugopa, who attended upon the gods, the brahmanas, the teachers and the elderly ( i.e. mature) Persons and hence) had augmented his good manners and was resplendent with fame of victories won in the sudden melees of many battles, who was the grandson of the great soul Maharaja Sri Skandavarman, who was the fifth lokapal a among (i.e in addition to the four) lokapalas i.e (the guardians of the four quarters of the world), who was adapt at protecting his subjects, whose
accumulation of merit (Dharma) had grown greatly as a result of great gifts of many cows, gold, land etc.. who had, by bringing about devotion to the Lord Vishnu, produced all the blessings, to whom the circle of kings had submitted
because of his prowess, who was richly endowed with vigorous power and accomplishment- Who (i.e.  Simhavarman) was the
great-grand son of the unique hero on the surface of the earth
Maharaja Sri Viravarman, who was greatly devoted to the
Brahmanas, who had earned a treasure of vigorous heat (energy)
of a Kshatriya by the prowess of his own arms, who had established all the bounds of morality (ethical standards)
according to the sacred law, who stood fast on moral rectitude and who had an immeasurable great personality
(commands) that on account of (for expiation of an eclipse and for the increase of our longevity, strength and victories. We, herewith bestow upon Devasarman, a resident of Kondur,
(and) of Kasyapa gotra, who is a student versed in the vedas
and an expert in all the sastras, the village Omgodu, in Karma state, excluding previous holdings, within the four boundaries, namely Kodikim village in the east, Naramchadu village to the
south, Kadakuduru village to the west (and) Penukaparru village
to the north. Therefore, this (gift) be exempt and caused to be
exempted with all immunities. And the wicked person, who transgresses this command of ours, shall deserve physical chastisement. Also in this context, there are verses of the Rishis.
There never was, nor shall ever be a gift like a gift of land. And a more heinous than the confiscation of the same has never been committed, nor shall ever be committed.
To more customary follow:
Given in the fourth year of the flourishing and victorious reign, on the fifth day of the bright half of
the month of Vaisakha. It has been recorded the oral command of his Majesty.

Sakrepatna Plates of Pallava Simhavarman

Written by Alok Mohan on December 27, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 25.
Sakrepatna Plates of Pallava Simhavarman 2, son of Skandavarman Regnal Year 41.
Simhavishnu founded Pallava dynasty and proved himself to be an efficient and strong ruler. After his death, Mahendravarman, his son succeeded him and ruled till 630 CE. Pallavas became a major power during his reign and dominated entire southern Andhra Region and the northern parts of the Tamil region, until the end of the 9th century. Subsequently, 
Pallava kingdom was attacked and defeated by Chalukya king Pulakeshin. Chola’s replaced pallavas, in the Tamilakam region and the Rashtrakutas replaced the Chalukyas of Badami.
 All Pallava kings were the followers of Sanatana Dharma.
Provenance: An unnamed village near Sakrepatna, the headquarters
of the taluk of the same name in chikmanglur District, Karnataka.
The present record Supplies us the latest known date of
Simhavarman, namely regnal year 41, while the earliest known record, Uruvupalli grant was issued in his regnal year 11. He, in fact is the 2nd Simhavarman, not the first as Gai believes.
Script:  Brahmi, similar to the script of the other Pallava charters, e.g. Manglur, Pikira etc.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres: Vv.1-4.
References: G. S. Gal, Ep.Ind., XXXVIII, pp.99-105.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXXVIII, Plates. I and II.
2. Left of the joining-ring hole.
3. Expressed by the spiral symbol read as FaTr by Gal.
4. Written a little below the line in smaller type, to indicate -T
 All final consonants are written
like that. Neither the river Maudgali nor the contonment of Maudgalitatavasaka have been identifled.
Fourth Plate Second Side.
Footnote 2.
1. Valvilli agrahara has not been identified. Sendrakarajya = sendraka-vishaya of the Kadamba grants, comprised the modern shimoga District of Karnataka. This area is
near to the modern city of Kanchipuram in Tamilnadu. Hence it is clear that Simhavarman held Sway over and issued his Vesanta grant from this very city. ( see Inscriptions of A.P.
Govt Museum, Vol.I (1962), pp.211 ff. ) Other Pallava grants issued from Kanchipuram are i) Udayendiram Plates of Nandivarman ( Ep.Ind., III, pp.142 ff.) and chendalur Plates. of Kumaravishnu II (ib. VIII, pp. 233 ff, Infra IV, 30)
2. Left of the ring hole.
English Translation of the inscription.
Ll.1-2: Om Victorious is the Lord (Vishnu) Peace !
From the victorious military encampment on the bank of the Maudgali:-
L1.2-19, The pious Maharaja of the family of Pallavas, who have overrun
with their own valour the centres of royal fortune of other kings and who have performed several Asvamedha 
sacrifices with appropriate rites, Sei Simhavarman, of Bharadvaja gotra, who is the great-grand son of the
Maharaja Sri Skandavarman 1, who was extremely devoted to the sacred lore (brahma), who was the treasure
of brilliant kshatriya Valour earned by the strength of his own arms, who had established all the bounds of
morality according to the law, who stood firm on established rules, who had a tremendous personality:-
who (simhavarman) is the grandson of the Maharaja Sri Viravarman, who was possessed of a high level of power and
success, who had subdued the circle of kings with (his) valour, (and) who was the unique hero on the surface of the
earth who (simhavarman) is the son of the truthful Maharaja Sri skandavarman (2), who was the elevator of gods, Preceptors, and the seniors, who was excessively courteous, whose store of religious merit had highly increased by grants of many cows, pieces of gold, land etc.who was £efficient in nourishing his subjects, who
was the fifth (i.e. additional) lokapala anong the (mythical four) lokapalas– who (simhavarman) has
brought about the welfare of all by his devotion to Lord Vishnu, who remains ever initiated in the sacrificial vow
of efforts directed to nourish and cause happiness to his subjects, who acquired the glow of fame by the
victories achieved in crushes of courage in many wars,
who is always engaged in redemption of dharma, sunk down, by the wickedness (or darkness) of Kaliyuga the age of vice), who is desirous of winning all the many qualities  of a saintly king, who is desirous of winning piousness, who meditates on the feet of lord Vishnu, who is devoted
to the feet of His (late) Majesty his father, and who is a devout worshipper of vishnu, commands all the
superintendents (vallabha placed in authority and the chiefs of districts in the state of sendraka.
L1,19-2. Here, in the Valvili agrahara, located in the Sendraka rajya, which is being enjoyed by the Brahmanas,
in continuous succession, we have, hereby, granted to the Brahmanas, belonging to the agrahara all that whatever is enjoyable by the king, beginning with (his) prime share.
L1.22-23. We have also sanctioned all the inmunities here. Having understood this, all should act accordingly and
should abstain from interfering.
L1.23-30. (v.1) There never was and never will be a gift, superior to land gift. And there had never been, nor
ever will be a greater sin than the confiscation of the same. Customary verses 2-4 are repetitions and have
been translated in previous pages)
L1.30-32: In the year forty one of the flourishing and victorious reign, on the tenth day of dark fortnight of the lunar
month Bhadrapada this Copper-plate was granted.
This order was executed by the king himself.
May the cows and Brahmanas, be happy. 


