ancient indian history

Charter of Vishnushena- Insc 75

The Charter (i.e instrument of customary laws) of Vishnusena, from the sixth century Inscriptions, was a pact made by the merchants of Lohata (Gujarat) with Vishnusena. It was called “achara-sthiti-patra” (Charter of Ethical Behaviour).
Vishnusena inscribed it on a copper plate.
In it was listed how no official could board or lodge with people for free while on tour, no one could be arrested while performing pooja, and those arrested could not be handcuffed etc.
The merchants were to pay taxes for carrying goods through districts as well as the borders of empire.
Punishment for violation of the charter rules were also well defined.
These customary laws were approved by Maharaja Sri Vishnushena and executed by Bhadraka.
This charter comprising customary norms, was definitely a scholarly exercise, as it formulated principles & procedures, to streamline public order.
The inscriptions provides an evidence that the writing was used for legal purposes and offers glimpses of actual legal practice to maintain a healthy social order.
Vishnushena’s order was addressed not only to the subordinates and officials but also to the dhruv-adhikarana, i.e. the office of the dhruva, the mention of which again connects our epigraph with the Maitraka dynasty and with the Gujarat-Kathiawar region. The expressions dhruvadhikarana, dhruvasthan-adhikarana and dhruv-adhikaraaika are peculiar to the records of the Maitrakas of Valabhi. Dhruva has been explained as being still used in Saurashtra and Kutch to denote a person who superintends, on behalf of the Raja, the collection of the royal share of lands’, and Dhruva is still & surname among the Gujarati people.
Consequently the charter was approved by Samanta “Avanti”.
The designation Samanta clearly expresses a feudatory status. But since only thirteen years after the issue of the original document approval
for the instrument was considered necessary. It appears that Samanta Avanti elther enjoyed some sort
of internal autonomy or his approval, became necessary after the demise of king Vishnushena.


Inscription Number 75.

Charter of Vishnushena Vikrama Samvat 649 (592 A.D.)
Provenance: Provenance as also the
present whereabouts of the original copper-plates are not known. Two
sets of impressions of the copper-plates are preserved in the office of the government epigraphist for India, ootacamund.
1. Name-ending sena was common among the Maitrakas. They seem to have used bhata also as an alternate ending. Hiuen-T-Sang in his si-yu-ki, refers to Dhruvasena 2,
Baladitya, as Dhrubhata or Dhruvabhata.
The official designatlon, Dhruva, as also the institution called
Dhruvadhikarana, are peculiar to Maitraka records.
On these grounds sircar accepts the probability of Vishnushena, being a Maitralka ruler and places him
between AD. 589 and 605, i.e in between the reigns of
Dharasena 2 (Gupta-Valabhi 252 to 270, I e 571 to 589 AD,) and of Siladitya 1, Dharmaditya (Gupta-Valabhi
286 to 290, i.e .(AD 605 to 609), either in the main Valabhi line or in a branch line ruling in Lohata-grama.
His overlord, referred in the inscription as the Paramabhattaraka Sri Baba may be Kalachuri king
Sankaragana, who ruled in K,361, i.e. 609 A.D.

