ancient

Bandhuvarman and Kamaragupta Inscription

Bandhu Varma or Bandhuvarman was the ruler of Mandsaur before Huna victory of Yashodharman.
At the time of Gupta rulers in Malwa there is mention of one more dynasty of rulers. Sinhavarma was contemporary of Samudragupta (335-375 AD). he had two sons namely Chandravarman and Naravarman. Chandravarma moved from Malwa and established kingdom in Marwar. Narvarma remained ruler in Malwa. Narvarma had two sons namely Bandhu Varma and Bhim Varma. Guptas had increased their powers in Malwan and Bandhuvarma had accepted subjection of Gupta rulers. Bandhu Varma was contemporary of Kumargupta 1 and Samudragupta. He was ruler of Mandsaur before Huna victory of Yashodharman. There is a inscription about Bandhu Varma at Mandsaur.
The silk workers had constructed Sun temple here which was repaired by Bandhu Varma. This indicates that he was present there till 473 AD. After Bandhuvarma the ruler of Mandsaur was Vishnuvardhan, who erected a pillar of victory at Bayana due to which Bayana’s name became Vijaygarh. Vishnuvardhan and Yasodharman assumed the title of Samrat after they occupied the territories of Bandhuvarma.

Inscription number 23.
Mandasor Stone Inscription mentioning Bandhuvarman and Kamaragupta1
— Malava Years 493 and 529 (= 436 and 473 A D.)
Provenance: Mandasor old Gwalior State, now in M.P.
Script: Late Southern Brahmi
Language: Sanskrit.
under the Badva Stone Yupa Ins.

1. See supra II,, No 81. Under the Badva stone yupa Inscription No.1 of the Maukharis of Krita year 295.
According to D.C. Sircar ( Sel.Inss, I, pp299, n.4), the Malava
era was earlier known as Krita era and later got connected with the name of vikramaditya. He states,”This era and the earlier Scytho-Parthian era
are identical, is suggested by the date (year 103) of the Takht-i- Bahi inscription of the Parthian king
Gondoppharnes who was a Contemporary of St. Thomas and
lived in the lst century AD. According to Christian traditions. To prove foreign origin of this era, Sircar cites a Buddhist tradition on the authority of
Watter’s. Yuan Chwangs Travels, I,
pp.295, to the effect that the Buddhist missionary, Madiayantika bought foreign slaves to serve the Brethern in some 500 monasteries built by him in Gandhara and elsewhere. Later these
slaves became kings. The neighbouring rulers contemptuously called them Krita. ie. Purhased, Sircar wants us to
believe, even though there is no evidence, that these
krita slaves were no other than Skytho-Parthian kings of
North West India, whose era came to be known as Krita, changed to Malva and then again changed to Vikrama. This logic too stretched to be convincing.
He has not referred to the far more
relavant and believable evidence of the Kalakacharya-Kathanaka, according to which, King Vikramadiyta, son of
king Gardabhilla, of Ujjayini, routed the Saka rulers of Sindh and the North-iest and Founded the Vikrama era,
137 years before another era founded by the Sakas on re-occupying some of the lost territory.
Since Vikramaditya the founder of the era of 57 BC, was the king of the Malava country, the era was optionally called Malava era.
Footnote
From the facsimile in C.I.I, III, Plxi, opposite pp 82.
1. = Modern Nausari broach region in Gujrat. The chief city was navasarika (mod. Nausari)
2. = Modern mandasore
3. Fleet मंण्ड
Footnote
1. Fleet प्रियम
2. ततस्तु is to be connected with the sentence ending in कारितं दीप्तरश्मे
in 11.16-17. The intervening matter to
to be read in Parentheses is.
3. अभय – प्रदाच would be a better reading
Footnote
1. म् was originally engraved after णा
2. Dasapura seems to have been Bandhuvarman’s capital.
3. पश्चिम -पुर – A city of the west – Dasapura.