Gunapadeya Copper-plate Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on December 26, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 24.
Gunapadeya Copper-plate Inscription of the time of Vijaya-Skanda-Varman and Yuva Maharaja Vijaya-Buddha-Varman.
Copper plates joined by a ring with the seal of the donor, was a legal document of ancient India, which registered the act of endowment process and was a legal record, to prove ownership or claim the rights of donated property.
These inscriptions usually recorded grants of land, villages or lists of royal lineages carrying the royal seal.
 The inscriptions were found, safely etched on various cave walls or temple walls.
Provenance: Gunapadeya, Kondakur taluka, Guntur District,
Andhra Pradesh (Now in British Museum, London)
Script: Middle Brahmi of the southern class of the later half of the 4th century A.D.
Languages: Prakrit, except or the usual quotations in Sanskrit about the end.
References: Fleet, Ind.Ant, IX, pp.100 ff, Hultzsch, Ep.Ind. VIII, pp.143 ff. Sircar, Select.Inss., I, pp.467-69.
Footnote 1.
1. Usually referred to as the British Museum Plates.
2. May be identified with skandavarman 1. of Omgodu grant ( Supra, IV, No. 23) but not with Siva-skanda-varman of
Mayidavolu and Hirahadagalli grants since doubling of consonants and conjuncts found here are a later feature.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. VIII and Ind.Ant.,IX.
2. In the left margin of the plate.
3. The figures are totally lost.
4. Hultzech conjecturally reads,(बु) द्वि (यं) कुर – जनवी. and emends जनवी to जननी 
 though the final letters of 1.3 are totally illegible. Whether
Buddhavarman and his son ever came to the throne, we have no evidence to prove nor do we know the
relationship of Buddhavarman with Skandavarman.
5. Hultzsch ventures the restoration, क (डके) वीय (पितं) 
i.e. serving in Kadaka. It cannot be the same as Kataka (cuttock) in orissa, which never was part of
Pallava dominions. Sircar suggests कांचिये वियापितं   Traces of का are, no doubt, visible. But space permits of only one syllable, which appears to be र्य giving the phrase  कार्ये व्यापृतम  sircar’ s view that the intended reading was आणवीयति ( = आज्ञापयति ) is plausible.
Footnote 3.
1 & 2. On the left margin.
3. Read यो हरति  वसुन्धराम 
4. The seal attached to the plates bears an animal standing, facing left, (right according to Hultzsch) and looking like a deer, but must be meant for a
bull, which was the crest of the Pallavas.Over the back of the bull ate a few indistinct symbols, which
may be taken for the sun, a crescent and perhaps one or more stars.
English Translation of the inscription.
Success ! The year (of the reign) of the
lustrious Vijaya skandavarman. Charudevi, the queen of the yuvamaharaja, the illustrious Vijaya-Buddha-Varman, of Bharadvaja
gotra and (of the family) of the Pallavas, (and) the mother of
Buddyan-kura, commands the officer on duty. The field to be ploughed by Atuka on the northern side of the drinking-well
below the King’ s tank, (containing four,4, nivartanas of land, has been given by us to the god Narayana of the temple of (i.e. erected by) the Mahattara, (named) Kuli at Dalura, making it a means of increasing our life and strength. Knowing this. ye, the villagers (and) officials, exempt ( this field)
with all the immunities and cause (it) to be exempted, 
Here follow two of the customary verses.
The executor of the command is Rohinigupta.