ancient indian history


I. Dr.Virendra Goswami. Vice Chancellor

Confucius had rightly stated :there are three methods of wisdom ie “Reflection” which is the noblest “Imitation” Which is easiest “Experience” Which is bitterest. I strongly feel that If we as a nation, are aware of our past and learn lessons from our past mistakes, then we shall definitely further build our strong nation to a “Super Power” as we know
“Awareness of past experiences equips individuals , communities and nations to build brighter future”
This great awareness of past experience has been successfully amalgamated with the aim to build India a ‘Super Knowledge Power ‘ in the form of a great historical & religious research entitled as ‘Ancient Indian History ‘ by the great Historian Late Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan covering both Pre -Vedic & Vedic Periods based on Indian Inscriptions.
The books relate to a period about eight hundred years from the 2nd century BC on wards covering important dynasties of the country and give us a sense of proud on the legacy we inherit. For example Coin Legends like Kings ofbactria & Kings of Sauvira were among the first kingdoms to introduce currency in the form of Coins. The legacy we inherit from the Sungas, The Chedis of Kalinga, the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Abhiras , etc.While swimming through the author’s research work on Imperial Guptas covering period from 320 AD to 543 AD, the Traikutakas of western India, the Maitrakas of valabhi, the Kalachuris and their subordinates,&the Manavas as well as the Mukharis of Rajsthan, UP & Bihar etc. leave a lasting impression on our minds after learning about our the rich cultural inheritance.
The books are the spectra of several other important dynasties of our country viz. The vakatakas of Maharashtra & Goa from Regnal year 13 to 37, The vakatakas of vatasgulama, The Nala Dynasity, Western Chalukyas, the Vishnukundins, Bhojas of South Western India, Maharaja of Madhya Pradesh Swamidasa, The Aulikaras of Dasapura,The Parivrajaka family, the Uchchakalpa family, The Hunas, Kings of sarabhapura from Regnal year 3 to Regnal year 41, The Pandvas, Maharaja Nandana of Bihar Kingdoms of Bengal, Asam & Goa up to 6th century Ad, Maharaja Ghana from Regnal year 8 to year 15, Soro Plates of Somadatta, the Pitribhaktas of Kalinga, The Matharas of Pishtapura, The Matharas of kalinga, The Vigrahas, The early Pallavas etc etc
This book shall be very useful to the researchers and others who are interested in our Ancient Indian History & cultural inheritance especially the history of Southern, Western, Eastern & Northern parts of Ancient India.
I am confidant that reading this unique replicated inscription work not only make Indian more proud but, also to other Nationals to appreciate the efforts of the author to put the translated version of very difficult ancient Pali & Sanskrit languages inscription into text to build their better future

II Prof Dr A. L. Basham (National University of Canberra)
This theses is, in my opinion, one of the finest thesis from an Indian university, that I have yet seen, in what is now quite a lengthy period of acting as an external examiner. It is detailed, thorough and original and the Author’s command of English is well above average standard of Indian University teachers at the present time. This thesis is a good thourough study of the subject.  The author has exploited all the material available to him and has marshalled his arguments clearly and forcefully. His study of the historical geography of the region and of the tribe peoples on the eve of the Greco_Bactrian invasion is very valuable.

‘Worthy of comments are the excellent maps’


III Dr F.R. Allchin ( University of Cambridge,UK)

Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan has attained a very high level, both in collection and critically assessing historical materials. The candidates presentation of his work and Command of the English language are also very satisfactory”The author is able to make a solid and useful reappraisal of the earlier historical writings, particularly those of W.W. Tarn and Dr A.K. Narain.

IV Dr L D Mohan ( An Ex Fellow member of Indian Council of Historical Research)

Earlier, the script of ancient Indian Inscriptions used to be Brahmi & Kharoshthi. Students of Sanskrit & ancient history used to find it difficult to understand the subject in these scripts. Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan was the first scholar to convert this script to Devnagri & Roman & there after translated the research work to Sanskrit Hindi & English. This work facilitated  Students to understand the subject easily. These Books & Research Papers shall be very useful to the Research Scholars and other individuals, who are interested in Indian History and the culture of India.

V Dr Sharadendu Bali
I would like to purchase all of these books. I shall pay in advance by any method which you like. You can send me the books by mail through Indian Post Office.Thanks.

VI Indian Council of Historical Research E mail Message from Mr Ramesh Yernagula
Dear Shri. Alok Mohan, Thanks for your interest. Kindly send four volumes of your work along with filled application form to the Council .If need more details, you may refer our Research Funding Rules (RFR) by clicking the below link.
Application form

VII Dr Smith
Really impressed with your blog, sincerely — from Dr. Smith,

VIII बी  ल   छिब्बर  ( Formerly Commissioner of Income Tax, Panjab)   आप द्द्वारा लिखित पुस्तकें प्राप्त हुई ! बहुत प्रासनता हुई और बहुत बहुत आभार ! मुझे और भी  प्रासन्ता हुई की आप स्वर्गीय वसिष्ठ देव जी की प्रम्प्रता को आगे बढ़ाते  हुए , विद्वत पूर्ण ज्ञान वर्दन अवं इतिहासिक तथ्यों पर आधारित ग्रंथों का सृजन कर मानवता का कल्याण कर रही हैं !भगवन से प्राथना है की आपको दीर्ग आयु दें ताकि आप भविष्य  में भी एससी उच्च कोटि की रचनाएँ सृजन करें !
1. A Kaur delhi Translation of the ancient inscriptions into three different languages by DR M V Mohan, for the benifit of students is indeed a praise worthy task. I understand that Inscriptions discovered from South India reveal that there was a very well-evolved democratic system in India and the elected leaders had to adhere to well-defined laws that prescribed stiff penalties for those who swindled public money or indulged in improprieties. Various dynasties such as Cheras, Cholas, Pallavas, Pandyas and Vijaynagar from eighth to the 16th century, had strict guidelines to eliminate corruption and check financial bungling by those in positions of power. While swindling of funds of public property drew extremely harsh punishment, a failure to submit accounts by public functionaries rendered them and their three generations from holding a public office. Velu Thambi of of Kerala was one of the honest and able administrators of South India. Once there was an incident when his adversaries tried to get Velu Tahmbi’s mother in accepting benefits from people to tarnish the image of Velu Thambi, Velu Thambi cut his own palms as he could not punish his mother.

2. Anil Arora Faridabad
Thank you very much for the rich information about our cultural inheritance on this web site. I wish to add that In Medieval India, people were fond of the the classical dance called KATHAK which is also popular in modern india also. Raaga is one of the classical ancient musics in India. During those days, Khatak, Odesi had special place in Indian dancing There are many ancient sculptures and paintings in the caves, Ajanta and Ellora which remind us about the rich cultural inheritance we have.
3. Deepak Karnal
Alexander invaded India in 326 BC at the river Hydaspes against Porus junior, youngest among six Porus brothers and defeated him. Porus junior was a ruler of a very small kingdom. Consequently remaining brothers united and defeated the invading Army of Sikander, which after the insulting defeat from the elder Porus forces, fled to all directions. Porus elder injured sikander very badly in one of the direct battles and later on sikander died due these injuries.
Ancient indians were the largest exporters of goods making India the richest nation on earth. After Alexander’s unsuccessful invasion. Europeans came to know about india’s wealth and began to trade with india. During Hellenistic times through the days of Rome though, there is substantial evidence of the importation of Indian products and meetings between philosophers.
After Alexanders defeat, Eeuropeans knew that they had no other way, but to find a sea route to india on the name of trade,and in this quest only America was found by columbus and he named the island as west indies(india in the west) and called native Americans as Red Indians. India never ever tried to invade any other country. Whole world was dependent on india for trade as india had all types of climate(cold in the north,hot monsoon in the south,hot deserts in west and rainy in the east, wettiest places on earth) so all types of goods were available in india. India was also the only source of diamonds. World’s largest diamond koh-i-noor was found in Andhra Pradesh in india. This gives us a pleasure to know about the past glory of india through this website.

4.  Mr Jyoti Swaroop Awasthi  Mall Manager at Pacific Mall, Mathura

Heartiest congratulations on bringing amazing wealth of our hindu legacy through your website… Thank you for  this  value addition platform . The whole research work speaks volumes of our rich cultural heritage . Huge wealth of knowledge to enrich valuable heritage of ancient hinduism. The depth of research work speaks volumes of lifetime devotion in learning traditional remains of community and its exposure/availibility is not only for enlightenment of heart & amp; minds of entire hindu community, but for update on legacy of the family and the amulgum of knowledge thirsty intellects of other communities as well.

5.   R Mohanan

Very useful work for the research scholars especially from the southern part of india. I understand that the cholas were the greatest ancient Indian kingdoms of South India. The CHOLAS of Tamils conquered and either ruled or influenced Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand Cambodia and Indonesia. Thats an empire – when you rule not your own nation completely but conquer other nations also . Until today the legacy culture and the tamil people are still there – expecialy in Sri lanka, malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia

Almost all ancient temples in sri lanka are the CHOLAS, there are several CHOLA temples in Malaysia ( eg: srivijaya and so), then the great CHOLA BOROBUDUR sivan temple in Indonesia or the great great Prambanan temple complex in JAVA by CHOLA, Angkor WAT in Cambodia and so almost all have ancient tamil Brahmi inscription of the chola empire and sacred mantra inscriptions in sanskrit.

6. Shashi Bhushan
The Research work by Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan, covering a period close to 800 years from 2nd BC onwards, is an excellent  analysis of the events related to the history of Ancient India The research works makes a lasting impression on our minds about our rich cultural inheritance. Most of we Indians, are only concerned with our day to day activities and we, never ever, think about our ancestral inheritance. The religious & historical research work under taken by Dr MVD Mohan & Dr LD Mohan speaks volumes of words of wisdom & knowledge for nourishment of our souls & Minds & is duly recommended by me.

7.  V K Sharma

India is an  ancient mystic land where wisdom lay unfolded. A land where many saints spend their  time to meditate & discover the functioning of  inner souls & minds. We need nourishment of our souls & minds so as to move on our life’s journey in pleasant way. Religious Writing had been something, Which Dr Lajja Devi Mohan had always been passionate about. The books written by her  contain useful information of important temples & monuments of historical importance like Ram Janam Bhoomi, Hanumaan Garhi, Tulsi Samarak, Balimiki Ramayan Bhawan, Gurudwara Nazarbagh, Brahmkund etc.The book “Hamaare Poorvaj” written by her connect us with our past & make us aware of the “Great Ancient Hindu Family Tree” A Great tree, which comprised all casts & no one was inferior or Superior among Hindus of Ancient India.

