ancient indian history

Bharhut Buddhist Pillar Inscription

3. Bharhut Buddhist Pillar Inscription

Provenance:   Bharhut, near Nagod Town, Satna District, Madhya Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi of the closing years of the 2nd century B.C.
Language: Prakrit.
Reference: Cunningham, Stupa of bharhut, pp. 128f.,No. 1. Plates XII and LIII, R.L. Mitra, Proc. A.S.B, 1880, pp. 58ff, J. Hultzech, I. A., XIV, pp. 138 f. and Plate? Z.D.M.G., XL, p.60, No. 1, IA, XXI, 301, рp.227, Nо, 1,
Barua and Sinha, Barhut Inss. pp. 1f,  R. B. Pandey. Historical and Literary Inss.I, p. 43, Luder’s list, No. 6871, D C Sircar, Sel.Inss, I, pp.87-88.

1. सुगन रज रत्रो गागी पुतस विस देवस
2.  पौतेण गोति – पुतस  आगरजुस  पूतेण
3. वाछि -पुतेन धनभुतिन कारितं  तोरनां
4. सिला-कमंतो च उपंण ( ।। )
संस्कृत छाया

1. शुड्न्गानां राज्ये राझो  गार्गीपुत्रस्य विश्वदेवस्य
2. पौत्रेण गोप्ती  पुत्रत्य अड्-गारंघुतः पुत्रेण
3. वात्सो-पुत्रेण धनभूतिना कारितं  तोरणम् ।
4. शिला-कर्मान्तः प्राकारादि शिक्षा-कर्म च उपपन्न: ( = सम्पन्नः तद्द्वारेणैव ।।
English Translation
In the empire of the Sungas, the main entrance (torana) was caused to be erected by Dhanabhuti son of Vatsi and of Angaradyut, the son of Geupti, and grandson of visvadeva the son of Gargi. The rock-work etc. also was got executed (through his agency)
हिन्दी अनुवाद
शुड -गों के  राज्य में , गार्गी -पुत्र विश्वदेव के पोते, गौप्तो-पुत्र अड्न्गारधुत् और पारसी के पुत्र, धनभूति ने यह तोरण निर्माण कराया । शिला -कर्म आदि भी उसी से सम्पन्न  हुआ

1. Hultzsch, I.A., XXI,, p-227= तोरणं
2. उपनी
3. D.C. Sircar (sel,Inss.I, p. 88, n. 1) suggests that he may have been a feudatory of a later Sunga king Vidisha, as it is known that the Sungas were still ruling when Simuka defeated the last Kanva king Susarman about 30 B.C.


1.  The letters (व) and (म) with Triangular bases  resemble those in Besnagar Garuda Pillar Inscription of the time of Bhagabhadra Sunga.
2. From the facsimile in I.A. XIV, p.139, and A.S.I., Memoirs, No. 1, Pl.V, No. 20
3. Cunningham read it as श्रुघ्न  राज्ये   i.e. in the kingdom of the country of ‘Srughna’,
4. Compare कासी पुतस in Besnagar Garuda Pillar Inscription.
5. Cunningham and Mitra equate it with Sanskrit अग्र राजस्य


This inscription belongs to the Sunga empire another ancient Magadha dynasty.

In the empire of the Sungas, the main ‘entrance (torana) was caused to be erected by Dhanabhuti son of vatsi and of Angardyut, the son of Gaupti, and grandson of visvadeva the son of Gargi. The rock work etc. also  got executed (through his agency)

He was a feudatory of a later Sunga king of Vidisha as it is known that the Sungas were still ruling when Simuka defeated the last Kanva king Susarman about 30 B.C.

The Sunga empire  was a magadha dynasty which controlled various parts ie north, east & west parts of India from around 185 to 73 B.C.E. It was established after the fall of mauryas. The capital of this empire was Pataliputra. The Empire is noted for its numerous wars. It was replaced by the Kanva dynasty.
The task of protecting India from various invasions including Alexander’s invasion of 326 BC, fell to the Sunga dynasty.  Sungas always engaged in diplomacy but couldn’t avoid war with invaders. Significant religious developments took place. Patanjali’s synthesis of the tradition of Yoga became the foundation of one of the Hindu “darshans” (schools of thought) and continues to enrich the lives of people all over the world.
Bhagwat Gita  composed around about 150-100 B.C.E. is one of the most popular of all Hindu scriptures.  Sunga Empire played an important role in patronizing Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. The richness of India’s spiritual tradition, from which the whole world has gained insight, owes much to this period.
The Sunga dynasty was established in 185 B.C.E., about 50 years after Ashokas death, when the king Brhadrata, the last of the Mauryan rulers, was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pusyamitra Sunga (“Pusyamitra is said in the Puranas to have been the senānī or army-commander of the last Maurya king Brhadratha”) while he was taking the Guard of Honor of his forces. Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne.

Pushyamitra Sunga became the ruler of the maghada and neighboring territories. The kingdom of Pushyamitra was extended up to Narmada in the south, and controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab in the north-western regions, and the city of Ujjain in central India. The Kabul Valley and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan to the Satavahanas.

Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187-151 B.C.E.). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India’s greatest playwrights, Kalidasa. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place. The power of the Sungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Sunga kings.
The Sungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 B.C.E

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