Script: Western variety of the Southern class of Brahmi, of the 6th century A.D. resembling the scripts of records found in Gujarat Kathiawar region
Language: Sanskrit.
References: D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind, XXX, pp. 163-81..
Footnote 2
Compare Sunaokela plates of sangamasimha, Kalachuri year
292 (540 A.D.) Ep.Ind., X, pp-74f, Infra II, 76, Sankheda Mankeni Plates of k, 346 (594 A,D.) (Ibid, II, pp.20
and Imp.Inss from Baroda state, I, pp 4ff, Palitana Plates. of Simhaditya of Gurukula family, Gupta-Valabhi
year 255 ( 574 A.D.) (ibid.XI, pp.17-18, Also inscriptions of the Kalachuris of 6th and 7th centuries A.D. in Bhandarkar list, nos.1206-8, as well as
the Gurjaras of Nandipuri and ofcourse the Maltrakas of Valabhi.
2. From tho facsimile in EP.Ind, XXX, between pp 180 and 181.
3. Sircar omits र्दाड़िन्गक through oversight
As explained by Sircar राजन = subordinate ruler. राजपुत्र = A son of Rajan, put in charge of an administrative unit, राजस्थानिय = a feudatory or a viceroy. आयुकत्क
= a majistrate or a treasury officer.
विनियुकत्क = तदायुकत्क = तन्नियुकत्क
= An officer of Ayuktakas category appointed by a viceroy.
शौल्किक = A custom officer
चोरोद्वरणिक = A perfect police
वैलब्धिक = Possibly the custodian of recovered stolen property equivalent to the युक्त of
Manusmriti (VIII, 34)g however, in the Rajatarangini (VII, 161-63) the word is विलब्धि used presumably in the sense of an assignment.
र्दाड़िन्गक = Officer-in-charge of a dranga i.e a town or a village.
In the Rajatarangini (VII, 2010, Stein, English Translation, Vol. II, pp.291f )
र्दड़न्ग is used in the sense of a watch station’. चाट = A regular soldier. In its place some inscriptions have
Literally an umbrella bearer but from achara No, 29 (1. 12)
He is a court announcer,
आदेशविक्षेपकारिन = An officer-in-charge of circulation of king’ s orders, ध्रुवाधिकरण = ध्रुवस्थानाधिकरण = ध्रुवाधिकरणिक
(all these terms are peculiar to the records of the Maitrakas of Valabhi )
= an administrative board presided over by the Dhruva.
In pre-independence Saurashtra, Dhruva continued to be
the designation of an officer, who superintended the collection of the Raja’s share of the farm-produce.
It is still used as a surname by a class of Gujarati people.

Footnote 3
आचार- स्थिती-पात्र = अनुग्रह-स्थिती-पात्र = स्थिती पात्र = स्थिती-व्यवस्था = स्थितीपात्रव्यवस्था
= a list of regulations or prevalent
Customary laws. Patra stands for an order or command sthiti is a settled, ordinance, decree, custom, Usage,
institution, or established moral code’ achara is an established rule of good conduct, a custom, usage of
Practice” The Lakshesvara Kannada inscription (of 725 AD) of yuvaraja Vikramaditya 2, of the chalukya
house of Badami (Ep.Ind, XIV, pp-190-91) also embodies
an Achara-vyavastha, But this small record is so damaged that it is of no use for a comparison
1. Cf Kautiliya Arthasastra, III 1i:
अग्राहया: कर्म-कालेषु कर्षका राजपुरूषाश्च
– See also Brihaspati smriti, pp.22, 26,
and Katyayanasaroddhara, v.109.
2. In similar contexts विनये and विनय
are optionally used in the text in the sense of ‘fine.

Footnote 5

1. cf. Yajnavalkya Smriti, v240 (Niraya s. ed, pp-240)
तुला शासन मानानां कूटकन्नाणकस्य च !
एभिश्चच्यवहत्र्ता य : स दाप्यो ढंण्ड मुत्तमम !!
Katyayana quoted in the same
work also prescribes severe punishment for using fraudulent scales and coins.
2. Lexicoographic meaning of ullembana is “hanging”
But considering the mildness of the punishment, hanging
here seems to connote only suspension of a man for torture.
3. cf. Vishnu Smriti,V, 66-67 शोणितेन विना दु:खमुत्पादयिता द्वात्रिशत पणान् सह शोणितेन चतु: षष्म्टिम्
4. तौण्डिक
= Lit. Grazing of crops with snout. (तुण्ड)


