Hyderabad Accession – India

Hyderabad Accession 


Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous of all princely states of ancient India. Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the Whole Empire. The word is derived from Persian word, as in (Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk The Nizam was referred to as Ala Hazrat.

The Asaf was a dynasty of Perso- Tajik origin from the region aroundSamarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan. They came to India in the late 17th century, and became servants of the Mughal. As the Mughals were great patrons of Persian culture, language, literature: the family found a ready patronage. Hyderabad was initially a subah and Nizam-ul-mulk was appointed Subahdar in 1713 by the Mughals.. Hyderabad’s effective independence is dated to 1724, when the Nizam won a military victory over a rival military appointee. In 1798, Hyderabad became the first Indian royal state to accede to British protection under the policy of subsidiary alliance instituted by Arthur Wellesley.

The State of Hyderabad  was the largest and most prosperous of all princely states in India. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogenous territory and comprised a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census) of which a majority (85%) was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service. Hyderabad was a multi-lingual state consisting of peoples speaking Telugu (48.2%), Marathi (26.4%), Kannada (12.3%) and Urdu (10.3%). In spite of the overwhelming Hindu majority, Hindus were severely under-represented in government, police and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, and 121 others were Christians, Parsis and Sikhs. When the British finally departed from the Indian subcontinent in 1947, they offered the various princely states in the sub-continent the option of acceding to either India or Pakistan, or staying on as an independent state. Several large states, including Hyderabad, declined to join either India or Pakistan. Hyderabad had been part of the calculations of all-India political parties since the 1930s. The leaders of the new Union of India were wary of a balkanization of India if Hyderabad was left independent.

imagesHyderabad state had been steadily becoming more theocratic since the beginning of the 20th century. In 1926, Mahmud Nawazkhan, a retired Hyderabad official, founded majlis-e-Ittehadul-muslimeen (also known as Ittehad or MIM) in 1926. “Its objectives was to unite the Muslims in the State in support of Nizam and to reduce the Hindu majority by large-scale conversion to Islam” The MIM became a powerful communal organization, with the principal focus to marginalize the political aspirations of Hindus and moderate Muslims

 At the time of partition of India the princely states of India, who in principle had self-government within their own territories, were subject to subsidiary alliances with the British, giving them control of their external relations. In the 1947 independent act, the British abandoned all such alliances, leaving the states with the option of opting for full independence. However, by 1948 almost all had acceded to either India or Pakistan. One major exception was that of Hyderabad, where the Nizam,Osman Ali Khan, a Muslim ruler who presided over a largely Hindu population, chose independence and hoped to maintain this with an irregular army recruited from the Muslim aristocracy, known as Razakars The Nizam was also beset by the Telengana uprising, which he was unable to subjugate.

The Indian government, anxious to avoid what it termed a balkanization of what had been the Indian Empire, was determined on the integration of Hyderabad into the new Indian Union. Amidst atrocities by the Razakars, the Indian Home Minister Sardar patel decided to annex Hyderabad in what was termed a “police action”. However Shri Jwahar Lal Nehru had different opinion and wanted to take charge of this issue along with Kashmir accession to India. However Sardar Patel was somehow able to convince nehru that it was a home ministry problem and the foreign ministry of India which ewas under control of Shri jawahar Lal Nehru should not interfere in his domain. Nehru was left with no option but to solve kashmir issue, which he took to the united nations subsequently ignoring advice of Sardar patel.

Saradar Patel initiated the police action September 1948, with direct control of Home ministry and the operation took five days, in which the Razakars were defeated easily. The code named of the “Hyderabad Police Action” was a military operation in in which the Nizam was throne out and Hyderabad state was annexed with India. The operation led to massive violence on communal lines. Subsequently, the Indian prime minister Shri Jawahar Lal Nehru appointed a commission known as Sunder Lal Committe. Its report, which was not released until 2013, concluded that “as a conservative estimate…27,000 to 40,000 people had lost their lives during and after the police action. The credit of Hyderabad being integral part of modern India goes to Sardar Ballabbhai Patel

Comments (3)

  • satishchandra gupta
    February 20, 2017 at 4:19 am |

    an excellent write up of those events with a difference that 1st Armoured Division of Indian army under the command of maj.Gen. J.N.Chowdhry( later Chief of Army staff ) had successfully flushed out the HINDU GIRLS from the Harems of Hydrabad Nawab & had succeeded in Dismantling Nawab’s RAZAKAR’s forces etc. so many minutest details…….. M.I.M. & MUSLIM LEAGUE or their operations in any other names , MUST TOTALLY IRROVOCABLY BE PERMANENTLY BANNED IN INDIA. …….S C GUPTA.

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