Chendalur Copper-plates of Kumaravishnu

Written by Alok Mohan on January 1, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Five copper-plates “ were found by a farmer, of Ongole taluka of the Nellore district, while he was digging house-site for laying it’s foundation. The pot containing these plates were
buried in a pot full of paddy husk.
 The first plate and the last plate, contain writings inside only. The plates have no rims. In the upper and lower borders they are not as broad as in the middle. 
Pallavas maintained a well-organized administrative system. Pallava state was divided into Kottams. Again Kottam was administered by officers appointed by the king. The king was at the center of administration in which he was assisted by able ministers. He was the fountain of justice. He maintained a well-trained army. He provided land-grants to the temples known as Devadhana and also to the Brahmans known as Brahmadeya. It was also the responsibility of the central government to provide irrigation facilities to the lands.
Palavas carried out extensive development work for the welfare of their subjects. Several irrigation tanks were dug. Land tax was the primary source for cresting revenue for the kingdom. Lands owned Brahmadeya and Devadhanas were exempted from tax, while traders and artisans paid taxes. 
Pallava inscriptions throw light on an efficient administrative set up. They constituted village assemblies, which were called Gram Sabhas. They recorded, ownership of all cultivated lands within their kingdom, and also looked after cultural and religious affairs.
Inscription number 30.
Chendalur Copper-plates of Kumaravishnu 2.
(Beginning of the 5th century (A.D.)
Provenance: Chendalur, Ongole taluka, Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi palaeographically almost similar to the script of Pikira, Mangalur and Uruvupalli grants.
Language: Sanskrit.
Footnote 1.
1. Of the kanchi branch. The wording resembles the Pikira, Manglur and Uruvapalli grants of simhavarman. But the pedigree in the latter three differs from that in the present grant, and thus direct and continuous connection can be established between both the sets of kings, though Skandavarman is the common ancestor, But after him the
line divides into two different branches- the main branch ruling at Kanchi, and the other in Nellore-Guntur region
(See supra, IV, 27, n.1)
Metres: Vv.1-4, श्लोक ( अनुष्टुब )
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind, VIII, pp. 233-36.
First plate.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., between pp.234 and pp.235.
2. on the left margin.
3. On the left margin below the plate number.
4. Of the two  homonyms, Pallava king
Who calls himself Vijaya Skandavarman, in his Omgodu and Gunapadeya plates (Supra, IV, 23, 24)
and is called अभ्युच्चित – शक्ति – सिधि – सम्पन्न 
and प्रतापोपनत – राज – मंडल  as here in Omgodu, Pikira and Vilavathi plates of simhavarman 3, (supra IV, 26-28)
although these very epithets are applied to some other kings, like viravarman elsewhere.
Second plate second side.
Footnote 3.
1. On the left margin.
2. Also mentioned in two Eastern chalukya grants (Ind.Ant.VII, pp.187,  text 1.12 and XX, pp.105, text 1.16) as कर्म – राष्ट्र and as कम्म-राष्ट्र
in a third one. (Ep.Ind., VIII, pp.239, 1.25)
Fourt Plate Second Side.
Footnote 4. 
1. In the left margin.
2. Modern Chandalura in Nellore district.

English Translation of the inscription.
Hail ! Victory has been achieved by Bhagavan.
Hail !
From the victorious Kanchipura, the pious Maharaja, the illustrious Kumaravishnu, who is consecrated for the true vow of constant effort of pleasing and nourishing his subjects,
who is shining with the fame of victories won in daring
engagements in many wars, who is ever ready to rescue dharma
(virtue) sunk because of the depravities of the Kaliyuga, who is desirous of winning all the collections of virtues of
of royal sages, who is desirous of victories of piety, who meditates 
on the feet of the Lord (Bhagavat), a fervent Bhagavata, of Bharadvaja gotra, devoted to the feet of the lord (his) father, and of the family of the Pallavas who are the abode of the
fortunes of other kings overcome by their own valour and have
properly performed several horse-sacrifices, who is the son of
the truthful Maharaja the illustrious Buddhavarman, of immeasurable
personality, who had caused to be produced all the blessings
through devotion to the lord, who had the collection of qualities
emulating (those of the primeval kings the grandson of Maharaja Sri Kumaravishnu of truthful spirit, the fifth Lokapala among the Lokapalas, expert in nourishing (his) subjects, one who
had increased the pile of religious merit by gifts of many cows, gold, land etc.who was the worshipper of gods, brahmanas preceptors and the old and whose humility had increased, who
was the great grand son of Maharaja Sri-Skandavarman, the unique
hero on the suface of the earth, who had subdued the circle of
kings with his valour, (and) who was endowed with augmented power 
and success, addresses the (following) order to the villagers, in village of Chendalura in Karmanka-rashtra and to all (royal) employees (naiyogika)
and superintendents (vallabha) having jurisdiction here (i.e. in this district) that inthe village of Chendalura in Kavachakara subdivision of this Kamanka district.
We have given all this field measuring four hundred and thirty two pattikas out of an aggregate (samudayatah) area of eight hundred pattikas on all the four sides, lying as the king’s property
to the Brahmana Bhavaskandatrata of the Kaundinya gotra and
the chhandoga sutra and a resident of Abhirupa under the terms and conditions applicable to gifts to Brahmanas, with the exception of the land enjoyed by temples, for cultivation
(hala-nayayana) accompanied by all immunities for the increase
of our life-span, power, victory and supremacy (aisvarya) in
the second year of our reign of growing victory in the month Karttika, on the fifth tithi of the bright fortnight. Having
understood this, they must exempt this  brahmadeya field with all the immunities, and cause it to be exempted. And whosoever
transgresses this our edict that wicked man is liable to corporal punishment. and with reference to this there are also
the following) verses sung by Brahman:
(Here follow four of the customary verses)
Thus it has been ordered. Let cows and brahmanas rejoice. Let there be welfare to (all) men.
1. Hultzsch reports that anusvara is there, but has failed to come out on photo-lithograph.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.