ancient indian history

Inscription-71 of Dharasena

The Maitraka dynasty had ruled over Gujarat from the 475 to 770 A D. The founder of Maitraka dynasty, was Senapati Bhatarka, who was a military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under the Gupta Empire.
He had established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat.
The first two Maitraka rulers Bhatarka and Dharasena 1. used the title of Senapati while the third ruler Dronasimha carried the title of Maharaja.
King Guhasena stopped using the term Paramabhattaraka, Padanudhyata along with his name like his predecessors, which denotes the cessation of all forms of allegiance to the Gupta overlord.
He was succeeded by His son Dharasena 2, who started using the title of Mahadhiraja.
Dharasena- 2was succeeded by his son Siladitya 1 Dharmaditya, who ruled between 605 AD – 610 AD, & whose empire covered vast territory.
During his reign, Valabhi was the most powerful kingdom in Western India.

Inscription number 71
Mota Machiala Plates of Dharasena -2, Gupta Year 252 (571 A.D.)
Provenance: Mota Machiala, district Amreli, Gujrat.
Script: Brahmi of the southern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: A.S. Gadre, EpInd, XXXI, pp301-304.

Godres reading. तस्यानुज is without doubt wrong. This stereotyped genealogy occurs in all the charters of Dharasena 2. In some such as his Palitana Plates of the year 252, the phrase तस्यात्मज after Dharapadas, is absolutely clear.
(see Ep.Ind, XI, Pl. facing pp,82, 1.11; Infra II, 73,l.11)
and in another Pl. of the
same year it is fairly legible (Ep.Ind., XXXVII, Pl.B. between pp.172-73, 1.11, Infra II, 73, l.11)
1. र्धुजा = Royal share of grain. See Supra, II, 58, l 2, n.
2. H.G. Sastri (Maitraka-kalina, Gujrat, Appendix 5, pp.36)
has identified Bhattivata with the village Bhadabhadiya, situated some 3 km South-West of Hathab.
1. Drawn like the mathematical symbol for equal (e.g.=) theee punctuation marks here and in the following lines
are meant to serve the same purpose as a comma does in modern composition.
2. The reference is to the area irrigated by the vapi or step-well. परिसर = surrounding area.
3. The danda used here also is meant to serve the purpose of a comma.
4. Gadre proposes to delete what he reads as एत before सोद्रड़ ग
पादावर्त्त seems a synonym of निवर्त्तन in II 57, above and may be roughly equal to a कुल्यवाप in some Gupta plates e.g Damodarpur plates of Kumara-Gupta 1,
(ii, 20 above) See also ii, 63,l.14, n above.
In relief:
Under a seated humped bull facing 1:
श्री भटक्क:
English Translation of the inscription