8.  Mrs Renu Sharma PRINCIPAL, I B College, Panipat

Of all the religious  books written on Hinduism, I have discovered the books written by Dr L D Mohan presents most balanced view of our religion.  The glimpses of the author’s passionate vision of ancient India is reflected in her books namely Jai Bharat Mata & Bharat darshan. I feel the books authored by her are the best religious books for every one, especially for the students of religious studies, and are  eye-openers for the practicing Hindus. The books especially describe Hinduism ie a  way of life and covers all what we need to know about Hinduism 

9.  Mrs Anju Sharma, PRINCIPAL, Government Girls Senior Secondary School, Shiv Nagar, Panipat

We all are aware that as children we are not taught how to utilize the experiences of  past in the present times. Most of us do not develop  “history habit.”  I feel the “history habit,”  is more then  the “reading habit,” .  History is an ingrained intellectual method for better functioning of our minds It means studying history as an automatic, unquestioned method to improve our behavioral pattern and traits. The research work  by Dr Mehta vasishtha Dev Mohan  ie “The Great Research Work on Ancient India ” connects every individual ie Hindu Sikh Christian Muslim Jain Budhist etc etc of Modern India with our ancestral roots. The roots which  we all share collectively. I recommend the research work undertaken by the Author to every one from the bottom of my heart. The books written by him,  offer a good historical and thematic introduction to Hinduism, tracing its development from our  ancient origin.


I shall encourage all my friends to read the books authored by Dr M V Mohan & Dr L D Mohan as these books shall give us  knowledge about our saints and our ancestors and shall develop our  personality and make us a good role models. Experiences of our Past make us  see our goals more clear without being marred by negative emotions , while using positive emotions as weapons to counter the weapons of invaders so as to get political gains & devide hindus. Connecting with India’s cultural inheritance, shall bring positive emotions among all members of Indians as a Great community

11. B B Sharma Faridabad

India is one of the greatest of all civilizations The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal, and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic periods. It is in the Vedic period that Hinduism first arose: this is the time to which the Vedas are dated. In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka. He also converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to other parts of Asia. It is in the reign of the Mauryas that Hinduism took its present shape. history is very rich. India has contributed greatly to the world philosophy and religion and  has survived as a culture. The research work by the authors connect us to our cultural inheritance.

 12.   Manju Mohan   

Evolution of Gods and Goddesses and the development of role models for Hindu society, a society, which form the basis of the modern Hindu religion. Hinduism has been one of the main religions in India. Hinduism has been passed down from the ancient period in the form of  epics and myths for its development. The religious  books authored by Dr Lajja Devi Mohan, is a systematic study of  development of Hinduism. I strongly feel that as Hindus we must read this great work and get connected with our ancestors

13.  Mrs kamlesh Sharma, Chandigarh 

   I personally know Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan since several years.  He was a Great Teacher, a  Great Scholar, a Great Poet and above all a Great Guide. Sometimes it takes someone’s death for us to know more about him and his life. The Ancient Indian History Books & Research Work written by DR Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan does not only leave a bench mark for Indian Historians but also leave a great legacy, which we, all, the hindu community members must cherish

14.  Anshu Sharma

We are extremely proud of our unique heritage and culture. The web site has definitely helped us to create awareness about the special need to protect our cultural heritage and educate our children, so that they remain rooted in our cultural pursuit. Of course our cultural heritage is fashioned by centuries of repression and subjugation. It has endured wars, famine, plague, religious & political prosecution, language suppression, draconian laws etc, but as a nation, this gives us a sense of accomplishment that despite all odds we have survived as a nation

15.  Captain RK Sabherwal (IN)

“Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan, father of my friend Cdr (Retired) Alok Mohan, was a veteran soldier and was among first very few commissioned officers of Indian origin in the flying branch of Royal Air force during early forties. After a brief tenure with Airforce, he pursued his career in education department and retired during early seventies. He headed a large college in Haryana as principal.

During his academic career, he had several achievement to his credit. He carried out extensive research work in ancient history and had authored several books. He had a fighting spirit like a soldier. I remember, during last phase of his life in mid nineties at Goa, when I
met him last, he was a cancer patient, he continued his research work in his subject ie Ancient Indian History based on ancient
inscriptions. Dr Mehta vasishtha dev Mohan was a role model for us. He was a great soldier, a poet, an author and above all a great human being.”


16. Mrs Satisha Sharma Retd Principal Arya mahila College Ludhiana

If we are looking for spiritual peace then we must read the books written by Dr Lajja Devi Mohan. We must read “Ram Mahima Geeta Saar” & Ayodia ke pramukh Raja for better understanding of how avatar of God came into existence. The book “Hamare Poorvaj” definitely connects us to our roots. The research work on comparative study between Goswami Tulsi dass and Guru Gobind Singh” shall surely increase our understanding about Hinduism & Sikhism and our common ancestors.

17. Dr lalita Verma Panipat

I recommend you to read the religious books authored by Dr L D Mohan, especially the book titled “our Ancestors” , We can understand about our  true identity only if we get connected to our past ie about the common ancestors of  we, the hindus. After reading the books, an inner joy, that comes to us make us enlightened, about the wide concept of Hinduism ie a  way of life.

18.  Professor Shiv ram  Sharma Gurgaon

Since the early part of the first millenium, most of the north India had been fighting with Invaders, However, the cholas at this time were very strong in south India. Hinduism was flourishing very well in this glorious period of Ancient India. It is sad that south india’s history had been ignored in Ancient Indian history books of this period.

The book Indian Inscriptions authored by Dr Mehta Vasishtha dev Mohan  cover important dynasties of the country for example The vakatakas of Maharashtra & Goa from Regnal year 13 to 37, The vakatakas of vatasgulama, The Nala Dynasity, Western Chalukyas, the Vishnukundins, Bhojas of South Western India, Maharaja of Madhya Pradesh Swamidasa, The Aulikaras of Dasapura,The Parivrajaka family, the Uchchakalpa family, The Hunas, Kings of sarabhapura from Regnal year 3 to Regnal year 41, The Pandvas, Maharqaja Nandana of Bihar Kingdoms of Bengal, Asam & Goa up to 6th century Ad. The books leave us  with a feeling of proud to know about our rich cultural inheritance.

19.  Dr Rekha Verma Panipat

Bhagwat Gita is also known as the fifth veda in hinduism. People worship Krishna in same manner as Shiva,Durga,Ganesha,Hanuman Rama etc…as there are many dieties in hinduism and all of these deities are the manifestation for the supreme being known as Bharm/parabharm.  Bhagwat Gita and Ram Charit Manas are important contributions to hindu religion & culture by Lords Ram & Krishana. The book Ram Mahima & Geeta Saar high light the Dohaas & chhoppais from these two sacred books. I recommend this book to all readers of religious writings.

20. Mr Ashok Sethi Advocate Panipat

Hinduism & Sikhism both promote the policy of  preaching sarvamanava soubhartrutwam ie  universal brotherhood ie live and let live  ie Sarvat dha Bhalla Religion must not  make any negative impact on the people and preach to their followers about the universal conscious ie one God. Tulsi Aur Govind ke ram Kavya includes the contributions of Shri Dasham Guru Granth sahib, which describes about  Ram from Birth to Swargarohan. During 18th & 19th century the Ram Kavya was written in Punjabi. The author has been successful in drawing parallels & tracing roots between the two faiths and their teachings.

 21. Dr Hari Mitter Sharma Ex Librarian VVRI Panjab University Hoshiarpur

India’s history and culture is dynamic and  begins with a rich culture, which flourished along the Indus River and within farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a region of highly developed civilization. Various Archaeological discoveries have provided authentic source for the Historians of  modern India to reconstruct ancient indian history based on  Old Coins & Inscriptions and revive/revisit the glorious past of India. The books written by Dr Mehta vasishtha Dev Mohan provide comprehensive information about the proud hindu rulers of  South North East & West India especially Mauryan Empire & Gupta Dynasty & covers Indian history of earlier times covering eight hundred years from 2nd BC onwards.

22. Ms Vinny Chawla Adhyaksh Haryana Janta Congress

The books authored by Dr M V Mohan based on Indian Inscriptions (four volumes)  also cover a period, when most of North India was united under the Gupta Empire ie the important dynasty of India, the Traikutakas of western India, the Maitrakas of valabhi, the Kalachuris and their subordinates, The Manavas, The Mukharis of  Rajsthan, UP & Bihar etc. Because of the relative peace, law and order, and extensive cultural achievements during this period, it has been described as a “Golden Age” of India that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture with all its variety, contradiction, and synthesis. The golden age was confined to the north, and the classical patterns began to spread towards south  The military exploits of the first three rulers — Chandragupta I (ca. 319-335), Samudragupta (ca. 335-376), and Chandragupta II (ca. 376-415) — brought all of  the North India under their leadership and the culture of hinduism flourished.

23. Ms Usha Koshish Principal Convent School Pravanu

In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka.  Ashoka  converted to Buddhism after witnessing human sufferings consequent to bloody wars. It is in his reign that Buddhism spread to several parts of Asia. Buddhism taught the values of  “Respect for the nature and Non Violence” among  people. Buddhism is a way of life or a philosophy. The books ie  “Indian Inscriptions” shall be very useful to the people, who are interested to know origin & spread of Budhism ie a  philosophy & a way of  life.

24. Vijay Sharma Panipat

Hindu Dharma accepts that all beliefs & faiths lead to salvation of all living beings and the whole world is one family.” All living beings are children of the Immortal Power, God or Ishwara. Hindu Dharma sends out strong message for every one to be free from agony and fear and  be healthy, happy and pious. The religious books written by Dr Lajja Devi Mohan ie especially the books on Shri Ram & Ayodia Chitrakoot, are very educative and provide rich awareness about the Great Hindu Family and shall be useful to the younger generations of Hindus living outside India. The books describe  important temples & monuments of historical importance like Ram Janam Bhoomi, Hanumaan Garhi, Tulsi Samarak, Balimiki Ramayan Bhawan, Gurudwara Nazarbagh, Brahmkund etc.

