Written by Alok Mohan on November 19, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Many copperplates discovered from Bangladesh provide authentic information as regards history of ancient Bengal.
It is understood that so far one stone inscription (inscribed on a rock in the Susunia hills) and eleven copper-plates of the Gupta period have been discovered. The stone inscription has been ascribed to Chandravarman, who was defeated by Samudragupta.
The copper-plate found in Bangladesh, belong to Gupta Era 113 to 159 (432-479 AD). All these copper-plates are dated in the Gupta Era and were issued to record land grants. A substantial number of Gupta coins with the names of the kings inscribed on them in the Brahmi script have also been found in many places of Bangladesh. Consequent to downfall of the Gupta empire several independent kingdoms had emerged in Bengal and these kings issued their own copper-plates and coins. Among them most notable are three copper-plates of Shashanka found in the Medinipur district of West Bengal and two plates issued by the independent Vanga kings found from kotalipara and Kurpala (Faridpur district). From Kotalipara two copper-plates of king Dharmaditya have been found. One of the Kotalipara plates contains the name of Dvadasaditya, who in all probability may be connected with the family of Dharmaditya.
Dharmaditya assumed the title Maharajdhiraja which means he was an independent and powerful king of southern part of West Bengal.
Two important provinces Vardhamana bhukti and Navyavakashika (or Suvarnavithi) were under his control, while Faridpur (Kotalipura) was capital of his empire. On the basis of this copperplate Inscription, it may therefore be stated that he was an independent and sovereign ruler of the Faridpur kingdom.

Inscription number 69.
Faridpur Copper Plate inscription of the time of Dharmaditya – Regnal Year 3.
Provenance: Faridpur District, Bangla-Desh.
Script: Late Brahmi of the Northen class of the middle
of the 6th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metre: V.1- श्लोक अनुष्टुब
References: F. E. Pargiter, Ind,.Ant. XXXIX, 1910, pp195ff.,
J.R.A.S, 1912, pp-710ff, R.G. Basak, Sir
Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee vol.. III, Pt.ii, pp-475ff. Bhandarkar’s List No. 1722 (for other references)
Footnote 1.
D.C. Sircar (Sel.Inss, I, pp-363, n.3) toys with the idea of connecting this prince with the Imperial Gupta family on the basis of his name-ending, aditya, and
on a reference in the Arya-manjusti-mula-kalpa (ed.
sankrityayana, vv. 844-46)) to the rule of a king called Va. and his successor or younger brother called Dha
He is tempted to identify Va with Vainyagupta and Dha with Dharmaditya.
But the latter dated all his surviving official records in his own regnal
era, instead of the Gupta era, as was the regular practice in all Official Gupta records. This makes it certain that Dharmaditya was setting up an
Independent dynasty.
First Side.
Footnote 2.

1.From the facsimile in Ind. Ant. XXXIX, P1,I and IV A.
The language of the record is defective.
2. According to Sircar (Sel,.Inss,. I, pp363, n.5), Varaka, Originally a mandala, i.e. a tehsil was later raised
to the status of a vishaya or district, But the original appendage mandala survived and became part of the name of the town Bhukti or province was divided into vishayas, which were subdivided into mandalas.
Each mandala had revenue circles, called pravesya.
3. Expressed by a symbol.
4. Aspada = office, authority.
5. Appointing authority of a विषय – पति
It is to be noted here, was the महाराज or viceroy apparently of Navyavakasika. अध्यासन – काल = term of office.
Footnote 3.

1. Read बृहच्चटटालुका
Sircar identifies बटट with
modern Chattopadyaya, a cognomen of the Kulina Brahmanas of Bengal. He refutes the tradition that the Kulinas were brought to Bengal from Kanyakubja or Kolancha by King
Adisura after the 7th century A.D.
2. Better read अनमित्त्र
3. Pargiter took अज्र्जुनबप्य as one name, while Sircar takes अर्जुन and बप्य as two names, since the latter is used as a personal name in many inscriptions, e.g. Nidhanpur plates of Bhaskaravarman (Bhattacharya, Kamarupa – Sasanavali, pp-37, n.88)
4. From साधन = an Army,
Sadhanika was probably a cavalryman. Hindi साहनी meaning a horse-groom is derived from Sanskrit साधनिक
Sircar (sel.Inss.,I, pp.364, n.5), thinks, Sadhanika was a commander of forces
and mentions that दौ: साधिक,
दौ: साधनिक or दौ: साध साधनिक,
in Later Bengal grants was a police officer dealing with dangerous criminals or difficult job though, according to the Trikandasesha,
दौ: साधिक = द्वारपाल or door-keeper.