L 1: Peace ! From Valabhi.
L1-2: Among the Maitrakas, who forcibly subdued their enemies, there was the illustrious General Bhatarka,
A devout worshipper of Siva who had attained glory from hundreds of blows struck on the extensive circle of
his foes of matchless power and who had acquired the majesty of kingship with the strength of a multitude
of servants and friends, who had either submitted to his prowess or were acquired through gifts, honours and straight forward dealings or were hereditary and loyal because of love.
L1.2-4: His son was the devout worshipper of siva, the General Dharasena, whose bent head was made tawny and was purified by the dust on his father’s feet, the rays of the line of nails of his feet were
covered with the glow of his crest jewels of his enemies,
while bowing their heads in obeisance upon whose wealth,
the miserable and helpless people subsisted.
L1.4-6: His younger brother was the devout worshipper of siva, Maharaja Dronasimha, whose crest-Jewel was all the more auspicious and pure from bending in obeisance to his
(Older brother’s feet, who considered it his duty (dharma) to implement the laws instituted by Manu and
others, who like Dharmraja (i.e. Yamaraja or Yudhishtra) had established the system of discipline and order, whose anointment was made personally in a coronation
by the supreme lord, the ruler of the entire sphere of the earth and (thus) his royal splendour was puriied
by this grand conferment.
L1.6-7: His younger brother, a devout worshipper of Visnu, was Maharaja Dhrurvasena, who with the strength of
his own arm, like a lion, was the sole conqueror of the multitudinous elephant corps of his enemies, who was shelter to those, who sought it, who under stood the true meaning and essence of the scriptures, who, like wish tree (kalpataru), was the giver of desired fruit and enjoyment to his friends and admirers.
L1.7-9: His younger brother, a devout worshipper of the sun god, was Sri Maharaja Dharapatta, who had washed
all his sins by falling in obeisance on his (elder brother’s) lotus-like feet, who had washed off all the blemishes of the evil age (Kali kala) with the water that
was his good conduct, whose eminence became renowned in
consequence of his having completely subdued by force, the faction of his enemies.
L1.9-13: His son, a devout worshipper of (god) siva, was the Maharaia Sri Guhasena, who had acquired rising merit by serving at his (father’s) feet, who from his childhood, had revealed himself as the touchstone of prowess by splitting as under the multitude of rutted elephants of his enemies with the sole aid of his sword-arm, the
beam of rays from the nails of his left foot were mixed with the glow of crest-jewels of his enemies, who were
made by his prowess to fall on his feet, who conformed to the real meaning of the word Raja, by pleasing the
hearts of his subjects as a result of properly nourishing them according to the system (laws) established
by all the smritis, who excelled the god of love, the moon, the king of mountains (.e. the himalayas), the
Ocean, the preceptor of gods (Brihaspati), the god of
wealth (Kubera) respectively, with his beauty, charm, firmness, profoundness, wisdom and wealth, who threw
away the entire fruit of his endeavres with contempt as if it were straw, because of his devotion to
granting security to those, who took to his shelter and who enjoyed the expanse of the entire sphere of
the earth like iko a pedestrian.
L1.13-18: His son, the devout worshipper of Lord siva, the
Maharaja Shri Dharasena Who has carried out a thorough wash off of all his sins in the flood of the
Ganga-water that is the beam of rays, from nails on his father’s feet, whose luxuries and riches sustained a
hundred thousand of his admirers, who was eagerly attended as if by the attraction of his beauty: by
qualities, attainable (with Effort) who has surprised all the archers with his natural power and special
training who is the protector of the religious grants made by earlier (lit first) kings, who is the remover
of termoils that cause harm to the subjects Who demonstrates community of habitation of the Goddesses of wealth and Learning whose valour is competent to
disturb the glory of the united actions of his enemies (and) who has attained his spotless royal majesty
though inheritance commands all his ayuktakas, Viniyuktakas, drangikas mahattaras, chatas and bhatas
Collectors of royal share of grain (Dhruvadhi-karanikas) the tax-collectors (saulkikas) the protectors of the
roads, Pratisarakas, rajasthaniyas, kumaramatyas and other Officers concerned with the execution of
the orders.
L1.18-23: Be it known to you that, for the purpose of increasing the religious merit of my parents and for attaining the desired award for myself in this and the next world, I have granted as a Brahmana fief (or pious gift) with
libation of watar to hundred padavartas (of land) in the village Bhattivata on it’s northern boundary(and) a step.
-well on the eastern boundary with thirty-two Padavartas of peripheral lands and a step-well with
twenty padavartas of peripheral land in the village savinipadraka on its southern boundary and in the village, Baudhanaka on its northern boundary, a piece of cultivated land known as (or owned in trust by Peraka, and a hundred padavartas of land) on the lower (or western) boundary in the village, Bhabbalapalaka, all
this has been granted together with udranga, together with uparikara, together with the levies in cash
(hiranya) and food-grains, (and on produce from)/the wind and other elements, free labour, with interference from all state Officials banned, and according to the maxim
of the earth and the hole-to the Brahmana Rudra of Maitrayani school (of the Yajurveda) and of Varahaka-
Lamakayana Gotra for the performance of the rituals, (namely bali, charu, vaisvadeva, agnihotra, atithi
yajna, the constituents of the five mahayajnas, to be enjoyed by the succession of his sons, grandsons etc.
For as long as the moon the sun, the oceans the rivers, and the earth endure.
L1.23-26: For this reason, nobody should stand in opposition
to him, while enjoying according to the terms of the pious gift (or Brahmana fief) eg while cultivating or getting it cultivated or ordering (it’s cultivation). And the future kings born in our lineage, and others understanding the impermanence of royal power,
the Instability of human life, and the common share in the reward or land-grants should assent to and nurse
this gift of ours.
L1.26-30: And whosoever confiscates it, or assents to its confiscation, should be guilty of the great sins, together with minor sins. And it has been stated by
venerable Vedavyasa.
(His three customary imprecatory verses are quoted)
L.30: Written by skandabhata, (the Minister) incharge of
Peace and war. Chchibbira is the duta (executor).
The year 252, the 15th day of the dark fortnight of Vaisakha.
L.31: This is the hand (writing) of me, the Maharaja sri Dharasena.
1. उद्रड़न्ग and उपरिकर have been equated respectively with the क्ल्रिपत and उपक्ल्रिपत
of the Vakataka grants,
where they are translated as major and minor taxes respectively, Sircar (Sel.Ins,.I, pp-438) treats
and उद्रड़न्ग and उपरिकर
as fixed and occasional taxes and as tax on permanent and temporary
tenants respectively.
2. The five maha-yajnas are,
1. brahma. 2. deva 3-pitri
4. Manushya, and 5. bhuta-yajna.
See Monier Williams,
Indian Wisdom, pp.194 and Religious thought and life in India. pp-411.

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