Astronomy & Astrology

Written by Alok Mohan on September 8, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Astronomy and Astrology

While astronomy and astrology share historical origins in India, they have evolved differently. Astronomy is now a well-established scientific field, whereas astrology continues to be practiced as a belief system for predicting human affairs based on celestial observations.
Both, however, continue to be culturally significant in India.
Astronomy and astrology have deep roots in India, with their development spanning thousands of years.
1. Ancient Vedic Period (1500 BCE – 600 BCE):
The earliest mentions of astronomy and astrology in India can be found in the Vedas, ancient sacred texts. They contained astronomical references for calendrical and ritual purposes.
The Rigveda includes hymns related to celestial objects and their movements.

2. Siddhanta Period (5th – 18th Century):
The Siddhantas were significant astronomical texts that laid the foundation for Indian astronomy. The most famous among them is the “Surya Siddhanta,” believed to have been written around 400 CE.
Aryabhata’s “Aryabhatiya” (499 CE) and Varahamihira’s “Pancha-Siddhantika” (6th century) were notable works during this period.
3. Medieval Period (7th – 18th Century):
– The works of astronomers like Brahmagupta, Bhaskara I, and Bhaskara II contributed to the development of mathematical astronomy and trigonometry in India.
Astrology became increasingly prominent, with texts like “Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra” by Parashara and “Brihat Jataka” by Varahamihira gaining popularity.
4. Kerala School of Astronomy (14th – 16th Century):
Kerala, in southern India, was a center for astronomy and mathematics. The scholars of the Kerala School made significant advancements in trigonometry and calculus.
Madhava of Sangamagrama, a prominent figure from this school, developed series expansions for trigonometric functions.

5. Modern Period (20th Century – Present):
– India has made significant strides in modern astronomy with institutions like the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), and the establishment of several observatories.
ISRO’s achievements include launching satellites for Earth observation and space exploration.

The ancient belief that the celestial bodies influence fate and future of mankind, and that future can be predicted on the basis of the influence of these bodies, can be traced to a very early period of Indian history. And this belief of predicting the future events led to the development of the sciences of astronomy and astrology. The Babylonians were the first to study the stars. Though very little reference to the astrological study is made in the literature of the Vedic period, method of reckoning of the year, however vague, was known at that time. By the close of the Vedic period a calculated calendar was developed; and a calendar, arranged on the basis of a five year Yuga with a 366 days a year was in use. Though the position of the sun and the moon at the solstices, and at new and full moon with regard to Naksatras was known, there was yet a general ignorance regarding the motions of the sun and the moon, resulting in the faulty calculation of months and years. But, in spite of the limitations of this early system of reckoning, it did bequeath to the posterity the idea of a Yuga, a period during which a complete change of the heavenly bodies occurs and that of a lunar day or tithi the thirtieth part of a synodical month. However insignificant, this contribution may be, it has its importance in as much as it provides a base for future development of these sciences.
Saka Samvat has come down to our times and declared the national calendar of India. The astronomy which the Greeks introduced in India was Saka rulers from the centre they made the meridian for propagated extensively by the of their capital Ujjayani which astronomical calculations.
Reference: The Sakas in India & their impact on Indian life & Culture by Dr V M. Mohan.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.