The fractions 1/2 and 1/4, throughout this charter, are represented as fractions of 20, eg. 1/2 by 10/20 and 1/4 by 5/20
The figure, 20 is expressed by the syllable vi, (abbreviated from vinisati or vimsatima) and is written first’ followed by na for 5 and nda for 10.
Thus vi na= 5/20, I e 1/4 and vi nda 10/20, i.e 1/2.
For the history of evolution of decimal notation and use of fractions, See D.C. Sircar, EP.Ind, XXX,, pp-164-66.
2. The word गंज is used in the Rajatar.
(IV 589, VII, 125-26) in the sense of a treasury or ‘a fund. But here, it appears to have the sense of a storehouse”, as
given in the lexcons. Kalvapals seems to be, same as Kalyapala or Kalyapala, meaning ‘a distiller’. Visvarupa
commentary on Yajnavallkya Smriti (Vyavahara a. 50) has Kalpala which developad into Prakrit Kallala and Hindi
Kalal =a brewer. Soti seems to be a measuring pot.
cf: sotu, sautu, soutige of some early Kannada Inscriptions
and savatu ( = a ladle) of modern Kannada.
Footnote 7,
1. Was probably a measuring pot for wine
चातुर्थ – शोटि would thus mean a pot measuring a quarter unit.
2. The punctuation mark is unnecessary.
3. cf. Narada smriti (ed Jolly pp134) स्कन्ध वाहयं च यदर्दव्यं न तधुकता ( = त च्छुल्कं ) प्रदापयेत
2 & 3 The punctuation marks are unnecessary.
Footnote- 8
1. Repetition is superfluous
since the paleography of the record places it around 600 A.D. We shall have to fix the year 649 referred to by Vishnushena, and the year 357 (in line 34) of the subsequent endorsement of the document by Samanta Avanti.
Evidently the two dates are in
different eras. If we refer to the first date (year 649) to the Vikrama era, and the second, i.e. the year 357
to the Traikutaka-kalachuri-chedi era. We arrive at the years 592 A.D. For the first and 605 for the second. These are most probably the dates respectively
of Vishnushena’s grant and of Avanti’s endorsement. If we refer Avanti’s date samvat 357, to Gupta Valabhi era of 319-20 AD, we arrive at 676 AD.
which may be late for the record.


As the plates appear to have been issued in gujrat, Kathiawar region (modem Saurashtra), Darpapura as
also Lohatavasaka ar Lohataka-grama should be looked for in this part of the country. For the identification
of these places, Sircar calls our attention respectively to modern Dabhoi, (medieval Darbhapura) about 63 km. north-east of Bharoch and modern Rohar (on the Gulf
of Kachchha) which is the chief sea-port of the Anjar district. It may be noted that in the list of achara’a recorded in the plates, nos.52-56, and 59-61, pertain to sea-ports. So Lohata was probably a port.

English Translation of the inscription
Hail !
From the Lohata residence (or encampment)
the mahekarttalkritika, Mahadandanayaka, Mahapratihara Maha- samanta, Maharaja Sri Vishnushena who meditates on the feet of His Supreme Majesty that is, his illustrious father, being in good health camands his Rajans, Rajputras, Rajasthaniyas, Ayuktakas, Viniyuktakas, Saulkikas, Choroddharanikas, Vailabdhdikas, Drangikas, Chatas, Bhatas etc. And other duly associated as executors (or diseminators) of royal orders as also the office of the Dhruvas:-
Be it thoroughly known to you that have been petitioned by the community of merchants (presumably of the entire kingdom) that I be pleased to issue them a list of prevalent customary laws for favour of public welfare. Accordingly, I have been pleased to issue my own order listing the prevalent