25.  Suresh Sethi, Advocate, Gurgaon

Pilgrimage tours are not just travelling to holy shrines only, but any journey to revisit Past also. Revisit those places, where memories of sacrifices made by our ancestors exist. Those places where our ancestors sacrificed their lives to make our Present happy. India is a land of Gods & Goddesses. But Shiva Jee, Maharana Pratap, Jhansi Bhai & several other freedom fighters of India, who sacrificed their lives for us, are no lesser then these Gods and Goddeses. Thousands of freedom fighters spent the prime of their lives in the jails of Andeman Nikobar Deepshmooh and other places of India.. These jails are holy places for us. I, strongly, recommend the books, namely, “Andeman Nikobar Deepshmooh “, “Ayodhya Chitrkoot “ “Bharat darshan” written by Dr Lajja Devi Mohan for this kind of pilgrimage.

26. Narender Mehta Secretary Mohyal Sabha, Panipat

The research papers ie “ The Antiquity of  upnishadas” written by Dr M V Mohan, contain a very deep knowledge of  Vedic culture, a culture which  is based on the Vedas.  The mantras ie  the earliest portion, are hymns to the power of nature which is seen as a kind, tolerant and merciful, yet mighty, severe, and unrelenting deity. The Brahmanas, are detailed instructions needed to perform rituals and meditations that produce certain sought-after and limited results: wealth, progeny, a happy afterlife, health, etc. Such knowledge is valuable for those who believe that happiness comes from outside themselves. A few of us doubt that lasting happiness comes from the pursuit of desired object and/or the performance of finite activities, religious or otherwise, in a time-bound world and, for whatever reasons, are convinced  that happiness comes from within. The Aranyakas or Upanishads, the third portion of each Veda, commonly known as Vedanta, agrees and delivers an “Absolute Truth” Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this non dual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan. The Absolute Truth is both subject and object, and there is no qualitative difference there. Therefore, Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan are qualitatively one and the same. The same substance is realized as impersonal Brahman by the students of the Upanishads, as localized Paramatma by the Hiranyagarbhas or the yogis, and as Bhagavan by the devotees. In other words, Bhagavan, or the Personality of Godhead, is the only word of the “Absolute Truth” Swami Vivekananda in his famous ‘Paper on Hinduism’, delivered at the Chicago Parliament of Religions on 19th of September, 1893, had said on that day: ‘“Children of immortal bliss”— what a sweet, what a hopeful name! Allow me to call you, brethren, by that sweet name—heirs of  immortal bliss—yea, the Hindu refuses to call you sinners. Ye are the Children of God, the sharers of  immortal bliss, holy and perfect beings. Ye divinities on earth—sinners! It is a sin to call a man “Sinner”.

27. Ms Anita Sharma,  Government School, Shimla

We,  Hindus relate ourselves to common Ancestors ie Rishis. For Exmple Kashyap, Bhardwaj and balmiki are not Rishis for particular class or Cast but are saints for all Hindus. Hinduism identify Common Ancestors among all Casts. There is no upper or lower classes among us.
Our caste like any modern organizations, was determined by the jobs we performed ie by the  profession.  There was no warrior caste,no  priest caste, no tailor caste and so on. Ancient times, there were many instances, when people changed their castes just by changing their professions.
This was only during colonial era, castism became rigid and lost its real purpose. India is a land of Saints. Our great religion & culture ie Hindu Dharma is not a creation of an individual but has taken birth consequent to contributions of several saints & scholars. The knowledge shared by these Rishis ie our ancestors is an ocean of knowledge. I therefore recommend all Hindus must read the book “Our Ancestors” written by Dr L D Mohan to  know about the real roots of our greater family tree.

28. Meera Marwaha Teacher MKK Arya Model School

Many eminent  poets & writers like Bhartendu Harish Chander, Balmukund Gupt, Radha Krishan Dass, Ram Charit Upaadhaya, Surya Kant Tripathi and Swami Satyanand jee have produced the main characters of Ram Katha, so that hindu Society is provided role models for different relations ie Role Model for father, Role model for Mother, Role model for Son Role Model for Sister, Role Model for Brother. The book “Tulsi Or Govind Ke Ram Kavya” includes these characters of Ram Katha. I wish if we hindus make any of these characters of Ram Katha as our role models, our society shall become an example for the international community..

29. Mr Rit Mohan Advocate Panipat

   Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan was an Indian scholar of Brahmi, Kharosthi Pali & Sanskrit languages.  The Kharosthi Script was more or less contemporary with the Brahmi script, appearing around the 3rd century BCE mainly in modern-day northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Like Brahmi, Kharosthi seemed to have been developed for Prakrit dialects, which was the common speech of everyday life. Kharoshti was the language of the ancient kingdom of Gandhara. Kharosthi Script fell out of use by the 3rd or 4th century AD, and the descendent of Brahmi eventually took hold in the North Western South Asia. Brahmi is usually written from left to right. Surviving records of these  scripts are mostly restricted to ancient inscriptions and there are very few scholars in India. Who could understand & correctly translate these scripts to modern languages. The Research Work of Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan based on these inscriptions &  translation of the scripts on Inscriptions into English, Hindi & Sanskrit is a praise worthy effort and has been the first attempt by any Indian Research Scholar of Ancient Indian History.

30. Harish Chander

                                    This web Site  contains information on good books on ancient india especially the culture of hinduism.

“Healthy information”

31. Mrs Sunita Mohan Teacher DAV School

Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan was a very kind-hearted and generous person. He was founding Director of Bhartiya Vidya Vihaar School, at Civil Lines, Ludhiana. The school was founded by him  during late 1960s  with an aim to provide education to children at affordable cost. He raised funds from business men of Ludhiana for this purpose. He founded a charitable school at Panipat, during late seventies with an aim to provide free education to children living in slums of the city. I understand this was first truly free school for poor people of the District for whom, going to school each day, was not an option. The school provided free note books, Books, Pencils etc to the poor children without charging fees. Dr L D Mohan helped him teaching poor children and promote his idea of free education for working class children. The Charity school provided free education to children up to class VIII for a period close to one decade. Due to old age & lack of adequate finances, he had to close the school in mid eighties. He was a source of inspiration for us, because of his ideologies

32. Harsh Tanwar HR Manager

Understand that the authors have carried out extensive research work on ancient political & religious history of India. We,as a community & as a nation, must take pride in our glorious past. It is a matter of pride for we hindus that several thousand years, our culture was very advanced. Adequate evidence to prove this fact is available in the form of ancient inscriptions is available. Translation of these inscriptions, which were written in Pali,Brahmi, & kroshti scripts into three different languages by Dr M V Mohan, is definitely, a praise worthy effort. We are proud of our great cultural inheritance. I personally, recommend that every hindu,  must read these books to know about our roots. We must remember that only those communities, which are aware of their roots, their history & their war heros, grow.

33. Cdr (Retired) Alok Mohan

The main doctrine of Hinduism is that “Every religion is our religion and it is the duty of each hindu to enlighten every human being irrespective of his religion, ethnicity cast etc. We must respect every human being”  In Bhagwat Geeta, the sacred religious book, Lord Krishna says “All religions are different paths to the same God”. This truth has been highlighted by Dr L D Mohan, in the religious books, written by her. Hinduism do not propagate cast system. All the paths to attain spirituality are open to every hindu irrespective of cast. (Cast system has been misunderstood by us). The book on our ancestors help us discovering this fact.

I strongly feel that my humble attempt to build this web site on Ancient India & the ancient Indian religious & political work of my parents,,shall be a small but useful drop in the ocean of Hinduism.

34. B R Bhardwaj Kurukshetra

The research thesis on the history of the north Western Regions of the India Subcontinent by Late Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan is an attempt to revive the glorious past of India. As we all are aware that in the early year of this century , our country was invaded by the Greek Rulers of Bactria. The administration of the later Mauryas crumbled and the Sungas emerged as new force. This work undertakes to study among various other things, the political conditions prevailing the eve of the Indo Greek invasion, the nature of India forces – the mauryas and subsequently the Sungas-and the out come of this struggle. The author has investigated the history of the republican Tribes of the North West and of the later Mauryas in this contribution. The latter investigation is based on literary and epigraphical notices fr0om Panini ( 5th century BC) to Samudragupta

35.  Ankit 

I have read the book Indo Greek Coins written by Dr MVD Mohan and recommend this book to all those who are keen to know about the glorious past of India. Old Coins rank among the best and most reliable data to rewrite the Ancient History of India. The Indo Greek Princes were the earliest Rulers,who issued inscribed Coins/Cast Coins in India. The Chief merit of this book is that it reviews  all that had been done on the subject of Ancient Indian History during 2nd Century BC  by previous Scholars.

36. Mr Onkar Bhave Sanyukta Mahamantri VHP

I am pleased to read the book  “Ande Maan Nikobar Dweepsamooh” authored by Dr lajja Devi Mohan. The book has been very nicely written. All the facts related to the subject, have been systematically explained. Images provided in the book are indeed praise worthy. I strongly feel that the book has done justice to an important requirement & has emotionally attached us with the events related to kala Pani. The book connects us with this neglected part of India. I personally congratulate you for this important contribution.  ( Message received in Hindi & has been reproduced in English)

37  From…  Anonymous  vai——–

Thanks for this superb web site. I was wondering, whether you were preparing of writing related posts on ancient India . Please maintain up the superb articles on the subject.

38. From  Mr Garmen  Ram—
Pretty ! Very good posts. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post once again soon

39 J Singh Ludhiana
I am pleased to read the books written by Dr M V mohan & Dr LD mohan on the cultural inheritance of India. Dynastic rule had existed in the history of Ancient India prior to Ramayana and Mahabharata period
since the rise of early Vedic civilization.Suryavanshi (Solar) and Chandravanshi or Somavanshi (lunar) were the two prominent dynasties which ruled in ancient India around 8000 BC.They’re also referred to as kshatriyas meaning warrior class. Ekshvaku was the first king of Suryavanshi clan who established the great kingdom of Kosala with Ayodhya as its capital.His empire was stretched till North and Central India.Rama was 70th king in Suryavansha.Suravanshi kings ruled over Kosala for the next 6000 yrs until Mahapadmananda of Nanda dynasty captured Ayodhya in 1641 BC and exiled Sumitra,the last king of Ayodhya to Rohtak.Many famed kings like Pruthu,Mandhata,Trishanku Satyavrata),Harishchandra,Bhagiratha,Su…Raghu,Lord Rama,Prasenjit-2, belonged to Suryavanshi clan.