Footnote
1. A typical example of Gaudiriti.
2. Fleet- स्वने मालवानां गण – स्थित्या =
According to the system of calculation established by, the republic of the Malavas. सहस्य = पौष
3. The ‘long time mentioned in this verse lasted 36 years.
The construction of the sentence is loose and has resulted in vagueness, inviting varying interpretations. Fleet
translates, ‘under other kings, part of the temple fell into disrepair. Dashrath Sharma, Ind.Culture, III, pp379ff. iv,pp. 262 f. translates, a part of this
building was destroyed by other kings’. He connects this destruction with the Huna occupation of Central India. Sircar Sel.Inss. I, pp.306 n.2 agrees with
his interpretation of the passage, but attributes the destruction to some hostile kings, not the Hunas, who came to this region later. But either translater has failed to understand the structure of the sentence.
Sanskrit Grammar permits the past passive attached to one subject to be understood, to be similarly attached to
the next, even if the number disagrees. Thus we can complete the expression as. बहुना सम तितेन काले नान्यश्च पात्र्थिवै: समलीतै :
i.e. ‘when a long time and many
kings had passed.
1. Read नभ : स्प्रिशंस्त्विव
2. तप स्य मास = फाल्गुन
Footnote
1. Fleet amends नगणैक
Nagana tree which does not suit the context vatsabhatti in using the word नग In the sense of a tree’ eg. vv.4 and 9. The phrase means, “When the thick branches of many trees” or “when many thick branches of trees”
2. Fleet. विकट
3. I.e. the ‘aforesaid Prasasti. B.C. Chhabra ‘s suggestion that it has been used here in the sense of a prasasti is not plausible (Sarupa- Bharati)
pp. 14-24.
The word simply means aforesaid and is used in the Inscriptions in connection with the date quoted earlier
or a Prasasti, as here.
English Translation of the inscription

L1(v.1) Sucess ! May That Sun protect you. who is worshipped by
hosts of gods for the sake of their (divine) Status and by the Siddha who seek super natural powers (and by
ascetics, engaged in meditative concentrations having
brought the worldly attractions under controls, who wish for final liberation of the soul and with devotion by
saints rich in hard austerities and capable of inflicting curses and awarding boons (and who is the cause of dissolution and re-emergence of the universe.
Ll.1-2 (v.2) Salutations to that Sun whom even the Vedic sages though possessing the knowledge of the final truth, failed to comprehend (even) with (their) exertion and who nourishes the whole of the three worlds with his far
flung rays who on rising is praised by the Gandnarvas, the Gods, the Siddhas, the Kinnaras, and men and who
grant their desires to (his) devotees.
L1, 2-3 (v.3) May that sun wearing the ornaments of beautiful
rays, Protect you: who shines forth day after day, with the network of (his rays faltering over the wide
and lofty peaks of the lordly mountain of dawn: (and) who is dark-red like the cheeks of intoxicated women.
L1.3-4 (vv.4-5) From the district of lata, which is claiming, with excellent trees, bent down with the weight of flowers,
and with temples assembly halls and amusement parks,

(and) tree-covered mountains to this city of Dasapura,
to which they had developed respect, there came, first in thought. and afterwards in a band. together with
their children and kinsmen – men who were renowned in the world, for their craftmanship, and who being
manifestly attracted by the virtues of the kings of the country, ignoring the continuous discomforts arising on
the way.
4 (v.6) This (city had become in course of time an ornament
(Lit. sacred mark) on the fore-head of the earth, which is adorned with a thousand mountains, whose rocks are
sprinkled with the drops of rut that trickles down from the sides of the temples of rutting elephants, (and
which has for it’s ear-ornaments the trees weighed down with flowers.
Ll.4-5 (v. 7) (The city) where the lakes ornamented with full-blown lotuses and crowded with karandava-ducks,
shine forth with waters on their banks, being variegated with many flowers, fallen from the trees growing on the
banks.
Ll.4-5 (v.8) And where at places, the lakes shine forth with Swans dyed red yellow with pollen from water- liles, shaken by the tremulous waves
and with lotuses bent down with the liberal weight of their filaments.