customary laws and rules of good conduct for the protection
and settlement of the old colonies (bhutapurva Janapadas) and
the settlement of new colonies ( A bhutapurva Janapadas)
reapectively. (The sthiti-patra) where to begin with the first is
(1) the property of a person, who dies without leaving a son, should not be confiscated.
(2) The royal officials should not break open or violate the unmara
(threshold or door of a house).
(3) A law-suit of a negligent person (udbhavaka) should not be admittedly or a law suit made to arise from another should not be admitted.
(4) Arrest on (mere) suspicion is not permitted.
(5) Wife should not be arrested for the crime of her husband
(6) A careless declaration (chhalah) in respect of conflagration from a house hold (or a peaceful) fire should not be admitted (in law).
(7) A careless declaration should not be admitted in respect of a matter heard himself (by the judge).
(8) In the absence of the complainant and the defendant, the suit
should not be taken up for disposal.
(9) The pretext of being engaged in work in his shop should not be admitted (as justification of absence from appearance in court)
(or a careless declaration made by a person while seated in
his shope should not be admitted as evidence) .
(10) Bullock carts (or Cows and carts) should not be requisitioned (by
(11) People should not be made to offer beds or couches, seats and cooked food on the arrival of a subordinate chief, a minister (amatya) , an envoy or some other (officer)
(12) A single market should not be given to all the guilds.
(13) All the guilds should not be made to offer khova
(14) The royal dues should be paid unto the royal palace and
(i.e. or) to the (appropriate) office (adhikarana) the same
should not be paid to others.
(15) A deposit should not be
placed in the hands of a presiding officer of a court. (Varika)
(16)A merchant from anothor district on a visit for & legitimate purpose (karanat) should not be arrested (or drafted as a winltess) for an injury (resha) caused by another person.
(17) A boast (utikrishti) should not be admitted without a proper petition.
18) The sarika bird (turdus salica) should

not be accepted (as a witness) in a suit of defamation or abusive Language (vakparushya) and excessive punishment (retaliation) (danda-parushya)
(19) The operators of
irrigation apparatus (dhenku) and the pressers of indigo plants,
should not be made to offer forced labour.
(20) The fillers of drinking cisterns (at watering-places for men or animals)
and the cow-herds should not be apprehended through state
summons (presumably tor forced labour).
(21) Persons (engaged
in work) at home or at their shops should not be summoned
(to court) by means of a seal-ring or a letter or by a messenger
(or through the agency of a messenger bearing a sealed order),
unless involved in a criminal case.
(22) A Person engaged in
short or long sacrifices, marriage ceremonies etc. should not be
summoned as a defendant in civil suits filed by another person.

