ancient

Chammak Inscription of Pravarasena 2

Inscription number 4.

Chammak Copper-plate Inscription of Pravarasena 2. – (Regnal) year 18.
Provenance: Chammak, near Elichpur, (ilichpur), Amaravati. District, Maharashtra.
Script: Box-headed variety of Late Brahmi of the southern Class of the 5th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
The Chamak copper plates, document a land donation activity of the kingdom to brahmanas during the reign of maharaja Pravarasena 2, in the fifth century CE.
The Chamak charter consists of a six copper plates linked together with a ring held with a seal. The text of the inscription is Sanskrit.
Most of the Vakataka dynasty inscriptions belong to Pravarasena 2.
As per Ajanta Cave XVI inscription he was a powerful but liberal ruler.
Metres
Vv.1-3 श्लोक अनुष्टुब

References: Buhler, Archeological Survey of West India, IV, pp.116 ff,
Ind.Ant, XII, pp.239 ff. Fleet, CI.I., III, No 55, pp.235 ff. Sircar, Sel.Inss.. I, pp.442-49.
(called ilichpur (Elichpur) grant by Buhler)
Footnote-1
From the facsimile in C.I.I., III, XXXiii, C, opp *pp-234, for seal, and Plate XXXIV opposite pp 240 & 241, for plates I to vii. There are seven plates. The first and the seventh bear the inscription on one side only while the rest of the
plates are engraved on both the sides.
2. दृष्टम occurs in other grants, eg Basin plates of Vindhyasakti 2 (see infra, III,13)
in the sense of “seen ie. checked or examined, and is not a
contraction of दृष्टं भगवता as Fleet suggests.

Footnote 2
1. i.e. praise of Agmi, a spring sacrifice
Lasting 5 days),
(not mentioned here), together in this
chronological order, made up the principal sacrifice known as the Jyotishtoma and connected with the ritual of Soma pressing The was a one day sacrifice in honour of the preceptor of gods.
may be identical with
one day sacrifice
described in the Asvralayana Srauta sutra, IX.6.
was performed by ambitious kings to establish universal sovereignty
2. Read
3. (of son’s son). This phrase,
as also are the adjectives of
Rudrasena-1, who occupies the same position in this Vakataka genealogy as Samudragupta does in the Gupta one.
The Vakatakas apparently drew up their genealogy on the model of the Gupta draft. Sircar has rightly rejected
Bhandarkers suggestion that the two phrases refer to Gautanmiputra, not Rudrasena+1, There is no reason why
Pravarasena’s son should not be named and if Gautamiputra is a matronymic, it is clear that his mother
was a Brahmana princess of Gautama gotra and not a Bharasiva Naga. Since Gautamiputra is not given any
royal title like others in the succession list, he must have predeceased his Father.
Footnote 3
1. The avabhritha bath was taken at the completion of a sacrifice.
2. The Naga ending of the name Bhavanaga indicates that he was a Naga king. The reference to frequent
bath in the Bhagirathi (Ganga) indicates that their kingdom touched the Ganges. Jayaswal’s suggestion that the Dasasva-medha-ghata at Varanasi commemorates, these very ten horses sacrifices, referred to here, is quite
plausible. A large number of Naga coins, including those of Bhava-naga have been discovered.
Sircar suggests that Bhava-naga probably had his capital at Padmavati,
modern Padam-pavaya in the former Gwalior state.
3 Better गौतमी पुत्र – पुत्रस्य
,The phrase also occurs in Pattan plates of Pravarasena 2 (EP.Ind., XXXIII, pp.85, infra, III, 9).
4. cf. the reading in Pauni Plates of Pravarasena 2, (III,10 below)
5. पा was made out of हि that was originally engraved.
Footnote-4

1. cf. the reading in Pauni Plates. of Pravarasena 2, (infra, III, 10)
2.
A Century of Vakataka rule, commencing possibly with the accession of vindhyasakti 1, seems to have been completed during the reign of Prithivishena 1, suggests Sircar.
3. First engraved ज्जि
and the. corrected to र्ज्जि
4. Properly रुद्रसेनस्य for whom the preceding
adjectives in genitive singular are meant.
5. Prabhavati’s father is named as Maharajadhiraja Sri-
Chandragupta (2) in her own inscriptions (See supra III, No. 1 and
2)a clear proof that Deva-gupta was an alias of Chandra-gupta 2.