Nahusha was the first Monarch of Chandravansh clan and the ruler of Pratishtan,the modern day Benarus.Nahusha was succeeded as the king by his son Yayati who had 5 sons namely Puru,Yadu,Yavan (Turvasu),Druhyu and Anu.Puru ascended his throne,while Yadu and Druhya established there empires in Central and southern India.Sri Krishna was a descendant Yadu dynasty.

Many famed Kings like Prachinwan,Riteyu,Matinaar,Elina,Dushyant,Bharat,Hasti,Ajmeedh,Samavarn…Pratipa,Shantanu belonged to Puruvansha.Pandavas andKauravas also belonged to Kuru dynasty of Puruvansha

40.S kumar Chennai
The translation of Ancient inscriptions into Sanskrit Hindi & English is indeed a great effort. Sanskrit and Tamil are ancient languages un-rivalled by any other and have many similarities.
But Sanskrit is a standardised version of other People’s languages that existed and which are now extinct or transmutated into other spoken languages in the North of Vindhya mountains. Tamil on the other hand, remained a spoken language throughout. Both languages have contributed to each other, in their development, as there was interaction amongst scholars without any narrow linguistic bias, as is seen today. There is no evidence of Sanskrit ever having been a spoken language. Tamil being spoken in the southernmost part of the Indian peninsula, remained largely unknown to other regions, till recently. An interesting aspect: Despite richness of both the languages:
Sanskrit (and languages North of the Vindhyas) do not have an independent word for ‘mouth’. (‘chehra’ is of alien origin.)Tamil (and other Southern languages) do not have an independent word for ‘face’. ‘moonchi’ is a slang un-used literarily.
41. R Mathews Mumbai
This indeed was a pleasure to visit the web site which gives us a glimpse of our ancient roots.
Science and technology in ancient and medieval India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games

Ancient India was a land of sages, saints and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists. Ancient India’s contribution to science and technology include:

Mathematics – Vedic literature is replete with concepts of zero, the techniques of algebra and algorithm, square root and cube root. Arguably, the origins of Calculus lie in India 300 years before Leibnitz and Newton.

Astronomy – Rig Veda (2000 BC) refers to astronomy.

Physics – Concepts of atom and theory of relativity were explicitly stated by an Indian Philosopher around 600 BC.

Chemistry – Principles of chemistry did not remain abstract but also found expression in distillation
of perfumes, aromatic liquids, manufacturing of dyes and pigments, and extraction of sugar.

Medical science & surgery – Around 800 BC, first compendium on medicine and surgery was complied in ancient India.

Fine Arts – Vedas were recited and recitation has to be correct, which gave rise to a finer study of sound and phonetics. The natural corollary were emergence of music and other forms of performing arts.

Mechanical & production technology – Greek historians have testified to smelting of certain metals in India in the 4th century BC.

Civil engineering & architecture – The discovery of urban settlements of Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate existence of civil engineering & architecture, which blossomed to a highly precise science of civil engineering and architecture and found expression in innumerable monuments of ancient India.

Shipbuilding & navigation – Sanskrit and Pali texts have several references to maritime activity by ancient Indians.Sports & games – Ancient India is the birth place of chess, ludo, snakes and ladders and playing cards.

40. Susheel Kumar Being a student of History, this gives me a pleasure to write my comments here on Ancient India web site.
After the Mauryan rule Pushyamitra, the founder of the Sunga dynasty established his rule. The Sungas ruled for over a hundred years. The extent of the Sunga kingdom under Pushyamitra extended from Punjab and extended to the southern regions of the Narmada. The Sunga dynasty had a line of ten rulers. The last of the Sunga king was Devabhuti

The Sunga period though is less reflected as a great role in Indian history yet it significant in the matter of its administration, religion, art and literature.

The Sungas administrated the kingdom with the help of a mantriparishad. This council existed in the centre and the provinces. The provinces were governed by viceroys. During the Sunga rule Brahmanism revived its vigour. The Bhagavata form of religion was prevalent. The Bharbat stupa and the ivory works in its exquisite manner proves the promotion of art. Patanjali’s Mahabhashya is an example of the flourishing literature of the Sunga.

The Kanvas

The Kanva dynasty was a Brahman dynasty founded by Vasudeva Kanva, the minister if Devabhuti, the last Sunga king. This period is said to have witnessed the rule of four kings extending to a period about 45 years. The extent of Kanva territory was confined to the areas of Sunga rule. Susarman was the last ruler of the Kanva dynasty. The Kanvas were over thrown by the Satavahanas.


The Satavahanas were also called Andhras. The Aitareya Brahmana claims the Andhras as, the exiled and degenerate sons of Viswamitra. Ashoka inscriptions mentions the Andhras as border people. They were Dravidian people who lived between the Godavari and the Krishna. Simuka was the founder of the Satavahana dynasty. He was succeeded by his brother Krishna.

Scholars are of the opinion that the original home of the Andhras – Andhra bhrityas was the Bellary district. Others claim their records to be found in the Northern Deccan and central India. Satakarni was the successor after Simuka, and is a considerable figure, known for his performance of two aswamedha sacrifices. His reign was followed by the rule of Gautamiputra satakarni. He is said to have defeated the Yavanas, Sakas and Phalanas and re-established the ancient glory of the Satavahanas. Gautamiputra satkarni was succeeded by his son Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi in about 130 AD. He extended his rule towards the Andhra country. Yajna Sri Satakarni was the last great ruler of the Satavahanas. After him the weak successors resulted in the contraction of the territory of the Satavahanas. Hostility with the Saka rulers also led to the ultimate parceling of its territories and decleration of independence .

Of the world’s great religions, Hinduism is especially unique, since it has no historical founder who had some revelation at some point in time. It has no fixed set of worship, with some people praying, others making sacrifices, and still others meditating. Although it is polytheistic, recognizing millions of gods, it is somewhat monotheistic in that it sees these various gods as manifestations of the one unifying god, Brahma. It is this flexibility that has made it so popular and such a unifying force in India.

While there are millions of gods, there are three that most people worship one or the other of: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is seen as the supreme being of creation who put into motion a constantly repeating cycle of destruction and rebirth. Although seen as the supreme god, who all others are reconciled to, Brahma has not been as popular as Vishnu and Shiva. Vishnu is the kind and merciful preserver of Brahma’s creation who has appeared in various manifestations, known as avatars, to help humanity. The most popular of his manifestations has been Krishna, who as a child was full of mischief and as an adult a great lover and a mighty warrior, qualities once associated with Indra. Shiva combined the attributes of various Harappan and Aryan gods, being at once a god of destruction and rebirth, mercy and wrath, and constancy and unpredictability.

Hinduism maintains the old Brahmanic and Buddhist principles of karma, dharma, and reincarnation. Unlike the old Brahmanic religion, it puts more emphasis on personal devotion to a god than on sacrifices performed by the Brahmans. This made Hinduism especially popular in India and it has dominated India ever since. The Kanva dynasty was a Brahman dynasty founded by Vasudeva Kanva, the minister of Devabhuti, the last Sunga king in 75 BCE. This period is said to have witnessed the rule of four kings extending to a period about 45 years.The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former dominions. The extent of Kanva territory was confined to the areas of Sunga rule. Susarman was the last ruler of the Kanva dynasty. In 30 BC, the southern power swept away both the Kanvas and Sungas and the province of Eastern Malwa was absorbed within the dominions of the Satavahanas.

41. Anonymous ae———
I wish to add that kshwaku dynasty ruled all over the world and the Ikshwaku Emperors from the mythology and even the historical stories has specifically shown examples and even now we see the Ayodhya, Mithila and other cities which were ruled by the Ancient kings, emperors like Janaka and Dasaratha from whom the Great Rama and Sita have stood great personalities as man and woman being worshiipped or stood examples for mankind to lead a role of manhood and womanhood from times immemorial. Idia/Bharat ruled the entire world and had scientific and astronomical and wha not spread all over the world. Mauritius people, even Sri Lanka, Afghan and Bhutan, Nepal in total Asian countries have followed the Ancient virtues and values of life from the Emperors and from that kingdom and largest Empire of India.

42. Deepak Panipat We are proud of our great inheritance & following important dynasties of ancient India
before 750 A.D
3)Imperial Cholas(900-!300 A.D.)
4)Vijay nagara
6)Chalukyas & Rashtrakutas
7)Various Rajput Dynasties like Chitoor and Mewar
9)Sikh Dynasty (Multan)

43. S Sharma Teacher karnal
The important contribution of the Authors in different languages of India & reproduction/translation of ancient scripts in three different languages is a praise worthy effort. Hindi is a language of Indo Europion family & came from Sanskrit via Pali and Prakrit. Aryan language has following steps-
1.Vedic Sanskrit-1500BC-1000BC.
2.Laukik Sanskrit-1000BC-600BC
3.Pali-600BC-1BC.-Generally All the Buddhist literatures have been writen in Pali.
4.Prakrit-1BC-600AD.-Generally All the Jainist literatures have been writen in Prakrit.
5.Apbhransh and Avahattha-600A.D.-1000Ad.
6.Hindi-1000AD.-till this date.
Oldest available literature of Tamil is Sangam literature(300BC-300Ad.)
Thus Pali is Older than Tamil but Parakrit is not older than Tamil.
As u have stated Hindi is a hybrit language and full of Arbic,Turkey,Persian words.
first Muslim dynasty in India was Ghulam Dynasty(1206-1290). And Hindi is Older than 1206.So Hindi was developd without the Help of Arbic,Persian etc.Latter during the cultural exchanges-Hindi + Arbic/Persian etc. = Hindustani > Urdu.
Thus Hindi mix with Arbic Persian Turkey is know as Hindustani.Hindustani is writen in Devnagri,but If Hindustani is Writen in Persian script ,that is called Urdu.
urdu is hybrid not Hindi,Urdu has sam grammer of Hindi

44. J Mohan

Celebrated Buddhist monastic centre, often spoken of as a university, southwest of Bihār city in northern Bihār state, India. Nālanda’s traditional history dates to the time of the Buddha (6th–5th centuries BC) and Mahāvīra,the founder of the Jaina religion. According to a later Tibetan source, Nāgārjuna, the 2nd–3rd-century AD Buddhist philosopher, began his studies there. Extensive excavations carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India indicate, however, that the foundation of the monasteries belongs to the Gupta period (5th century AD). The powerful 7th-century ruler of Kanauj (Kannauj), Harṣavardhana, is reported to have contributed to them. During his reign the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang stayed at Nālanda for some time and left a clear account of the subjects studied there and of the general features of the community. I-ching, another pilgrim a generation later, also provided a minute account of the life of the monks. Nālanda continued to flourish as a centre of learning under the Pāla dynasty (8th–12th centuries), and it became a centre of religious sculpture in stone and bronze. Nālanda was probably sacked during Muslim raids in Bihār (c. 1200) and never recovered.