(23) in connection with a written complaint about the realisation
of borrowed money (the debtor) should enjoy the protection (of the Court)
If surety has been given for freedom from being bound with wooden or metal fetters.
(24) Cultivators coming out of
their areas (or districts) for sowing (or for procuring) seeds during the rainy season should not be apprehended by the landlord for forced labour.
(25) in the month of Ashadha and
in Pausha, the measuring pots are to be examined for conformity
to standards, after realisation of a fee, which is one and a
quarter ruppee even for honest (i.e legally approved measures.
26. For conducting business, or for importing or exporting
Foodgrains etc without conforming to the standards (of weights and measures and) of taxes and other rules (the culprit) should be made to pay eight times the prescribed tax.
(27) The Petavilka-varika should submit the royal fees (received from the
marketing operations) once in every five days (lit. nights).
In the event of non.submission, six rupakas are to be paid in fine, in case of bonafide delay (dharmike) (the fine will be) one quarter (of that sum).
(28) The Uttarakulika-varikas should
not go out while (the, court is seized of a dispute) in respect of measurement,
the measuring vessel or the measured
(29) The Uttarakulika varikas failing to present themselves in court even after being thrice summoned aloud by
the court peon (chhatra), are to pay a fine of two rupakas and
a quarter, even if there is good reason for absence.
(30) If the court employee in charge of recording law-suits absent
himself from the court after mid-day, he is liable to a fine of six and one quarter silver coins (Rupakah), even if there
is a good reason for that.
(31) No excuse (pretext) of the
Uttarakulika-varikas, (absent from court) after mid-day is to be
accepted (32) In cases of fraud in regard to delivery of
rajargghika (by the Petavika-varikas) the fine is three silver coins and a quarter even when there was a reasonable excuse.
( 33) The fine for a fraud connected withe coins (e.g. using
counterfeit coins) ie six and one fourth silver coins, even when there is a reasonable excuse
(34)if the subordinate rulers terminate a case pertaining immovable property
(without referring it to the overlord), the fine is one hundred and eight rupakas. (35) The fine is fifty four rupakas
If informetion (of termination) has been dispatched.
(36) Up to three rupakas (a rupake-trayam) and a quarter is the fee
for (supplying) a record of the decision (bhasha)to the winning
party (Jayika) and for enabling him to (take possession and plough the land (phalavena).
(37) For suspending (a person
for torture) and for tearing someone’s ear the fine is twenty seven silver coins, (38) The fine or rough language
(or defamation) and assault is six rupakas and a quarter
(39) when the injury is visible (in the case of danda-parusahya)
the fine is fortya eight silver coins.
(40) In the case of destruction of a crop by grazing cows the fine is five
(41) (Destruction by grazing) she-buffalo is double that amountp (i,e, ten vimsopakas or half a rupaka)
(42) on detection of a vessel-full of wine (distilled illegally) the fine is five rupakas.
(43) in the case of the first
vessel (detected of illicit wine, i.e if it was a first offence), and was a bonafide case, the fine to be paid to
the court is two and a half rupakas. (44) if a person is detected with illicit wine vessel tries to compound the case
(through connivance of Officials) on the next day occassion) without seeking (the court’s) permission, he should be made to pay double that amount.
(45) Three rupakas (fine) for the
person detected distilling liquor If it is for a religious purpose, (the fine was) one and a quarter rupaka together with
rajarghika consisting of two, quarters of wine.
(46) Because of the lock up (closing) of the distillary (bharolaka) on the
full-moon day of Ashadha the bronze and dosya vessels are put
into the custodian’s store (grahanaka). (There fore), on the
occasions of (such) deposits, the fine (of madya-chaturthe-
dvayam, as mentioned in 45 above) is not to be pursued
(47) The officer incharge of distillers Kalvapala-varika),
while measuring wine in chaturtha or quarter-measures at the
royal store-house (Rajakiya-ganje) with the measuring pot in hand should not take up any other work.
(48) The supervisor
(Dumphaka) of the indigo factory (nila-kuti) has to pay a tax of three rupakas
(49) The tax for a sugarcane
plantation in thirty two rupakas.
But if it belongs to a religious establishment, it is two and a quarter rupakas.
(50) The tax or the alla-vata ia half of this.
(51) For a factory (presumably an oil mill) the tax is three
Rupakas. If it belongs to a religious insttution the tax is only a ripaka and a quarter.
(52) Merchants staying abroad for a year should not be made to pay the entrance fee on return to their native places (but) the immigration tax
has to be paid
(53) for a boat full of merchandise (or utensils, the export tax is twelve rupakas. If the commodities
are for a religious purpose the tax is one and a quarter rupaka.
(54) For a full load (of merchandise) on the back of a camel or of a buffalo, even when meant for a religious purpose, the tax is five rupakas and a quarter.
(55) For (a load of bull, the tax (adanam) is two rupakas and a half.
In case of religious purpose, the tax is one quarter.
(56) The collection of tax for a donkey- load even for religious purpose is a Rupaka and a quarter.
(57) Half of this is the tax for bundles carried, suspended an a pole sankathitaka) or a bundle suspended
(on the back) the tax is five vimopakas.
(58) For a load of a hundred palas even for a religious purpose, the tax is two vimsopakas.
(59) Half the amount of tax-rates listed above for commercial goods (bhanda), are to be realised for food-grains.
(60) For dried ginger sticks. (or
faggots) the rate of crossing the boarder is a rupaka and a quarter, even for religlous purpose
(61) For a boat loaded with bamboos, even if meant for a religious purpose,
the tax is six rupakas and a quarter. (62) Food-grains carried on shoulder should not be charged any tax. (63) Only a setika (=2 prasritis or hand fuls) should be taken while collecting samples of cummin seed, black mustard, coriander seed etc.

