ancient indian history



Brihatphalayana dynasity, was an ancient kingdom of Andhra Pradesh.  Brihatphalayanas ruled after the Ikshvakus around the third century from their headquarters at Koduru.
As is the meaning of brihat (vastness) & Palayana, which means moving, the kingdom was dynamic in approach & had progressed in all spheres of life i e art, culture, religion & infrastructure.
This copper plate inscription is the only source to know the history of this dynasty. This inscription, written in prakrit language, was issued by Jayavarman in his regnal year 10.
Jayavarman describes himself  as the devotee of Maheswara and calls him Raja and patronize of Brahmanism. This period witnessed growth of sanatana dharma and decline of Buddhism. Jayavarman gifted the village of Patur in tenali Taluk to eight Brahmanas.
Inscription number 31.
Kondamudi Copper-plate Inscription of Jayavarman.
Regnal Year 10.
Provenance: Kondamudi, Tenali taluka, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Cursive Middle Brahmi of the southern class, of the 4th century AD.
Language: Prakrit.
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep, Ind., VI, pp. 315-19.
Footnote 1.
1. The script of these plates closely resembles that of the Mayidavolu plates of Siva-skanda-varman (Supra, V, 21, Ep.Ind, VI, pp.84 to 88)
while the Sanskrit legend around the margin of the seal, is in archaic characters, which differ totally from those employed on the plates. Just as here different scripts are used or sanskrit and Prakrit words, so
also in the Inscriptions of the Tamil country Grantha, script is used for sanskrit, and the vatteluttu and
the Tamil scripts are used for Tamil Words.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, VI.
3. The eight copper plates are marked with the numerical Symbols. 1 to 8, on the left margin, on level with the
second line. It is to be noted that while plates ii to viii, bear the serial number on the first side, the first plate bears it on its second side, indicating that the inscription proper begins from here The writing on the first side of the first plate does not form part of the inscription itself, but is a docket, which
was added probably after completing the rest of the 15 pages.
4. The first two syllables are broken away at the top. The lower portion of Letter व is preserved on a separated piece of the plate, according to Hultzsch, and could not be shown with the facsimile of the plate.
He suggests the restoration as सिव -पतो
(Sanskrit शिव – प्राप्त: ) on the analogy of सुखप्पत्तो
the Dhammapada and takes it in the sense of शिव – प्राप्त: = अधिगत – कल्याण:
= fortunate, as an adjective of
Jayavarman. In my view the phrase must be a mangalacharana, and hence I consider it equivalent to
शिव: प्रीत:  = God Siva is pleased.
Footnote 2.
1. A dash resembling the symbol for 1 is used as a mark of punctuation at the end of 12 lines and after 3 words in the middle of lines.
2.   दिवढ़  represents the. दिवढ़ढ = one and a half. See Pischels, Granmatik der Prakrit – Spracher,  pp.320. Cf. Hindi and Panjabi word ड़योढ़ा.
3. Read कत्तून दिवढ़ा
4. कातून
5. Sanskrit     अव्ययेन  = अक्षरेण = वाचा
Footnote 3.
1. Nothing is known about Jayavarman or his gotra from other records. Community of script would place him in the same period as Sivaskandavarman of Mayidavolu plates.(Supra, IV, 21, Ep.Ind, VI, pp. 84 to 89 ) That he belonged to an early
period is also proved by the archaic script of the seal attached to the present inscription and similarity
language and phraseology of these plates with the Nasik inscriptions of Gautami putra satakarni (Numbers 4 and 5.) (Supra, I, 159 & 160 )
and vasishthiputra Pulumayi (No.3)
(Supra, I, 166) and Karle inscription  (Supra, I, 167 ) See also Bhagwan Lal Indraji, Bombay Gazetteer, XVI, ( For Nasik inscriptions.) and Inscriptions
from the cave-temples of western India (for Karle inss.)
He is distinct from the Jayavarman of a minor branch of Eastern Kalingas, ruling from Svetaka. The latters two Parlakimedi grants dated in the Ganga years 100 (596 A.D.) and 120 (616 A.D.) are known.
Footnote 3.
1. Causative from namadhatu. अवयव cf. Dasa Kumara Charita, pp. 161, (Bombay ed. )  द्रव्याणां केनचिदवयवते:
English Translation of the inscription
The God Siva is pleased,
From the camp of victory the city of Kudura king. Sri Jayavarman, who is favoured by the feet of Mahesvara and who belongs to the lineage of
the Brihatphalayanas orders (his) officials at Kudura:
For conferring on our selves victory
and for increasing the length of (our) life, we have, now given the village Pantura in the (district of) Kudurahara as a brahmadeya assigning 24 shares to 8 Parcel off that village Pantura from this (district) having made (it) a brahma-deya. And to this village Pantura, because of its being a brahma-deya, we grant the following
it is to be out of bounds (for state officials). free from being meddled with, free from digging salt, free
from collective penalties by the state and endowed with immunities of all kinds. Exempt (it) without fail with (all)
these immunities and having made this village Pantura a brahma-deya, cause a charter to be drawn up to this effect.
The order was issued by word of mouth. (The charter) was signed by (the king) himself .
Fortune, wealth, power and victory was given in the firm of blessings by the donee to the king.
(This) set of plates as prepared on the 1st day of the 1st fortnight of winter of the 10th year by the Mahadandanayaka Bhapahanavarman,the best of the Mahatagi family.
First plate first side.
Charter pertaining to the brahmadeya, village of Pantura in Kudurahara, granted to 8 people, the Brahmanas,
the chief person among whom is Aya-sarvagupta.
Of the Maharaja Sri Jayavarman of Brihatphalayana gotra.
Footnote 4:
The shares listed add up to only 20/2. The remaining 3/2 unassigned shares were probably meant to be set
aside for the village common. people, that is, to the Brahmanas, (namely) To the householder
Arya Sarvagupta of the Gautama gotra (8 shares); To Arya Suvijna of the Tanava gotra (3 shares) To Arya Gogin (3 shares) to Arya Bhavan of the Kaundinya gotra, (2 shares) To
Arya Rudravishnu of Bharadvaja gotra, (one and a half share)
To Arya Isavaradatta of the Karshnayana gotra (one and a half
share) To Arya Rudra-Ghosha of the Aupamanyava gotra (1 share)
and to Arya Skandarudra of the Kausika gotra (half a share)
Footnote 5.
1. It may possibly be a mistake for Manava gotra.
2. Senart, Ep.Ind, VII,  derives from the
to hurt’, and hence ‘to write’,  But in the present case it is expressly stated that instead of writing, the king issued the order orally.
Hence Hultzsch concludes that the word is used here in the sense of
affixing signature to the original document, which was deposited in the royal secretariat, and from which the
Copper plates were prepared. In the plates the royal signature is represented by the seal on which they are strung.

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