According to pilgrims’ accounts, from Gupta times the monasteries of Nālanda were surrounded by a high wall. The excavations revealed a row of 10 monasteries of the traditional Indian design—oblong brick structures with cells opening onto four sides of a courtyard, with a main entrance on one side and a shrine facing the entrance across the courtyard. In front of the monasteries stood a row of larger shrines, or stupas, in brick and plaster. The entire complex is referred to on seals discovered there as Mahāvihāra (“Great Monastery”). A museum at Nālanda houses many of the treasures found in the excavations.

45. Satvir Singh Patna
This is a matter of pride for us to note that theworld’s first university takshshila was established in Patna ie the Patliputra. The city of Patna, which is capital of present Day State of Bihar, was known as Patliputra in ancient times.It was capital of Mauryan Empire, which ruled India during 2-4th BC. We the people of Bihar are proud of the glorious past of our ancesstors.

46. Saurabh
we are proud to discover that India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world (circa 6th Century BC), along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. The origin of the word “rupee” is found in the word rūp or rūpā, which means “silver” in many Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi. The Sanskrit word rupyakam (Devanagari:रूप्यकम्) means coin of silver. The derivative word Rūpaya was used to denote the coin introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his reign from 1540 to 1545 CE. The original Rūpaya was a silver coin weighing 175 grains troy (about 11.34 grams) [1]. The coin has been used since then, even during the times of British India. Formerly the rupee was divided into 16 annas, 64 paise, or 192 pies. In Arabia and East Africa the British India rupee was current at various times, including the paisa and was used as far south as Natal. In Mozambique the British India rupees were overstamped, and in Kenya the British East Africa company minted the rupee and its fractions as well as pice. It was maintained as the florin, using the same standard, until 1920. In Somalia the Italian colonial authority minted ‘Rupia’ to the exact same standard, and called the paisa ‘besa’. Early 19th century E.I.C. rupees were used in Australia for a limited period. Decimalisation occurred in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1872, India in 1957 and in Pakistan in 1961.

Among the earliest issues of paper rupees were those by the Bank of Hindustan (1770-1832), the General Bank of Bengal and Bihar (1773-75, established by Warren Hastings), the Bengal Bank (1784-91), amongst others.

Historically, the rupee was a silver based currency. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century, when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard. The discovery of vast quantities of silver in the U.S. and various European colonies resulted in a decline in the relative value of silver to gold. Suddenly the standard currency of India could not buy as much from the outside world. This event was known as “the fall of the Rupee.”

During British rule, and the first decade of independence, the rupee was subdivided into 16 Annas. Each Anna was subdivided into either 4 pices, or 12 pies.

In 1957, decimalisation occurred and the rupee was now divided into 100 Naye Paise (Hindi for new paisas). After a few years, the initial “Naye” was dropped. However many still refer to 25, 50 & 75 paise as 4, 8 and 12 annas respectively, not unlike the now largely defunct usage of “bit” in American English for 1/8 dollar.

47. H Singh Jammu
I wish to add that It is said that Brahma was the creator of Sanskrit language and introduced Sanskrit language to the Sages. Therefore, this language is also called Dev Vani, which means the language of Gods. It was during 18th century, when a similarity between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek was found, which gave the reason to study and discover the relationship of all Indo-European languages. The earliest form of Sanskrit language was Vedic Sanskrit that came approximately around 1500-200 B.C. This was the period when knowledge was imparted orally through the generations.
Sanskrit was one of the oldest languages known for over thousands of years, Sanskrit literature is the richest literature in the history of humankind. The composition of hymns, poems, puranas during the Vedic period formed sacred scripts of Hindus. The oldest known texts in Sanskrit are the Rigveda, Sama-veda, Yajur-veda and the Atharva-veda. Classical Sanskrit based on the old Vedic speech came up approximately between 500 B.C.-1000 A.D. It was the period after which Panini composed his grammar of Sanskrit. The two great epics of this period were Ramayana and Mahabharata.

48. K Patil Mumbai
my heart is filled with joy when i read the description of the religious literature written by Dr L D Mohan. The ancient Indian culture and or civilization is encompassed in the profound meditation and wisdom of the saints and the seers, who came up with the most valuable fundamentals of humanity and life on the cosmic scale then ever seen, known and or documented before and therefore as a matter of profound honesty, truth and reverence deserve the same crown and respect. It will be too small a term to recognize the countless blessings to the mankind and life on cosmic scale that our civilization thus born to remain for ever be termed as ‘Civilization of Saints and Seers’

49. V Arora
India is the land of Gods, has always welcomed everyone coming to its land mass with open arms and has opened its vast treasures not only of riches material but also spiritual and social.Refugees such as Jews fleeing Roman oppression around 72 CE, Syrian Christians fleeing persecution in Syria in the 345 CE time frame, Parsis fleeing Iran around 750 CE, Tibetans fleeing Chinese oppression since 1950 have all been welcome. Among 148 countries Jews have lived in, India is the only one in which they were never persecuted.There is an ancient tradition of democracy going back to the Mahajanapadas of North India and to Chola times in South India, and the ancient rules for elections carved on stone edicts in places like Chingelput, Tamil Nadu, are more stringent than in modern-day democracies “Vasudhava Kutumbakam’ is what we Indians believe in. This is the reason we with so many diversities in our culture, creed, rituals, religions, literature, food, attire, languages, are still alive as a coherent, organised, and united country. What disturbes others is their unability to grasp this fact that inspite of such diversity we still stand as One.

50 A K Sharma
Samyak Krutam is Samskrutam. The word Samyak means complete full. The language is full without any limitations. Human mind limitations are not applicable to the language. Krutam means done. That means this language is complete and total to convey messages & expressions of emotions. While Devanagari is a script not language. Vedas were told by Deva (God ) to Nagara ( People ) hence the name ‘Devanagari’. Bramhi , Pali were also popular scripts before Devanagari.

51. Surinder Singh Weaver Colony Panipat
I understand that Indians invented Weaving during ancient times. It is mentioned in our old Hindu religious books that Kalapurush used to spin black and white threads with the help of time-wheel. White referred to Day and Black referred to night
I understand primitive gins and spinning wheels originated in India. The earliest samples of cotton fabric were found in the excavations of the Indus Valley. Samples of the most ancient mordant dyeing technique for cotton fabrics, Kalamkari, were also found there. The Puranas describe spinning and weaving that match the modern concept of an industry. The fibers used for spinning and the fabrics produced were of the most varied types, unparalleled in any
other country during that period. Pliny’s Natural History informs that India exported to Rome large quantities of sheep wool, woolen fabrics, colored carpets, silks, cotton clothes, and fabrics ranging from coarse canvas to textiles of the finest texture. Ancient Indians had the reputation of making the thinnest saree that could pass through a finger ring

52. Jitender Pal
Ancient Indian Inscriptions also remind us about the black chapter of Indian History, when our historical monuments and other symbols to ascertain historical facts of ancient India were destroyed by invaders. It is true that Invaders/ intruding groups finally settled in India and destroyed ancient literature and historical monuments with a view to destroy historical evidence and prove themselves of purely Indian origin and unsuccessfully try to prove that they were superior.
53. B Prasad ludhiana
Contribution by Ancient Indians in the Medical field are many.Surgical procedures existed in our country long before the modern day methods. Many of our Ayurvedic Medicines and procedures are now being adopted by Allopathic practitioners. The first surgery was done in india by sushruta. Long before the modern science, it was the Indian astromers who calculated the size of the earth, distance from the sun and also the number of planets. Our contribution in mathematics is very vast. The number zero, factorizaton, geometry, etc. (just have a copy of Vedic Maths and you will be satisfied). Our ancestors saw that all inventions are for the general public free of cost. They did not aspire to become rich by selling or patenting their inventions.

Our ANCESTORS invented Calculus. You can see the Sanskrit mathematics texts by Arya Bhatta and Bhaskaracharya which were written many centuries before Newton that they contain Calculus. For that matter, who invented numbers? The Indians. The ancient Romans did not know the number zero. Ancient Indians knew very large numbers like Mahogham (1 followed by 62 zeros) and the corresponding smaller decimal fractions. Paavuloori Mallana of 12th century wrote
Ganitha Sastram in Telugu. One poem in the book starts like this: “Sara sasi shatka chandra sara saayaka ….”
The meaning appears to be a poetic description of nature. Each word used in the poem has a methematical terminology
meaning. It deals with a methematical problem. One grain is placed in the first square of the chess board. Double of that number, are placed in the second square, and so on. How many grains have to be placed in the last
square? The poem gives the answer as 18446744073709551614 which is equal to 2 to the power 63.

