ancient indian history

Jangali Gundu Inscription

Inscription number 173

Myakadoni (Jangali Gundu) Inscription of Pulumavi
(217-25 A.D) Regnal Year 8 (= 225 A D)
Provenance: Located midway between the villages. Myakadoni and
Chinnacadaburu, Bellary district, Karnataka.
Script: Brahmi.
Language: Prakrit.
References: V.S. Sukthankar, Ep.Ind XIV pp-l54, D.C. Sircar sL7 1 PP- 212-13.
V. S. Sukthankar EP. ind. XIV pp.154) identified this king with Vasishthiputra Pulumavi- 1, who was son in law of Rudraman as per a few historians, but the paleography of
the Inscription does not support this Identification. He flourished much too early and little is known about him.
Pulumavi 2, (AD 163-70) and Pulumavi III (A D. 218-25) ruled only for seven years each and did not have the
8th regnal year. D.C. Sircar, identifies him with Paloma, the last king of the main line list in the Puranas (see successors of the Satavahanas,
pp-161-64, for the chronology of the later Satavahana kings) like other Nagarjunikonda inscriptions, the
only difference between त and न here is in the former’s right leg, which is curved to towards the left.

From the facsimile in Ep-Ind XIV, Pl. facing p.155.
2. Note the family name, Satavahana, which is rarely used in Inscriptions
3. Possibly the intended word is स्वामित
(I.e of the lord Sri Pulumavi) cf
लिखितमिदं महाराझो सांधिविग्रहीक देव सिडघ देवेनेति
In the jirjingi Copper Plate Inscriptions of Indravarman Ganga Year 39 line 26. or possibly attempting to write महासेनापतिस the engraver left out हा then erased the two aksharas and engraved the whole afresh.
4. cf. साताहनि-रटठ of the hirahadagalli plates below (Infra Volume IV, number 22, l-27)
5. Sukthankar suggests गुमिक (=गौत्मिक )
Sircar prefers ( गा ) मिक since the महासेनापति ruled the janapada while the affairs of the ग्राम were conducted by Gramika. The meaning of the word Gulmika or Gramika, mentioned on Myakadoni inscription is Feudatory chief.
It is evident from this Inscription that the feudatory titles, like Maha-senapati, Gramika etc, had not only survived the Satavahana rule, but had spread as far as south and north of India. The Mahasenapati title of this Inscription of the last king of Satavahana lineage, is like Amaca in charge, title which was in use at Andhra. However the role of Mahasenapati, appear to be a generic title. The title is judged as as feudatory on the ground that the Anguttara Nikdya means Senapati along with other hereditary titles like Rafthikas, Gramikas etc.
Consequent to Sakas attacks, & consequent to weakening of Satavahana empire, vulnerable parts of the empire were handed over to Mahasenapatis and Senapatis, who had naturally siezed the opportunity to gain feudatory ranks and powers, in the empire. In addition to this decentralisation of powers there were feudal lords of lands. Due this decentralisation of powers & emergence, of several power centres, the king had no option, but create a lekha department, for drafting large number of royal orders/writs.
There are also some evidences of Mahasenapatis issuing coinage on their names for example
Mahadrathi in chitaldoorg district, who struck coins in his name.
Senapatis and mahasenapatis were entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining their own armies & keep safe, the areas under their jurisdiction.
Rather they acted like frontline troops of the empire & enjoyed limited sovereign powers.
Gramikas were responsible for creating revenues for both Senapatis  & the king, for efficient functioning of administration. They were also maintaining land records and resolving minor disputes within their respective village boundaries. Bigger issues were referred to the king or senapatis.

Pulumavi was a peculiar name which continued on the coinage also as a brand and was given to all the
coins and inscriptions of the kings bearing it. The
name Pulumavi occurs thrice in the Puranic lists. It is hard to
believe that the great Gautamiputra is not mentioned in
the Puranas by his only non-surname, while the only Gautamiputra
is an insignificant prefix. Gautamiputra Vilivayakura. Gautamiputra and
Pulumavi are poised only lower in the list. The interval between Gautamiputra and Siri-Yana
of 320 years and that between Pulumavi and Siri-Yana of 265 years
are too long. That between Gautamiputra and Kanha of 53 years
is too short. Fortunately we have at Nasik a stream of inscrip-
tions belonging to different reigns of Kanha’s time, of Hakusiri’s
grand-daughter, of Gautamiputra and Pulumavi, and of Siri-Yaiia’s
time. Nasik palaeography is therefore a weighty and accurate
English Translation of the inscription
Success ! On the day one of the 2nd (fortnight) of the winter of the (regnal) Year 8 of Sri Pulumavi, king
of the satvahana (family) the reservoir was sunk by the house holder Samba of the family of the Kauntas, living in
the village Vepuraka. of the Headman (or Captain) Kumaradatta
In the province of Satava baniya hara of the Great General Sikanda naga.

It is pertinent to mention here that
no trace of the tank has survived on this site. The site of the
rock, firmly buried in soil, provides a definite proof that the Southern limits of the Satavahana empire extended beyond this point.

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