History of Post partitioned India

History of Post partitioned India

(15 Aug 1947 to 30 Dec 1947)

“As viewed from the eyes of an uprooted Punjabi/Sindhi hindu’

As we all are aware that on 15 August 1947 British left India and the dominion was transferred to the sons of soil & we gained independence. A largely Hindu India & a Muslim Pakistan was created by partitions of the subcontinent, divided along religious-demographic boundaries between the two. Hindu – Muslim riots break out along both the western and eastern borders. Mass transfer of refugees took place from the successor states of India to Pakistan and vice-versa. The monarch of Kashmir signed instrument of accession with India in the face of heavy attack from Pakistani tribals Governor-general of India wished Jawahar Lal Nehru becomes the PM of India. In spite of popular demand of people in favor of .Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Jawahar lal nehru, who was supported by Mahatma Gandhi, was declared first prime minister of India.Immediately thereafter riots broke out and there was a massive violence in Punjab and Bengal region of India.The then Prime Minister Nehru suggested the transfer of several millions of Hindus and Muslims between India and Pakistan. On 27 Oct 1947, war broke out between India and Pakistan Administered Kashmir forces. Pakistan administered forces were backed by muslim tribals of different regions. However the local indian administered forces backed by RSS volunteers repelled the attacks successfully though there were major losses of lives either side of the borders. However, Invasion of muslim tribes in Kashmir region changed the demographic structure of once Hindus dominated kingdom. The Nawab of Junagadh, Muhammad Mahabat, Muslim whose ancestors had ruled Junagadh and small principalities for some two hundred years, decided that Junagadh should become part of Pakistan, much to the displeasure of many of the people of the state, an overwhelming majority of whom were Hindus. The Nawab acceded to the Dominion of Pakistan on 15 September 1947, against the advice of Lord Mountbatten.When Pakistan accepted the Nawab’s instrument of accession on 16 September 1947, the Government of India was outraged that how Jinnah could accept the accession of Junagadh despite his argument that Hindus and Muslims could not live as one nation, though this was a seen as a strategy to get a plebiscite held for the case of Kashmir which was a Muslim majority with a Hindu ruler.Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel believed that if Junagadh was permitted to go to Pakistan, it would exacerbate the communal tension already simmering in Gujarat.The princely state was surrounded on all of its land borders by India, with an outlet onto the Arabuian sea. The unsettled conditions in Junagadh had led to a cessation of all trade with India and the food position became precarious. With the region in crisis, the Nawab, fearing for his life, felt forced to flee to Karachi with his family and his followers, and there he established a provisional government. Vallabhbhai Patel offered Pakistan time to reverse its acceptance of the accession and to hold a plebicite in Junagadh. Eventually, Patel ordered the forcible annexation of Junagadh’s three principalities. Junagadh’s state government, facing financial collapse and lacking forces with which to resist Indian force, invited the Government of India to take control. A plebiscite was conducted in December 1947, in which approximately 99% of the people chose India over Pakistan and thereafter Junagarh joined Dominion of India.

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