Footnote 5
1. Apparently covering the modern District of Eliichpur, round chammak. Sircar,(Sel.Inss. I, pp.445, n.1) suggests
that some of the territorial divisions of the Vakataka kingdom were called राज्य either because they were
still being ruled by subordinate local rulers, or they retained that old political designation even after the
Vakataka occupation. Sircar also ventures the conjecture
that if Bhojakata-rajya was under the local ruler, Kondaraja, son of Satrughna raja, Senapati Chitravarman,
was a High Commissioner or the viceroy of the Province, in which Bhojakatarajya was included.
2. Commonly spelt as भूमि राजमानिक भूमि seems to be the
state-recognised standard unit of land. After 8000 add परिमित:
Footnote 6.
Fourth plate First side

1. Fleet amended the phrase to
But Sircar thinks,
Can be justified in the text in
the sense of “faculty of judgment”
2. For, the immunities and rights conferred, see .
For translation of the whole passage see S.I.,I, pp.434 n.)
= extraction.
= tax in kind in the form of flowers
and milk.
= grazing ground.
= encampment
= hides for saddles etc.
= charcoal for cooking food for passing forces.
= Liquid marketable commodities,
= forced labour.
= a sealed treasure.
and are not clear.
Possibly they stand for the royal share in majorand minor produce respectively.
Fourth plate Second side
Footnote- 6
1. Of the next word was first engraved here and then erased.
2. Originally was engraved.
3. Reduplication of under Panini.
VIII, 4. 59.
Footnote 7.
Fifth plate Second side

1. Originally च्च or च्र्कू was engraved,
2. The seven limbs of state are: स्वाम्यमात्य सुहृत कोश राष्ट्र दुर्ग बलानि च = the king. minister s, allies=
ereasury the state, ortress and armed forces, (Amara, VIII,17.)
3. Originally चौरा was engraved. Fleet likes to supply अ before ब्रहमघ्न
4. Sircar amends to प्रभृतिभ्य
and translates, provided
they are always on hostile terms with
Slayers of Brahmanas. thieves etc.
5. The punctuation mark is ređundant.
Footnote 8.

Sixth Plate First side

1. वार “arbitrator”, according to Sircar, Sel.Inss, I, pp.448 n.3,.The donees”. he suggests, were made
responsible for distribution of shares of the gift village, among themselves.
2. यूर्य is engraved below the line, appearing almost at the end of the next line.
3. Gotra name, which invariably precedes the proper name in this text, is sometimes compounded with the
first of several proper names that follow. In correct
grammatical construction, it should be an independent word in dual or plural number as required by the number
of names it qualifies.
English Translation of the inscription.

Seal: This is the seal of government, that chastises enemies, of king Pravara-sena (2), the ornament of the Vakatakas, who has attained royal dignity by inheritance.
LL.1: Seen. Peace ! From (the city of) Pravara-pura.
L1.1-17: At the command of the most devout worshipper of Mahesvara Siva, Maharaja Sri Pravarasena (2) of
(the race of) the Vakatakas-Pravarasena, (2)
who sustains the age of virtue through the favour of Siva who was begotten on Prabhavati-gupta, the daughter of the Maharajadhiraja Sri Deva-gupta (and)
who is the son of Maharaja Sri Rudrasena (2) of (the line of) the Vakatakas, who acquired a rising
fortune through the favour of the divine vishnu, who is armed with a discus.

1. The sign read as visarga may actually have been intended as a full stop.
2. See also D.C. sircar, sel.Inss, I, pp.448, n.1 for the translation of 11.40-44.

Who (Rudrasena 2) was the son of the Maharaja Prithvishena 1, of the line of the vakatakas (Prithvishena I) who was an exceedingly devout worshipper of (the god) Siva, who was endowed with
the qualities of truthfulness, straightforwardness,
compassion, heroism, prowess, political wisdom, modesty, highmindedness, wisdom, modesty,
devotion to worthy people, victory through piety,
purity of mind etc., whose treasure, armed forces, equipment, and succession of sons and grandsons, have been growing for a hundred years, (and) who conducted
himself like Yudhisthira.
Who (Prithvishena (1) was the son of the Maharaja of the Vakatakas, Shri Rudrasena (1), who was an
exceedingly devout worshipper of the Lord Maha- Bhairava; who was the daughter’s son of Maharaja Sri
Bhava-naga, of the lineage of the Bhara-sivas, whose royal line owed its origin to the great satisfaction,
of (the god) Siva (caused) by (their) carrying a linga of Siva placed as a load upon (their) shoulders, (and) who were besprinkled on their forehead with the
pure water of (the river) Bhagirathi that had been obtained by (their) valour, (and). who performed
ablutions after the celebration of ten asvamedha sacrifices, who (Rudrasena 1) was the son of
Gautami-putra.
(And Rudrasena 1) who was the son’s son of the Maharaja of the sovereign vakatakas, Sri Pravarasena 1,
(who performed the agnishtoma, aptoryama, Ukthya, Shodasin, atiratra, vajapeya, brihaspatisava,
and sadyaskra and four asvamedha sacrifices, (and) was of Vishnuvriddha gotras.

