ancient indian history

Ayodhya Stone Inscription of Dhana

Inscription number – 4

Ayodhya Stone Inscription of Dhana_deva
Provenance: Ayodhya district, Uttara Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi of circa 1st century B.C.
Language: Sanskrit (corrupt)
References: J.D. Ratnakara, Nagari Pracharin Sabha, Patrikā,
V, pt. 1, pp.99-104; G.. Ojha, ibid. pp. 201ff;
K.P. Jayaswal, Modem Review, Oct. 1924, p. 43: J.B.O.R.S,. X. pp-202-208; XIII, pp.247-49; A. Banerji, Sastri, Modem Review, Jan., 1925, pp-59-60 N.K. Bhattasali, ibid., Feb. 1925, p. 202; N.G. Majumdar, Annals Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, VII. Pts. 1-2, pp. 160-63; D.R. Sahni, Ep.Ind,. XX, p.54ff, D.C. Sircar, Sel.Inss, I, pp.94-95; R.B. Panday, Hist. and Lit. Inscriptions, PP 44-45

कोलसलाधिपेन द्विरइवयमेध-याजिनः सेनापतेः पुष्यमित्रस्य
षष्ठेन कौशिकी पुत्रेण देवेन
1 From the facsimile in J.B.O.R.S. X.
2. The Malavikagnimitram of Kalidasa. Act v. confirms both, Pushyamitra’s title as Senāpati and his horse sacrifice. So does the Harivamsa, III, Bhavishya Parvan. II. 34, which
refers to him as सेनानी: काश्यपो द्विजः। without actually mentioning his name. Pushyamitra is not known to have as assumed any imperial title, even after establishing his chakravarti status by performing horse sacrifices,षष्ठी विभक्ति is irregular: correct form should be पुष्यमित्रात् !
3. i.e. “sixth in descent from Pushyamitra”. Jayaswal and A. Banerji Shastri, interpret it as, the sixth brother of Pushyamitra (षष्टेन अनुजेन) is irregular.
” thereby making Phalgudeva Pushyamitra’s father. D.R. Sahni takes it in the sense, by the sixth son of Pushyamatra, identifying Phalgudeva with Pushyamitra. In support of his view, he cites Vayu P., पुष्यमित्र- सुताश्चाष्टौ
indicating that Pushyamitra had eight sons. ( See Ep.Ind, XX. pp-54-55)
4. Restored on the analogy of his father’s name. alternatives, as suggested by Sircar are:
धनदेव, धनकेन, धनभूतिना, धनदत्तेन धन नन्दिना, धनदासेन
He was, presumably a local ruler of Kosala.
2. धर्मराझा पितुः फल्गुदेवस्य केतनं कारितं
English Translation
The King Dhanadeva, the Lord of Kosala, the son of Kausiki, and the sixth descendant of the General (Senapati) Pushyamitra, who had performed the asvamedha twice, got the shrine in honour of his father, the pious king Phalgudeva.
हिन्दी अनुवाद
दो बार अश्वमेध याजक सेनापति पुष्यमित्र के छठे वंशज
कोसलपति कोशिकीपुत्र धर्मराज फल्गुदेव
धनदेव ने पिता की समाधि निर्माण कराई !

Ayodhya Stone Inscription of Dhana confirms the story of love of agnimitra & shunga. The Malavikagnimitram is a Sanskrit play by Kalidas. This play is based on some events of the reign of Pushyamitra Shunga. Pushyamitra is not known to have assumed any imperial title, even after establishing his rule as Chakervarti & by performing horse sacrifices.

He falls in love with an exiled servant girl named Mālavikā. When the queen discovered her husband’s passion for this girl, she became infuriated and got Mālavikā imprisoned, but as fate would have it, in the end, she is discovered to be of royal birth and is accepted as one of his queens.

Translation of this inscription is:-

“The pious-king Dhanadeva, the Lord of Kosala, the Son of Kausiki, and the sixth descendant of tha General (Senapati)

Pushyamitra, who had Performed the asvameda twice, got the Shrine in honour of his father , the pious king, Phalgudeva, had erected.

The fifth inscription is of Garuda Pillar Besnegar, Vidisha district MP, of the “time of regnal year 14. It’s language is Prakrit & script is brahmi

Greeks in general were known in India and Iran about these times by the common designation Yona, Yauna or Yavena, a term derived from lonia. Tonians seem to have been tha earliest Greeks to have come into contact with the Iranians and Indian.

Note the differences in the titles of the two kings. High sounding titles, like Maharaja, Rajatiraja etc., were introduced and popularised in India by the foreign ruling dynasties, namely Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Pahlavas and Kushanas. The Mauryas and the Sungas, though ruling over far more ‘ extensive empires, remained satisfied with modest titles like Rajan and Senapati. But soon after them the Indian rulers, too, assumed Similar high soundings titles.

Bhagabhadra, has been identified with Bhaga or Bhagavakas the ninth Sunga king in the Puranic lists.

“Bhagabhadra was one of the kings of the Indian shunga dynasty. He ruled in north, central, and eastern India from 124 BCE to 83 BCE” Indo Greek Coins by Dr M V D mohan.

Although the capital of the Shungas was at Pataliputra, he was also known to have held court at Vidisha. It is thought that the name Bhagabhadra also appears in the regnal lists of the Shungas in the Puranic records records, under the name Bhadraka, fifth ruler of the Shungas.

Shungas ruled in the area of Vidisa around 100 BCE.

Bhagabhadra is best known from the inscription at the site of vidisha.

The Heliodorus pillar, in which contacts with an embassy from the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas is recorded, and where he is named “Kasiputra Bhagabhadra, the Saviour, son of the princess from Banaras.

Antalikita or Antiolkidas succeeded Heliocles as king of Gandhara and Kapisi about 135 B.C., and was still ruling about 100 BC, when the present record was installed.

A Garuda-standard of lord Vasudeva erected here by the devotee Heliodoros, of Taxila sent by the greek King Antialkidas, as ambassador to King Kasiputra Bhagabhadra

By extending an essentially a Greek title, Soteros or ATA, to the Sunga king, Heliodorus was probably acknowledging the fact that the sunga kings provided some sort of protection to the latter’s patron. In fact, it is known that the house of Eukratides, to which Antialkidas belonged, seems to have received considerable support from the Sungas in establishing themselves as rulers at the cost of the Domstrilan ruling house.

Translation of this inscription is:-

“The flagshaft surmounted by the image of Garuda has got constructed here in honour of God Vasudeva by the Greek ambassadors Heliodora (Heliodorus) of Bhagavata faith, son of Diya (Dion) and an inhabitant. of Takshasila, who had come from the great king amtalikita (antialkidas) to the court of

the Saviour Kang Bhasgabehadra, son of Kautsi (or Kasi) during the Latters fourteenth prosperous regnal year. Three immortal steps well executed in this world lead to heaven. They are self-control, renunciation and alertness”

 “This is another Barli Stone Inscription of the time of Bhagavata of the Barli province, Ajmer district, Rajasthan. Script is brahmi language is prakrit of 2nd century BC.
English Translation

success? During the kingship of Bhagavata…. eighty four pillars ( in Madhyamik&) a hall on the Màlini…… were donated by the residents of Madhyami.

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