L1L.56 (v) In which (city). the woods are adorned with Lordly tree weighed down by their own flowers, and with
Laud hummings of the lights of intoxicated bees, and
with perpetually loitering ladies of the city.
L.6-7 (vv.10-11) (The city) where the very white and very lofty houses, with waving banners and habited by women,
are comparable to white tops of clouds illuminated by streaks of lightening and other houses with long turrets
and with pavilion shine forth like the lofty peak of the Kailisha mountain, resounding with music, they have
pictures painted on them, (and are adorned with groves of
waving plantains.
L 7 (v.12) (the city) where the houses, spotless like the rays of the full moon, (and) resembling rows of aerial chariots
are adorned with succession of storeys, and appear to have
burst forth after splitting the earth.
Ll.7-8 (vv.13-14) which (city looks beautiful (though) being embraced by two charming rivers, with rippling waves as if it were the body of (the god) Kamadeva embraced
in privacy by ( his wives) Priti and Rati, possessed of
(heavy) breasts. Like the sky with the brilliant multitude of planets.
(of these rivers, one is Shiwana glowing south of the town. The other must be ‘Sumli’, which now flows into
the Shiwana about 5 km. to the north-east of the town.)

It shines with brahmanas endowed
with truth, forgiveness, self-control, tranquillity, religious vows, purity fortitude, Studiousness, good
Conduct, refinement, steadfast, and wisdom (and) wisdom in learning and penances and free from conceit.
LL.8-9 (v.15) their mutual affection increased every day, with their regular meetings for which they (the silk weavors) assembled honourably treated like their own sons, by
the kings, they were pleased and they lived happily in the city.
Le 9-11 (vv.16-19) Thoroughly accomplished in the science of
archery which is pleasant to the ear (and being) in love with hundreds of good pursuits, some became
experts in wonderful tales and others, unassuming in (their modesty (and) devoted to assemblies of
the religion. became capable of making long discourses that were pleasant. not harsh and were beneficial: some excelled in their own craft (of Silk
Weaving) and by others, Possessed of prudence Astrology was mastered and even today others among
them, bold in battle. effect by force destruction of the enemies. So also others, are wise, possessed
of charming wives (and) belonging to famous and extensive dynasties, are adorned with conduct befitting their birth, in as much as they are strictly truthful and efficient
in conferring benefit to thair admirers others are firm in friendship accompanied with total confidence.
And so the guild shines all the more gloriously through those who are of this sort and through others, who have subdued their attachment to passions and sensuality and have pious conduct are modest though they have great strength (and are (virtually) God
Caring, through worldly existence, who have given up attachments and are liberal, and have become an honour
(Lit. sacred mark on the forehead) to their families.
L1.11-12 (V.20) womenfolk, even though endowed with youth and
beauty (and) even though adored by means of golden necklaces, betel-leaves and flowers, do not attain that superb glamour so long, as they do not wear pair of silken garments.
L1.12-13 (vv.21-22) Those by whom the whole surface of this earth has been adorned with silken agreeable to touch, variegated with the arrangement of different colours (and) pleasing
to the eyes having reflected that the world is very unstable as if blown about by winds like the charming
ear pendulents of the vidyadharis and such are also of human wealth, their minds were, then, filled with a firm
and pious wish.
L.13 (v. 23) While Kumaragupta was reigning over the earth, whose wavy girdle is formed by the verge of the four oceans, whose large breasts are formed by (the mountains) Kailasha and