(64) People should not be made to pay taxes on ceremonies, like weddings sacrifices, festivals, simantonnayana
and others
(65) The duty for crossing the boundary (of the kingdom or district) by the marriage party of the groom is
twelve Rupakas. If proceeding on a legal permit (pattaka-dharmka) the tax is teo rupakas and a quarter.
(66) The tax for a boat full of wine is five rupakas. In case of religious purpose, a rupaka and a quarter
(67) The tax gor a hide-fu (khalla bharaka) of wine, even for
a religious purpose is a rupaka and a quarter.
(68) The tax is half of this for a kela full and for bainghi- (of wine).
(69) Tax for a quarter-ful of a
pitcher (of wine), even for religious purpose, is five vimsopakas.
70) in the case of bitter (or strong) liquor, three quarter measures of sidhu wine is the tax.
(71) The tax to be collected for the royal establishment, on the chhimpakas, kolikas and padalkaras, is
half the price prevalent in the land of their respective services.
(72) The varika oficers should fix compulsory labour vishti (by way of tax) on the blacksmiths, carpenters, barbers, potters and the like.
I have approved the customary laws (Acharah) also, which are in circulation from earlier times. Wherefore, other
kings also whether born in our line or others desiring fruit of merit) in the form of fame and renown, common to their sons, grandsons and progeny to last as long as the existence of the
moon the sun the oceans, the planets, the stars and the earth, should approve of and protect this instrument of
customary laws (anugraha-sthiti-patra), released by us.
The executor in this matter is Bhadraka, an officer in the department of peace and war. In the year 649, on the
5th day of the bright half of (the month. of) sravana. signatures
of sri Vishnushena.

(Endorsement by the samanta Avanti
Hail! From Darapur, a Feudatory Lord (Samanta) Avanti, being in good health, informs all his own and other
Officials as are connected with the matter.
Be it known to you that I have approved the instrument of customary laws, (sthiti-vyavastha) as recorded above and granted by the illlustrious Vishnubhata to the community of merchants residing in the village of Lohataka. For this reason
nobody should act in hostility to these (merchants) living in accordance with the above-recorded instrument of
customary laws and supporting themselves with their own
merchandise, Year 357, 7th day of the dark half of Karttika.

Footnote- 10
According to Sircar Mahakarttakritika, may have denoted a royal agent or a judge of a superior court or an
officer like the present day Legal Remembrancer, inviting
the king’s attention to what was done or left undone. Dandanayaka was either a leader of the army or the chief of the
police with power of judging criminal offences. Mahapratihara ( lit the great door-keeper”) was Probably the chief of the palace-guards or royal body-guards.
These five feudatory titles, condensed into single title( Pancha-Mahasabda in South) were used by the Maitraka king, Dhruvasena 1 (Gupta Valabhi years 206-26, 525-45 AD.), although it is not
clear to whom, he owed allegiance, In the south Indian inscriptions, even sovereign rulers assume the title
But rather implausible explanation, seems to connote the privilege of
enjoying the sounds of five kinds of musical instruments according to C.I.I, III, pp.276 n.
Footnote 11
1. Aputrakam = aputrakasyedam, i.e. something (i.e. property) belonging to a person without a son
2 Unmara is not clear. Sircar suggests its relationship with Sanskrit umbara ( the upper timber of a door frame) (Pali ummara, Prakrit ummara, Gujrati umbro, umro threshold.
The idea seems to be that the
officials were not allowed to trespass into a private house, or open a sealed door, for which latter the
Arthasastra, III, 20, prescribes a fine of 48 panas, and Vishnu, V, 116, as many as 100 panas.