Who invented Nuclear Physics? Buddhist teacher Pakudha Katyayana taught atomic theory. Maharshi Kanaada of 3rd
century, B.C. wrote atomic theory in Vaiseshika Sutras. Agni Purana gives smaller magnitudes. The smallest of them
is called Paramaanu which nearly equals one billionth part of a meter. This value tallies with the size of an organic
molecule calculated by the western scientists. According to the Upanishads, the five elements of the nature are
Earth, Water, Air, Fire and Akasa. (The ancient Greek or Roman philosophers did not know Akasa). One can easily
guess that the Earth represents the solid state, the Water the liquid state and the Air the gaseous state. The Fire
is the plasma, the fourth state of matter. Western science has not recognized nuclear state as a state of matter,
even though some nuclear particles are stable; Akasa means nuclear state. The Vedic dictum “Anor aniyan mahaan
mahiyan” indicates that the greatest of the great is hidden in the smallest of the small; this is the basis for
the atomic energy. In the ancient Sanskrit text named Anu Sidhdhantam, Maharshi Goutama described three models of
micro-scopes through which atoms can be seen. We were the first to calculate the velocity of light? The
Rig Veda Bhashyam by Sayana Madhava gives the following Sloka praising the Sun. Yojanam sahasre dve, satadve, dvecha yojane Ekena nimeshardhena kramamaana namosthuthe. One Yojana equals 15788.8 meters, and half of Nimesha
equals 8/75 fraction of a second. This gives the velocity of light as 325940 km/s. We have to remember here that the
above value is an approximate one intended for easy remembrance, like remembering the value of pi as 22/7. It
is better than the value 215000 km/s given by Danish astronomer Ole Roemer in 1676. Having discovered so many
things, it is only logical to expect that our ancestors must have used light as the standard for length measurements; after all, modern science considers velocity of light to be a Universal Constant! The word “kramamaana” of the above Sloka has the hidden meaning of gradual minute change which occurs over thousands of years. Our ancient seers did not use light as a standard for length measurement. How can that “which bends” be called unchangeable? Every created thing is subject to change by time; there is nothing like an universal constant. And the velocity of light is no exception to this law. The velocity of light of our Sun was greater in Krita Yuga than what it is now, even if it is by a small fraction. The velocity of light is proportional to the stored energy in the Sun or any other star.
Modern science also accepts that the Sun has lost a lot of energy over billions of years. Then, there must be
some other stars in the universe which have greater stored energies than the Sun, and are emitting light
which is faster than that of the Sun? Yes. Modern science will confirm this after it develops more
sophisticated equipment than what they have at present. Who invented weaving? Many experts agree that primitive
gins and spinning wheels originated in India. The earliest samples of cotton fabric were found in the excavations of
the Indus Valley. Samples of the most ancient mordant dyeing technique for cotton fabrics, Kalamkari, were also
found there. The Kalamkari technique was perfected in South India and the traditional method continues till
date. The Puranas describe spinning and weaving that match the modern concept of an industry. The weaving industry
involved specialized factories working in association with domestic industries and paid at piece rates. The fibers
used for spinning and the fabrics produced were of the most varied types, unparalleled in any other country
during that period. Indians were exceptional for their skills in spinning and weaving which have not been
surpassed by peoples of other lands even in historic past. Pliny’s Natural History informs that India exported to
Rome large quantities of sheep wool, woolen fabrics, colored carpets, silks, cotton clothes, and fabrics
ranging from coarse canvas to textiles of the finest texture. Ancient Indians had the reputation of making the
thinnest saree that could pass through a finger ring. During the reign of Julius Caesar, the Roman Emperor, the
British did not know weaving and lived naked. We invented the guns? Some people in medieval Europe heard of powerful fire weapons of the India. Marco Polo (in 13th century) was financed by the king of his country with the specific purpose of finding the secret of the Indian fire weapons. Marco Polo was given gold coins and precious stones. He also brought some prostitutes to woo people, if necessary. He first tried to find the secret in
the Punjab region. They pointed a gun at him saying ” Get out of our country. Else, we will shoot you with this very
gun”. He then came to south India and tried for the secret. The south Indians were more tolerant. They told
him that the secret is not known to the public. The engineers who made the guns reside in the king’s fort
generations. The guns were kept in the armory and the public might not have even seen a gun. The guns were
brought out only at the time of emergency like a war. A few persons gave hint to Marco Polo that the knowledge of
making gun powder was given to the Chinese when some Indians visited them in ancient times. Then Marco Polo
went to China, but he could not find any guns there. The gun powder was used there for making some festival fire
crackers and rockets. He took samples of the gun powder and returned to Europe. We know that the gun powder
consists of niter, sulphur and charcoal powder. Natural niter was scarce in Europe, and what they could get from
other lands was not that pure. The world’s purest niter in its natural state is available in the mines of India. The
other problems faced by the Europeans in making the guns are lack of good metallic alloys to make the bodies of the
guns and the non-availability of good machine tools for making them. Manufacture of the guns fell into temporary
oblivion because most of them back-fired or exploded. How did the British conquer India? Not with their guns. The
first war between the Indians and the British took place at Mysore during reign of Hyder Ali. The casualties on the
British side was 90 percent and those on the Indian side was 10 percent. The British realized that their weapons
were inferior to those used by the Indians. The Indians had rockets and missiles besides guns and cannons. What is
a Sathagni? Most of us think that it is cannon. Satha means 100 and Agni means fire; it is a missile containing
100 bullets. It is launched from a cannon. It explodes after reaching its destination. Sanskrit manuscripts like
Sukra Neethi Sastra contain many formulas for making gun powder. The first item exported by the then British East
India company was Indian niter. We were the first to prepare world maps? Rig Veda mentions ships with 100 oars. The Buddhist Jataka stories wrote about large Indian ships carrying seven hundred people. History says that that Telugu
King Samudra Gupta went around the world several times. The Harivamsa informs that the first geographical survey of the world was performed during the period of king Vaivasvata. The towns, villages and demarcation of
agricultural land of that period were depicted on maps. Brahmanda Purana provides the best and the most
detailed description of world map drawn on a flat surface using an accurate scale. Padma Purana says that
world maps were prepared and maintained in book form and kept with care and safety in chests. Surya
Siddhantha speaks about construction of wooden globe representing earth and marking of horizontal circles,
equatorial circles and further divisions. Accidental finding of an old map some where can only open
questions. Any continued knowledge must have many centuries of usage. Only India has it. We invented the ships?

Europe has only soft wood trees. The ships made of those woods are good for sailing the Mediterranean or a
smaller sea. They are no good for sailing on the oceans. The ship of Vasco de Gama was about to collapse
when it reached India. It is the Indian marine engineers who repaired that ship and made it worthy
again for sea travel. Which country has the trees that provide the hardest wood? India. The Sanskrit name for
deodar tree was Deva Tharu, the tree that gives the best wood; it is native to India. Other hard woods like
teak and mahogany are also native to India. Rig Veda mentions ships with 100 oars. Such ships sailed over
seven oceans and returned to India. Visitors to India from Greece and Rome during the pre-Christian times
wrote that the Brahmins of India knew that the earth is in the form of a globe and one can reach the same place
after sailing through the seven oceans. The Buddhist Jataka stories wrote about large Indian ships carrying
seven hundred people. In the Artha Sastra, Koutilya wrote about the Board of Shipping and the Commissioner
of Port who supervised sea traffic. The Harivamsa informs that the first geographical survey of the world
was performed during the period of Vaivasvata. The towns, villages and demarcation of agricultural land of
that period were depicted on maps. Brahmanda Purana provides the best and the most detailed description of
world map drawn on a flat surface using an accurate scale. Padma Purana says that world maps were prepared
and maintained in book form and kept with care and safety in chests. Surya Siddhantha speaks about
construction of wooden globe representing earth and marking of horizontal circles, equatorial circles and
further divisions. The second item exported by the erst while British East India Company was Indian ship. A few
of these ships are still in service, and are used for training cadets of the British Navy. During World War
II, Maharajas of India have lent some hundreds of their ships to the British for use as hospital ships.
We invented steel? The Rig Veda mentions wootz steel. Evidence for the manufacture of steel in ancient times
is available in South India. The Arabians used to make a lot of money by selling Indian steel ingots to
Europe. In 1746, the queen of Britain had sent a scientist named Benjamin Hauntsman to India to obtain
the secret of making steel. Hauntsman stayed in India for some years, went back to Britain and submitted a
report to the queen. Some historic records say that he did not write the main secret and he started his
foundry in his native town. How the secret reached Henry Bessemer is unnecessary for us because his
process was essentially the Indian crucible method of making steel. Another Indian contribution to industries
in Europe was the process of casting. The frames of machine tools of that time were made of wood. Good
mechanical devices like clocks did exist in Britain as early as 1300s. They were works of skilled crafts
persons and were not products of precision machine tools. It was not until the structures of the machine
tools were cast using Indian casting method and their other components were made of hard metals using Indian
steel making method, the high precision machine tools could be made. The so called Industrial Revolution of
Europe in the 1800s heavily depended on this. India had many ancient Sanskrit texts in aeronautics. The Yantra Sarvaswa of Maharshi Bharadwaja, Vimaana Chandrika of Maharshi Narayan, Vyoma Yaana Tantra of Sounaka, and Vyoma
Yaanarka of Dandi Natha are some of them. They contained topics like Maargadhi Karana (Navigation and
control of speed during flight), Lohaadhi Karana (alloys used for various components of the aircraft)
and Saktyaadhi Karana (production and usage of various fuels used in aircrafts). Para Sabda Grahakata is a
subject of monitoring the flight tracks of aircrafts, navigatory communication system, and monitoring the
conversation of the pilots in the aircrafts. Maharshi Gouthama mentioned 32 models of aircrafts used in Treta
Yuga; only one model among them, called Pushpaka Vimaanam, became popular in the Ramayana. The
Vaimaanika Sastra describes Tripura Vimaanam that uses solar powered engine to travel at three levels – on the
land, under the surface of water, and in the air. Sakuna Vimaanam is a cross between an aircraft and a
rocket – a space shuttle. The British have robbed most of our Sanskrit manuscripts during their rule in India.
In 1895, Sivasankar Thalpad of Bombay had constructed an aircraft with an engine which flew to an altitude of
1500 feet. He was a Vedic scholar and used to teach at the J.J. School of Arts. He obtained the technology
from some rare Sanskrit manuscripts. He also wrote a book in Marathi named Praacheena Vimaana Vidye
Chaasodha. Lalaji Rayanji, Maharaja of Baroda, was one of the many witnesses who had seen the flying of that
aircraft. Dr.Roberto Pinotti, an Italian scientist, presented a paper on ‘Aeronautics in ancient India’ in the World
Space Conference conducted at Bangalore. He told the conference delegates that those aircrafts were similar
to modern jet-propelled aeroplanes. He agreed that they represent the most complex and sophisticated designs.
Some of them used radars and imaging technology instrumentation. Ancient Indians invented powder metallurgy. The Indians. The iron pillar in Delhi which does not get rust even today is the proof for it. It is not the only one of its kind; there are many more scattered through out in India. The Russians who took scrapings from the pillar confirmed that it is made using powder metallurgy technology. The so called space-age technology of today can make only small pieces using powder metallurgy; they are generally used as tips in cutting tools. How could our ancients make such a big pillar using powder metallurgy. The pillar is like a time capsule – it is challenging the world. Can we rise to the pinnacles of achievement to which our ancients had reached. they invented plastic surgery.It is fully
described by Maharshi Susruta, the ancient Ayurvedic surgeon, in his Samhita. Who invented acupuncture? The
Indians. Ancient Indians invented the martial arts. The Indians Who invented the remote sensing and imaging techniques. They discovered Advanced Astrology. They discovered Advanced Astronomy. Theydiscovered Groundwater Hydrology. We can read Brihat Samhita of Varaha Mihira. The ancient Indian method is better than the modern techniques
of using space satellites. We were the first to construct planned cities with high technology infrastructures for water supply and sewerage. We invented the hanging bridge Chinese who visited India a few thousands of years ago
wrote about our hanging bridges which used steel beams and steel ropes. Indians were the originators of all higher
knowledge in the ancient times. What is impossible for our Maharshis of yore? A Telugu poet wrote the
following line: “Pogadaraa nee thalli bhoomi Bhaarathini” – praise your mother land Bhaarati! India
was named after Bhaarati (Saraswati), the goddess of knowledge. No other ancient civilization of the world
could claim this coveted title. The world’s oldest educational institutions were located in India, and
scholars from China and Europe used to come here for learning. Another hidden meaning of the name Yilaa
Varta is Bhaarati Aalaya, the temple of goddess Bhaarati.