and Sumeru whose laughter manifests in the full-blown flowers blown about from the edges of the forests.
Ll.13-14 (vv.24-25) 1 There was the saviour the king Visvavaman, who was equal in intellect to Sukra and Brihaspati, who became the most eminent of the Princes on the earth
(and) whose deeds in wars were equal to those of Arjuna.
who was compessionate to the distressed, who provided
healing to the miserable and the sick people, who was excessively kind who was the protector of the helpless,
who was the very tree of plenty to his admirers and the giver of Security to the frightened, and was the
friend of the country.
Ll.14-16 (vv.26-28) His son was king Bandhuvarman, possessed
of firmness and righteousness beloved of (his) kinsmen, the relatives, as it were of (his subject the remover
of afflictions of (his) kinsfolk eminently adept at destroying the arrogant faction of (his) enemies.
Handsome youthful, skilful in warfare, and endowed with humility even though a king, he was not approached
(i.e. beset) by the passions such as conceit and others beings as it were. the sculptured form of the erotic
sentiment in beauty, he appeared even when unadorned with ornaments, like a second Kamadeva. Even today, when
the large-eyed lovely women of (his) enemies, afflicted with the fierce pangs of widowhood, recollect him, they
shiver in terror so that it causes strain to their heavy breasts.
L16 ( 2) while he, the noble Bandhovarman, the best of
kings, the strong shouldered one, was governing this highly prosperous city of Dasapura, noble and matchless lofty temple of the bright-rayed (Sun) was caused to be built by the silk-cloth weavors guild. with the wealth risen from their craft.
L17 (v. 30) A temple which having broad and lofty steeple, resembling s mountain, white as a beam of
spotless rays of the freshly risen moon. Shines pleasant to eyes. Like lovely crest-Jewel fixed on the head of this city of the west.
L1.17-19 (v.31-35) In that season, which unites men with (their) lovely mistresses, which is plessant with the
warmth of fire and of the soft rays of the sun in which the fishes lie low in water which is devoid of the
enjoyment of the moonlight, the basements of the houses,
of sandle (paste) palm – leaf fans, and necklaces, in which the water lilies are bitten by frost which is
aha ming with the humming of the bees that are made happy with the juice of the fully-blown flowers of
rodhra and priyangu plants and jasmine-creepers.
(Rodhra or Lodhra = the tree Symploos Racemosa.
Priyangu = a medicinal plant and perfum, Panicus
Italicum, Sinapis, Ramosa, saffron.
in which laveli tree and the solitary branches of the nagana bushes are made to dance with the force of the
wind that is harsh and cold with particles of frost.
And in which (the cola induced by) the falling ef frost and snow is shooed off by close embraces of the large,
beautiful. plump and bulky breasts and thighs of their Women by youthful lover, under the influence of
Kamadeva when, according to the system (of reckoning)
established by the Republic of the Malavas, four centuries
of years, increased by ninety three, had elapsed, in that season when the thunder of the clouds can be enjoyed
on the auspicious thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of the month Pausha (Sahasya).- this temple was
established. with benedictory rituals.
Ll.19-21 (vv.36-38) — And in course of a long time, under
other kings, Part of this temple crumbled. So now in order to increase their own fame. the whole of this
most noble house of the Sun has been repaired again by munificent corporation–(this temple) which is
very lofty and white which touches the sky. as it were. with (its) charming steeples, (and) which is the
resting place of the spotless rays of the moon and the sun at their times of rising.
(Lavali- Averrhoa Acida. Nagana= the cardios permu.
Halicacabum)

Ll 21-22 (vv.39-42) Thus when five centuries of years,
increased by twenty and nine years had elapsed on the charming second lunar day of the bright fortnight
of the month of Phalguna -in the season when Kamadeva, whose body was destroyed (lit. purified) by
Hari ,develops his five arrows by attaining unity with the fesh (and) remarkable bursting forth of the
flowers of the asoka, ketaka and sinduvan trees, and the pendulous stimuktaka creepers and the wild jasmine, when many big branches of trees are humming with songs,
lights of bees exhilarated on sipping the nectar (and) when the beautiful and luxuriant rodhra trees become
jagged with the blossoming of fresh flowers Just as the pure sky is decorated with the moon, (and) the
breast of (the god) vishnu with the kaustubha-jewel,
so was the whole of this noble city decorated with this best of temples.

Ll.22-23 (vv.43) As long as (the god) siva wears a mass of tawny matted locks. tangled with the ivory clip that is the digit of the moon (on his forehead) and (as long as) (the god)
vishnu (carries a garland of lovely waterlilies on his shoulders– so long may this noble temple endure for ever.
L 23 (v,44) By the command of the guild, and from devotion,
this temple of the Sun was caused to built. And this foregoing (eulogy composed with great effort by
Vataabhatti.
L 24, Hail to the composer, the writer, the reciter and the listener (of this eulogy) Let there be Success.
Footnote

1. अशोक = Jonesia Asoka.
केतक = Pandanus Odoratissimus.
2. सिन्दुवार = The tree or shrub vitex Negundo.
3. अतिमुक्तक= plant appa rently bearing white flowe rs.

 

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