Footnote 12.
Ordinarily meaning a pretext chhala in the smriti literature is used in the technical sense of careless
declaration, as opposed to bhuta, a solumn statement of truth (Yajnavalkya , Nirnaya S.Press ed., pp-130, छलं निरस्य भूतेन व्यवहारान्नयेन्नुप
The Nitakshara explains chhala as प्रमादाभिहित and bhatta as तत्त्वार्थ – सन्युक्त क्षमाग्नि
welfare fire may refer to the sacred fire lit on such functions of
public welfare as the ceremonial connected with wedding etc and the Vedic sacrifices or kshema
kshaya = a house or dwelling from kshi. to dwell.
To be in peace is the secondary sense of kshi.
2. हृसिते क्रणे = हृसिते आक्रणिते where हृसिते is from हृस शब्दे to dound
The sense is not very clear. Sircar
suggests alternative interpretations. No pretence should be admitted of a person (1) for cutting his
neighbour’s ear, and (2) for cutting his own ear.
Footnote- 13
1. Evidently there was a practice of requisitioning such things by the touring officers. That is why the
immunities given to the agraharas included these cf. अ – कूर – चोल्लक – विनाशि – खटवा – संवास and
अ – परम्परा – बलीवर्द – ग्रहण etc
2. i.e members of different guilds should not be allowed to flock to the sane market.
3. Khova is not clear. If the reading meant is, khava (from. खेव = सेव to serve) the achara enjoine
the state officials not to extract personal service from the members of the guilds.


The exact function of a Varika is not know.. Monier Williams in his Sanskrit English Dictionary explains
Naga varika, as the chief person in a court or assembly.
Varika perhaps connotes the same Varika appeare to be
equivalent to vara-pramukha of other inscriptions (see Ep.Ind, V, pp-138 n) where Vara seems to connote a
member of what was known as
Vars-Goshti or a panchavari (see ibid)
I.e an assembly or a committee of
Panchas. N.G Majumdar (Inscriptions of Bengal, Vol.III, pp- 8, 166) has explained Santi-varika in the inscriptions of king Chandra of Bengal as ‘probably a priest in charge
of propitiatory ceremonies. The Brihaspati smriti mentions varika (G.0S ed. pp-159) राजा क्षेत्रं दत्तवा चातुर्वैध वणिग् – वारिक – सार्वग्रामीण –
महस्तर – स्वामिपुरूषधिष्ठितं परिच्छिन्धमत
and the Rajatarangini (VI, 345) speaks of a Kataka-Varika.
2. The word probably needs amendation into utkrushti
= utkrosha = pali ukkutthi meaning wailing.
The idea in that case is that, the court should not take cognisance of a mere wailing unless a proper
petition is addressed.
Hindi word dhakli or dhekul and Gujrati dhikvo
(signifying a lever-based apparatus for drawing water fom pools and wells) seem to be the derivatives of dhenku. Dumphaka may be a Prakritism of Sanskrit.
Drimphaka, meaning ‘one who presses.
2. cf. Brihaspati smriti, pp-26, in the section on ahvana
(sumnons) and In the list of the n-asedhyah (not to be
imprisoned): गवां प्रचारे गोपाला: सत्यारम्भे कुषीबला:
3. The Brihaspati smriti, pp-24, distinguished the three
agencies used for summon मुद्रां दद्यात्तथा पत्रं पुरूष व विसर्जयेत
Also see P.V. Kane, Katyayanasaroddhara, verse 88.
4. cf. Brihaspati smriti, pp-22, सत्रोद्वाहोद्यतो etc in the list of नासेध्या: (i.e. not to be arrested).
वादप्रतिसमासने = प्रतिवादित्वेन
Footnote- 16
Presumably both the weights and measures are meant तुला – मान – पौतवस
is explained by T. Genapati Sastri
in hls Srimula commentary on the Kautaliya Arthasastra
(II.19 तुलामानपौत – प्रकरण in the words
तुलाया उन्मान – साधनस्य – मानस्य प्रस्थ – कुडुबादेश्च पौतवम् ! पोतुर्मानभाण्ड – शोधक तस्य कर्म अकृत करणं
कृत शोधनं चेहा भिधीयत इति सूत्रार्थ:
The word potu from to purifyme means the corrector or standardiser of the measuring vessels And pautava
should either stand for the act of standardisation’ or the departmental office charged with ths task.
according to the Atha-sástra, (IV.2.1-2) the superintendent of Markets is charged with the duty of examining
the weights and measures, to safeguard against fraud in this standard
संस्थाध्यक्ष: पण्य संस्थायां पुराण भाण्डानां स्व – करण – विशुद्वानामादानं विकर्यं वा स्थापयेत ! तुला भाण्ड – मानानि चावेक्षेत पौत्वापचारात
Adana = Pravesana
(i.e. bringing to the market parameter) according to T. Ganapati Sastri. At places in the text here
adana or adane is also used in the sense of tax.
Sircar’s explanation of the acharas 25 and 26
(Ep.Ind, XXX, pp-173) does not appear plausible to me. He takes pautava in the sense of a ‘store-house’ for
which, there is no justification.
2. Obviously, argha stands for rajarghika mentioned in 1.18.
Sircar also takes into consideration the meaning
“price or value” of the word ‘argha” and accepts the possibility of the sense being that the official
concerned, should fix prices of the commodities and inform the higher authorities accordingly.
He quotes
Manu, VIII, 402:-
पण्चरात्रे पण्चरात्रे पक्षे पक्षे धवा गते
कुर्वीत चैह संप्रत्यक्षमर्घ संस्थापनं नृप:
Petavika-varika, Sircar suggests, was perhaps responsible for the delivery of the Rajargghika received from the subjects once in five days. He thinks, the word petavika is associated with Miarathi petha (sub division of a Taluk) or peth A trading town or an emporium.
1. The uttarakulika is another, class of varikas or officials, who seem to have been charged with supervison of
measurements, particularly in cases which were subjects of dispute in courts.
2. Karana is obviously an abbreviation of the word adhihikarana, ‘a court’
3. The ordinary sense, I.e. pretext, of the word chhala, suits this context.
4. Argha-vanchana may also mean cheating in prices charged.
And the achara, in that case, prescribes fine on the merchant for over-charging.