Even in modern times, Indians are helping others if you understand their higher intentions. About 68% of
foreign medical personnel in U.S.A are Indians. About 70% of foreign computer programers in U.S.A. are
Indians. About 50% of foreigners in U.S.A. with non-professonal degrees are Indians. The personnel who
came to U.S.A. to spread the knowledge of Indian philosophy, meditation and yoga are Indians. In around 500BC, they knew that the world was round and had a vague notion about gravity. We all are proud of our rich inheritance.

54. Ajay Khosla
India was first ruled by a king named Bharata. The name Bharath came to India by him only. Mahajanapadas means “Great kingdoms” (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) which had evolved and flourished in the northern/north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent prior to the rise of Buddhism in India.Bimbisara the ruler of Magadh was the first successful ruler of India.

55. Pankaj Verma Agra
I strongly feel that we Indians must go to the roots of our culture and history.The Ancient India of 5000 years BC, comprised of two civilizations, the Aryans and the Harappans. Those days people used to worship Kali, the Goddess of vengeance and justice. She is pictured multi-armed with weapons in each hand. As per hindu mythology,kalki is expected to appear at the end of kaliyug and that is supposed to be the end of the world.

55. Suchita
In ancient times, India was divided into smaller kingdoms like Kalinga, Magadh, Gandhar and so on. But most of these kingdoms followed the Aryan culture, Vedic rituals and religion and similar political set ups. You could say they were all part of one civilization. That is why, the concept of India was always there- from the time of Alexender’s invasion to invasions by Sakas, Huns, Pathans, Mughals- all of them invaded ‘India’. The travellers like Hieun Tsang, Fa Huen, Ibn Batuta talked about their visits to India.
The ancient kings of the land called India as Bharat after the name of King Bharat, who had conquered the whole land. By ancient kings I mean the Aryans. Now the Aryans themselves were foreigners who settled by the river Sindhu. It is through mispronunciation that Sindhu became ‘Hindu’ or ‘Indus’ (Hinduism is therefore rather a way if life of the people who lived by the Sindhu than a religion, at least, that was what it was originally) and from there we have the names Hindusthan and India. India is called bharath varsh.According to the scriptural description of the brahmand the entire earth planet is called Bharatvarsh, but particularly the area of the continent that lies south of the Himalayas is called Bharatvarsh. It is also called Aryavart. The inhabitants of Aryavart are called the Aryans as referred to in the Rigved. Thus, the words of Bhartiya or Aryans were both used for the inhabitants of Bharatvarsh or Aryavart, however, the words Bhartiya and Bhartvarsh were more popular. Persians used to call ‘Hindu’ for the Sindhu river, which was a localized version of the word Sind.

56. P K Jain
Indology just deals with ancient Indian texts and translations into different languages. Indology does not only deal with ancient historical period. History looks for evidence of “what actually happened” and it uses sources other than texts. It also contextualizes texts and sets standards for thier credibility, whether they should be read as fact or fantasy, etc. The main theory of some western Indologists is that the Vedic culture was not an indigenous development, but was brought to India as a result of the Aryan Invasion. However, I understand, there are some scholars like Dr M V Mohan, Who refused to trust in this theory. I feel that the research is a great scholarly work.

57. Mukesh Verma
This is an interesting web site for the students of Ancient History. The Bronze Age period of Ancient India was characterized by the use of copper & Bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the stone Age & Iron Age. During the past few centuries of detailed, scientific study of the Bronze Age, it has become clear that on the whole, the use of copper or bronze was only the most stable and therefore the most diagnostic part of a cluster of features marking the period. . The Stone Age in India begins with the Palaeolithic and terminates after the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). The Palaeolithic dates back to the geological era of Middle Pleistocene. Palaeolithic sites abound in Peninsular India, and are found more prominently at Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi in Karnataka, Kuliana in Orissa, Didwana in Rajasthan, and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh. The Mesolithic sites far outnumber the Palaeolithic ones, and are located all over the country.

58. Ajay Pal
There are ample evidences in the form of coins & inscription discovered that in Ancient India, there existed a very Civilized Economy. Agro-pastoralism was the mainstay of the civilisation’s economy. Besides, coastal communities also exploited a wide range of marine life for their subsistence. Ample evidence to this effect has been found in Kuntasi in Gujarat. The Indus Valley Civilisation was also very well versed in the craft of bead making, ceramics and shell. Indus Valley Civilisation was known for its trade, both domestic and foreign, its system of weights and measures, its written script and religious beliefs. Excavations conducted in a number of megalithic sites have revealed a substantial amount of artifacts, indicative of a pastoral economy, warfare and rudimentary trade and exchange between settlements. Some prominent megalithic sites of South India are found at Brahmagiri, Maski and Rajan Kalur in Karnataka, Bhagimari in Maharashtraand the north and south Arcot districts in Tamil Nadu. Interestingly, the Megalithic tradition has continued in certain tribal areas, especially among the Gadabas of Orissa, Gonds of Bastar, and the Bodosof northeast India, who still erect menhirs (monoliths) as commemorative symbols for the deceased.

60. Subodh Sharma
This is matter of pride for us that India was a capital of the world as far as learning & knowledge is concerned. There were several centers of learning & universities in ancient times. Many of these institutions were were Buddhist monasteries. Details are as given below:
Taxila, near present-day Islamabad, Pakistan (7th century BCE – 460 CE)
Nālandā, about 55 miles south east of present-day Patna in Bihar (circa 450[1] – 1193 CE)
Odantapuri, in Bihar (circa 550 – 1040 CE)
Somapura, now in Bangladesh (from the Gupta period to the Muslim conquest)
Jagaddala, in Bengal (from the Pala period to the Muslim conquest)
Nagarjunakonda, in Andhra Pradesh
Vikramaśīla, in Bihar (circa 800 – 1040 CE)
Valabhi, in Gujarat (from the Maitrak period to the Arab raids)
Varanasi in UP (8th century to modern times)
Kanchipuram, in Tamil Nadu
Manyakheta, in Karnataka
Sharada Peeth, in Kashmir
Puspagiri, in Orissa .

61. Ravi Mittal
Ancient temples remind us about our rich cultural inheritance. these sites were not only places for religious worshiping meditation & learning centres but were also conference halls & meeting points of public & rulers. War strategies were discussed in our ancient temples. Famous temples were Kashi Vishvanath Temple in Varanasi, Somanath temple in Gujarat, Brahma temple in Pushkar, Jagannath temple in Puri, Rama temple at Hampi, Chennakeshava temple in Halebid, Karnataka, Varadaraja temple in Kanchi, Ranganatha temple in Shrirangam, Venkatesha temple in Tirupati, Brihadeeshvara temple at Tanjavur, the Nataraja temple at Chidambaram, and the Sri Krishna temple at Udupi etc

62. Mrs Amiita Sharma Karnal
The book “Ram Mahima – Geeta Saar” authored by Dr L D Mohan emphasises on the need to practice or karma as advised by Krishna, which is most important. Original Vedic ideology is reflected totally in this book on Ram Mahima & Geeta Saar. There may be changes in original text of Ram Mahima based on prevailing time difference between Shri Krishana and Lord Ram and the teachings of Shri Ram and krishana have under gone changes .I feel We must pick up universally good and noble advises from the Saints & Rulers of Ancient India like Shri Ram & Shri Krishana to build our society.

63. Mrs Ram Dulari Sharma Kota
Pleasure and pain are the products of the desire which has its roots in ignorance about our reality. The veil of ignorance can only be removed if we have knowledge about our Religion & traditions and gain thorough knowledge on spirituality. I strongly feel that the religious books authored by Dr LD Mohan fulfils this purpose up to a great extent. An Indian Saint named Thirumoolar had once said “Shed the desire even if it is towards God as desire arises only when there is a feeling of me & myself – A feeling of separateness, a feeling of imperfection. Desire is the root cause of all our sufferings. Desire produces thoughts and thoughts, which are turned into action. Once the desire is fulfilled the feeling of joy is felt. When the desire is not fulfilled sorrow arises and pain is felt and this cycle of pleasure and pain is repeated throughout the life. We must try to stay above pleasures & pains of life, which is possible only if we are aware of our religious & spiritual inheritance.

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72. Santosh Kumari Sharma
Ancient India with great civilisation during vedic period, witnessed several invasions. The dark period witnessed destruction of the historical old Vedic period records. End of the vedic era brought a gleam of light with Buddhist epoch but shortly there after disappeared from india. However Budhist belief continued to influence culture & religious belief in India & some of the surrounding countries.The translation of ancient india inscriptions in English Hindi & Sanskrit is indeed a great effort by Dr M V Mohan

73. S R Hussain
Asoka, in the third century B.C., may have united the whole of the north of India under his sway, but nothing
of the sort seems again to have occurred till nearly 2,000 years afterwards, when the Moguls under Akbar and Aurangzib nearly accomplished the task of uniting India under one roof. There seems certainly no physical reason why India,
like China, should not always have been one country, and governed, at least by one dynasty. Yet there is no credible record of any such event in the ancient history of India.