L1.18-20s The village named chamanka on the bank of the river Madhunadi, in the Bhojakata kingdom (measured)
by eight thousand bhumis, (or in figures) 8000, according to the royal measure, is given, at the
request of Kondaraja, the son of Satrughnaraja, to one thousand Brahmanas of various gotras and charanas.
L1.21-22 Where fore our serving obedient and high-born officers,
employed in all the supervisory assignments, and the regular and irregular soldiers be directed in pursuit
of the already announced (lit. heard) orders-
L1.22-30: Be it known to you, that for the purpose of increase of our mental faculties, piety, li fe, strength, victory
and supremacy and for the sake of (our) welfare in this world and the next, (and) for our own benefit,
this (village) is granted with libation of water in (our) victorious office of justice, as a grant not previously made (i.e. as a new grant). Further, we
confer on this (village) the appropriate privileges that were approved by earlier kings for the villages of
the Brahmanas versed in the four vedas namely,
It is not to pay taxes. It is out of bounds for the regular and irregular troops, no cow for milk and bullocks (for carts) are to be supplied (to the royal
officers on tour) as done per traditions, no flowers or milk to be taken (on behalf of the king) no pasturage
or encamping is allowed nor collection of hides for (seats) and charcoal ( for cooking for touring officers,
is permitted, no boring of trees (like palmyra) for
salt and moist substances (liquor, sugar & immunised
with immunities from all types of forced labours with
the right of enjoying hidden treasures and sealed deposits and of royal share of major and minor produce, to be enjoyed, till the moon and the sun endure,
to be inherited by sons and grandsons (etc)
L1.30-35: No hinderance should be caused by anyone to those
who enjoy it. It should be protected and augmented by all means. And whosoever disregarding this
charter, shall create, or cause to be created, even a slight impediment. We shall, on being denounced by the
Brahmanas, punish and imprison him.
In this act of honouring the pious per sons (dharma= dharmikah) We are not stating (all) this with the intention of avoiding the praise of many former

kings for (their) Meritorious deeds of giving sympathetic consideration and of nourishing the earlier grants.
L1.36-39 And in this context two verses sung by vyasa should
be accepted as an authority:
(Here follow two usual imprecatory verses)
L1.39-44: And this settled position of the charter should be maintained by the brahmanas and the (future) kings for
the same time with the sun and the moon, in as much as they the donees) do not command treason against the
seven limbs of government of (successive) kings, are
not slayers of brahmanas, and are not thieves, adulterers, harmers of kings, & do not involve themselves in wars (and) are not guilty of causing
harm to other villages. But if they act otherwise or approve of (such acts) the confiscation of land by the king shall not be a theft.
L1.44-59: And the recipients in this context, as appointed by
the arbitrators are
Arya (Noble) Gana of Satyayana gotra noble Deva of Vatsa gotra noble Kumarasarman of Bharadvaja gotra
Guhasarman of Parasara gotra; noble Deva, noble Mahesvara and noble Mattra of Kasyapa gotra; noble
Rudra, noble Soma and noble Harisarman of Kaundinya gotra, noble Kumarasarman of Bharadvaja gotra,
Matrisarmen, Varasarman, Gondasarman and Nagasarman of Kaundinya gotra, santisvrman and
Rudrasarman of Bharadvaja gotra noble Bhojakadeva,
Maghasarman and Devasarman of Vatsa gotra, Moksha Sarman, Nagasarman, Revatisarman and noble Dharma, noble Bharadvajasarman, noble Nandana, Mulasarman,
Isvarasarman, and Varasarman (all) of Bharadvaja gotra Arya skanda of Vatsa gotra. Arya Bappa and Arya
Dharma of Bharadvaja gotra Arya skanda of Atri gotra,
Arya Soma-sarman, Bhartrisarman, Arya Rudrasarman, Arya Magha, Arya Matrisarman, (and) Isvarasarman of
Gautama gotra Arya Matrisarman of Gautama gotra.
Arya Devasarman, Arya varasarman (and) Arya Roha of Kaundinya gotra, arya svami deva, Arya Revatisarman
Cand) Arya Jyeshthasarman of Gautama gotra Arya
Kumarasarman and Arya svatisarman of Sandilya gotra
and) Arya Kanda of satyayana gotras and others.
L1.59-61: The charter has been written, while chitravarman is the Senapati in the eighteenth year, (in figures),
on the thirteenth luner day of the bright fortnight of the month of Jyeshtha.

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