1. Mudra, also means a seal In that case the fine is prescribed for the misuse of official seals.
2. Vimsopaka = 1/20 of a rupaka. Five Vimsopaka= 1/4 of rupaka.
Tho sense of doaya and bharolaka is not known.
Associated as it is with kamsy dosya seems to be some metal.
Bharolaka may be distillery. Sircar
suggests that ayudha should be taken in it’s old sense of a vessel. I have accepted this sense though I have
not been able to confirm it from any other source.
Thus the translation of the achara is conjectural..
All here seems to have been used in the sense of a long gourd.
cf. Punjabi all’s in the same sense. It is certainly not the Prakrit form of Sanskrit ardraka (ginger) which word is
actually used in.achara no 60 below.


1. काचित = काच = Punjabi and Hindi बेघी =
Load carried in the baskets hanging from each end of a pole supported horizontally on the shoulder.

2. लकटा is possibly the same as lakadi (Firewood) in Hindi and
May have baen a Prakritisation of the Sanakrit word
लकुट or लगुड़ = a stick. Skt. ardraka stands for
ginger Sircar suspects ardraka-lakata may stand for dried ginger sticks’.

Footnote- 22
1. कणिक्का is a
Prakrít form of कणिका
cummin seed. कुस्तुम्बरी = coriander seed
राजिका = black mustard
व्रणिका.= Prakrit word, वन्तिआ = hindi
बानगी = a sample. सेतिका = two prasritis or handfuls.

2.सीमन्तोन्नयन = the ceremony of parting or dividing
of hair. observed by women in the fourth, sixth or eighth months of Pregnancy.
3. Khalla seems to me here a leather vessel of standard capacity.
Bharaka also stands for a particular measure of weight= 20 tulas = 2000 palas of gold.
4. Kela here seems to mean a standard wine-vessel, smaller
than a khaila.संकाचितक = Hindi. बैघी = baskets suspended at the ends of a bamboo-pole to be carried on shoulders.
5. Pada-ghate may have been an earthen vessel of a quarter-standard.

Footnote- 23
Chimpaka may be the same as the Panjabi word chhimba,
meaning a washerman or a dyer, and the Gujarati word chhipo meaning a dyer of clothes. Kolika seems to be
a Prakrit form of Sanskrit. kaulika = a weaver. Padakara may either be a shoe-maker, or it may be the same as
Hindi paukar, i.e. a retailer hawking his goods on foot

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