74. A Osmani

The great difficulty in understanding Ancient Indian History,is that it was never never inhabited by one race, but in ancient historical times, it was ruled by different & distinct races of mankind. It is, indeed, to this great fact that we owe to different rulers that we witness wonderful diversity of people from india. Ancient India seems to have been divided into small kingdoms and was never organised to be capable of resisting any of the invaders.

75. Manjula Sharma Teacher

When the Aryans, descending from the plateau of central Asia, first crossed the Indus to occupy the plains of the Panjab, they found some part of the country occupied by some race apparently in a very low state of civilisation. The Vedic Period is distinguished by the Indo-Aryan culture which was associated with the texts of Vedas, sacred to Hindus, and that were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. The Vedic era in the subcontinent lasted from about 1500-500 BCE, laying down the foundation of Hinduism and other cultural dimensions of early Indian society. The Aryans laid down Vedic civilization all over North India, particularly in the Gangetic Plain in the more fertile parts of the country, where the Aryans established themselves. They, probably, in the course of time, got absorbed with this native population.

76. Shiv Kumar Gaud Lecturer Ram Jas School Faridabad
One of the great races of Ancient India are the Dravidians, who now occupy the whole of the southern part of the peninsula, as far as north up to Krishna river. Their existence can be traced in places up to northwest region. In the modern times speakers of the various Dravidian languages have mainly occupied the southern portion of India, nothing definite is known about the ancient domain of the Dravidian parent speech. It is, however, a well-established and well supported hypothesis that Dravidian speakers must have been widespread throughout India, including northwest region. Most linguists believe that Dravidian-speaking people were spread throughout India before Indo-Aryan migrations. Early ancient indian civilization by some scholars is often identified as Dravidian. Cultural and linguistic similarities with Sanskrit is being cited by some researchers as an evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilization.
77. S A Khan

About the year 3000 BC long before the Arise of the Semitic nations, among whom the Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites, and later the Arabians, were most prominent, there lived in Mesopotamia an ancient Greek nation, which was known by the name of Accad. And, strange to say, the Accadians were a dark race. They were called as “blackheads” or “blackfaces. Accadian races, who formed the sub- stratum of the population in Babylonia in very ancient times. It is not however known from where they first entered India, but definitely they entered india by sea and not by road. Generally it is supposed that it was across the Lower Indus, because affinities have been traced between their language and that of the Brahms, who occupy a province of Baluchistan. It may be, however, that the Brahuis are only an outlying portion of the ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia, and may never have had any direct communication further east. There is no trace of their passage to India from Sindh or in any of the countries to the north of the Nerbudda or Taptee.
In the time of Asoka, however (BC. 250), we learn from Indian inscriptions, that the Dravidians had settled into the kingdoms ie the Chola, Chera, and Pandya, which endured till very recent times. From their architecture we know that these states afterwards developed into a comparatively high state of civilisation.

78. kalyan gupta
I do not think by referring to Alexander as not so great is not a very acceptable thing. I see no mention of The onset of the muslim invasions,the roles of Prithviraj Chauhan in thwarting them several times.You have also not mentioned anything about the Delhi Sultanate beginning with Qutb-ud-Din Aibak and ending with Ibrahim Lodhi prior to the Moghul Empire.I think it forms a very important part of our History. Please ensure that it is purely informative and not biased…interpretaions and debates can ensue here after.
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81. R Hudson

I understand that the Aryans never attempted to exterminate the original inhabitants of the land. On the contrary, they used them as herdsmen or cultivators of the soil. Aryan superseded their religion by their own higher and purer faith, and obliterated, by their superiority, all traces of any peculiar civilisation they may have possessed. At the same time, though they never seem to have attempted physically, to conquer or colonise the south, they did so intellectually. Colonies of Brahmans from the northern parts of India introduced the literature and religion of the Aryans into the country and thus produced a uniformity of culture, which at first sight looks like a mingling of race. Fortunately their architecture and their arts enable us to detect at a glance how essentially different they were, and have always remained. Notwithstanding this, the intellectual superiority of the Aryans made so marked an impression during long ages on their less highly organised neighbours in the south, that without some such material evidence to the contrary, it might be contended that the fusion was complete. There are no doubt many instances where families and even tribes of different races still remain in India, keeping apart from the rest, and retaining the purity of their blood to a wonderful extent. But as a rule they are so mixed in locality and so commingled in blood, that it is extremely difficult, at times, to define the limits of relationship that may have existed between any one of the various people of modern India
82. Vishu Singh
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84. Sita Ram Sharma
At the time of Alexander the distortion of Indian history had started showing its ugly head. And had only gone to the extreme length of deformation. The works of some local dynasties like Porus, impelled to erect our own monuments. Our history can be traced to the great Aryan Sanskrit speaking race of northern India, and for our present purposes, we
need not trouble ourselves to investigate the history of Alexander or his so called his greatness.
We all are aware that accession of Mauryas is, as nearly one half of the period, 6,000 years during which ancient historians tell us 153 monarchs succeeded one another on the throne of India. As this is as nearly as may be the number of kings, whose names are recorded in the Puranas, where in Indians had ruled the entire region of Ancient India and We were governed by our own laws and not the laws of invaders.

85. Geoffroy
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89 जमना शंकर ठाकुर भोपाल आपके द्वारा निम्न पुस्तकों के प्रतियाँ प्राप्त हुई ! हमारा पूर्वज अयोडिया के प्रमुख राजा और सिख पन्त एक परिचय ! मैंने पुस्तकें पढ़ी ! आप भारतीय संस्कृति की गूढ़ बातों को जन सामान्य में सरल भाषा में उपलब्द करा रही हैं ! यह बहुत मूल्यवान सेवा है !

90 प्रेम सिंह बजाज प्रिंसीपल retd   पंजाबी साहित्य अकादेमी ludhiana आपकी और से पुस्तकों का पार्सल प्राप्त हुआ ! पंजाबी साहित्य अकादेमी की और से आभार प्रकट कुरता हूँ और धन्यवाद् देता हूँ ! भारतीय संस्कृति के सरंक्षण हेतु आपका प्रयास सराहनी है !
91  राम भाऊ तेलंग भोपाल शुब कामनाओं के साथ अभिनन्दन ! आपका प्रयास सराहनी है ! आज भारत  विघटन शक्तियों से झूझ रहा है ! महा भारत हुआ है होता रहेगा औरआगे  भी होता रहे गा ! मुझे यकीन है की हम एन मुश्किल परिस्थितियों से उभर कर आएंगे ! आप एश्वारिया कार्य में सलंगन रहें ! आपको खूब यश   मिले गा !
92 मदन लाल छिब्बर आगरा  अपने अंडमान निकोबार द्वीप समूह पुस्तक में भर पूर मेहनत की है !   आपकी पुस्तक से द्वीप समूह के बारे में पूरी जानकारी हो गयी ! एस के लिए आप बधाई    के पात्र हैं ! पुस्तक में जो बलिदानियों के फोटो छपे   हैं वो भी एक छाप छोड़ते हैं !  इतनी मेहनत और लगन से किये आपके कार्य की मैं प्रशंसा किये बगैर नहीं रह सकता ! भगवन आपको दीरर्ग आयु दे !
93 सुखराज दत्त Gurgaon  आप इतिहासिक और धार्मिक   लेखों द्वारा हमारी बिरादरी का ज्ञान बढ़ा रही हैं ! यह एक बढ़े गौरव की बात है की आप जैसी विदूषी  हमारी   बिरादरी में हैं ! हिन्दू    होने के नाते वेद शास्त्रों का   ज्ञान आवश्यक है ! इस दिशा में आपका परियास सराहनी  है ! मैं यह मानता हूँ की युवा को संस्कृत और इतिहास का ज्ञान अनिवार्य है !
94 Shri B L Chhibber Formerly Commissioner of Income Tax Panjab  आप द्द्वारा लिखित पुस्तकें प्राप्त हुई ! बहुत प्रासनता हुई और बहुत बहुत आभार ! मुझे और भी  प्रासन्ता हुई की आप स्वर्गीय वसिष्ठ देव जी की प्रम्प्रता को आगे बढ़ाते  हुए , विद्वत पूर्ण ज्ञान वर्दन अवं इतिहासिक तथ्यों पर आधारित ग्रंथों का सृजन कर मानवता का कल्याण कर रही हैं !भगवन से प्राथना है की आपको दीर्ग आयु दें ताकि आप भविष्य  में भी एससी उच्च कोटि की रचनाएँ सृजन करें !
95. आपके द्वारा लिखित पुस्तक अंडमान निकोबार द्वीपसमूह पढ़ कर बहुत प्रसन्नता हुई ! पूष्टाळ बहुत अच्छी लिखी हुई है ! तथ्यों की जानकारी विधिवत अवम प्रयाप्त रूप दी गयी है ! आपने एस पुस्तक को लिख कर एक बहुत बढ़ी आवश्यकता के पूर्ती की है ! ऐसी पुस्तकों से ही हमारे देश के उपेक्षित   भागों से हमारा भावात्मक सम्बन्ध बने गा ! ओंकार भावे सयुंक्त महामंत्री विश्व हिन्दू परिषद्
96 Shri R T MOHAN

I shall always remain grateful to Late Dr. Vasishtha Dev Mohan. Even when he was ailing, he agreed to go through the manuscript of my book AFGNANISTAN REVISITED and gave very meaningful advice. He was to write its Forward but unfortunately he was no more by the time it was ready for publication.
My focus was on Early Indo-Islamic Period (650-1000 CE). Hindu states of Zabul and Kabul (southern Afghnistan)successfully defended the Khyber Pass from Muslim arms for more than five centuries – providing relief to India from foreign invasions. The Ghaznavids first destroyed their masters – the Samanids of Bukhara – and then turned towards India. The Muslim rulers of India kept these not-so-pleasant developments of that period under the wraps and history books in India continue to follow the same truncated format.
The book AFGANISTAN REVISITED: The Brahmana Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab (c. 840-1026) is available from the General Mohyal Sabha, A-9, Qutub Institutional Area, USO Road, Jeet Singh Marg, New Delhi. 110067

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