Footnote 4.
1. विषये विभज्य = making it a distinctly demarkated unit in the vishaya.
2. i.e, custom ( the countries bordering) the eastern sea or the Bay of Bengal.
3. = कृत चिहनाडन्का i.e whose boundary marks are fixed वाप – क्षेत्र
= cultivated field as opposed to
or – खिल – क्षेत्र
In the sahitya Parishat plate, the word
is used in the sense of a plantation or a betel-nut plantation.
Thus the phrase may also mean, a piece of plantation.
4. i.e by an arrangement that is apparent to the eye.
5. i.e. by the law (conferring various immunities) on the lands granted by copper-plate charters.
6. Read विक्रीयमाणका:
Footnote 5.
1. See the Vishnu-samhita, III, 13-14.
ब्राहमणेभ्य: करादानं न कुर्यात !
ते हि राज्ञो धर्म – करदा: राजा प्रजाभ्य: सुकृत दुष्कृत षष्ठाश-भाक् ! Pargiter and Basak have apparently misunderstood the phrase, in suggesting that the state was to receive according to the law, only the sixth part of the price in such transactions and that the rest of the price went to the funds of the
Village assemblies.
2. कृयया + आधृत्य = having determined through action i.e implementation
Other inscriptions have the phrase – क्रियतामित्यवधृते
3. Read नलेनापविञ्छय or नलाभ्यायपविञ्छय
4. Dhruvilati is identified with modern Dhulat in Goalundo sub-division about 45 km. North. West of Faridpur.
Footnote 5.

1. Read षडड्न्गाध्यायिने चन्द्रस्वामिने
2. i.e माता-पित्रो ब्राहमणानुग्रहात पुण्याप्यायनाय
3. Read लिखितकम (qualifying
भूमिदानं in 1.22) आगामी – सामन्त -राज़ै समधिगत शास्त्रेर्भूमि क्षेय = transgressing.
4. पाटक: = Sircar explains the word as a piece of land, measuring a pataka, But here it seems to have been used in the sense, in which patti is used in
northern India viz share of land.
5. Read त्रिघाटिका or त्रिघटिटका
possibly the name of a village flanked by three ghatas i.e. landing places.

English Translation of the inscription.
Seal: The seal of the Board of Administration of the Varakamandala vishaya.
L1,1-7: Om ! May there be well-being !
During the reign of the supreme king of Great Kings, Sri Dharmaditya, who is a matchless warrior on this
earth (and) who is equal in steadfastness to Yayati
and Ambarisha and during the term of offce of the Great King Sthanudatta,, who gained his office through
his (i.e, Dharmaditya’s) favour (and) during the administration in the Varakamandala (vishaya) of
Vishayapati Jajava, who was appointed by him (i.e. Sthanudatta) the Board of administration and the Mahattaras of the vishaya- prominent among whom are, Itita, Kulachandra, Garuda, Brihacchatta, Aluka,
Anachara, Bhasaitya, subhadeva, Ghoshachandra, Anamitra, Gunachandra, Kalasakha,, Kulasvamin, Durlabha, Satyachandra, Arjuna, Bappa (and) Kundalipta,–and
the common people, were petitioned by the sadhanika vatabhauga:-
L1.7-9: “I wish to buy a piece of cultivated land from your
honours, and to bestow it on a brahmana. There fore, do you
deign to give it to me, after collecting the price from me and demarkating the same in the district.
L1.9-13 wherefore, with reference to this petition, we have unanimously determined, on ascertainment by the record-keeper vinayasena,, that there is in this district a rule, along the eastern sea, to sell cultivated lands at the rate of four dinaras per kulyavapa and that the pieces of

cultivatad land, after being measured and demarkated (Krita-kalanah) by an arrangement that is apparent to the
eye to be sold according to the laws applicable too copper-charter sales and that in this (sale) there will be the gain of one sixth of the religious merit (arising thereof) to Hls Majesty
L1.13-17 Therefore, having received this information, (and) having determined with action, according as is the intention of the one who has set his mind on establishing the fame of his religious merit through (this pious)
trust (nyasa), the sadhanika vatabhoga having paid twelve dinaras in advance, after deciding the action, we have
sold according to the terms and conditions prescribed for copper-plate charters to Vatabhoga three kulyavapas
of cultivated land in dhruvilati after getting it measured out by sivachandra with eight-nine fold read.
L1.17-20: And this Vatabhoga, too has bestowed it, with libation of water to chandrasvamin of Bharadvaja gotra
and a student of the Sukla Yajurveda and the six Vedangas to be enjoyed for as long as the moon, the stars
and the sun last desiring (for himself benefits in the next world for as long a time and also for his parents.
L1.20-23 Therefore the future chiefs and kings, who have thoroughly learnt the Shastras on the subjects of
grant of lands and their preservation, confiscation and abetment and having understood that properly (lawally) made gifts should be re-bestowed by
other kings also they should thoroughly nourish (this) afore-mentioned land grant.
L1.23 25: And the boundary marks here are:
On the east is Himasena’s share of land, on the south is Trighatika,
and another copper chartered land, to the west is the Silakunda belonging to the village of Trighattika, to the north is the harbour of Bhavata and Himasena’s
share of land,
L1.25 26 And there is a verse in this context.
(Here an imprecatory verse is quoted).
L1.27: The year 3, the 5th day of Vaisakha.
1. ताम्रपटटेन प्रत्ता भूमि
2. A Village, also refered to in the Faridpur grant of Gopa Chandra of the year 18: (see infra III, 73) But here it evidently refers to a sheet of water or kunda that are common in Ganges delta, being the remains of old water courses or depression.And the silakundagrama may have been located near it, though it seems to have been the
property of the other village, Trighattika.
3. According to Hoernle and Pargiter: नौ + आता (= door-frame)+ क्षेणी (= क्षेयण being a harbour) = ship-building harbour = Ship building harbour.
But the letter भा is quite clear.Their reading नावाता is erroneous.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.