ancient indian history

Kanas Plates of Lokavigraha -bhattaraka

Inscription number-18.
Kanas Plates of Lokavigraha -bhattaraka -Gupta Year 280 (=599-600 A.D.)
The Kanasa plates of Sri Lokavigraha plate of shed light on the worship of Maninagesvar (Shiva) and Naga cult of the South Toshali region.
Taking into account the material and style of this temple, it is evident that it was built at least 1,300 to 1,400 years ago, and is among the oldest intact temples in the region.
Provenance: Village Kanas, 16 km, from the Delang railway station, in Puri district, Orissa.
Script: Gupta Brahmi of sixth century A.D. closely resembling the smandala Plates of Prithivi-vigraha-bhattaraka, G.E. 250.
Language: Sanskrit.
Footnote 1.
1. He seems to belong to the same family to which Prithivi-vigraha-bhattaraka of the Sumandala plates, (EP.Ind.,
XXVIII, pp.79-85, see above, IV, 17 ) of the Gupta year 250 belonged. Both make a reference to the continuing
Gupta rule (Varttamana-Gupta-rajya), though it is believed that all vestiges of Gupta rule in orissa, disappeared before G.E. 250. These vigrahas, were
continuously engaged in conflict with the house of the Manas for the possession of the Tosali kingdom.
Sambhuyasas Mana of Maudgalya gotra is known to have been ruling over uttara-Tosali in G.E. 260 ( see Soro
plates, (Ep.Ind., XXI, pp.197 ff, supra. IV,5)  Dakshina Tosali in G E. 283 (patikella plates, Ep.Ind, IX , pp.205-88, Supra, IV, 6)  side by side with the vigrahas. In this struggle, it must have pad the Vigrahas to continue to assert their legitimacy by recognising the Gupta suzerainty. Sasanka of Gauda took advantage of this rivalry and conquered orissa before G.E. 300 (see
Ganjam plate, Ep.Ind, VI, pp.143 ff)
Footnote 2.
1. Supra p, IV, ,17; Ep.Ind, XXVII, pp.84-85.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXXVIII facing pp-331. The engraving is in a very poor state of preservation.
The readings are almost entirely, except for the right of the reverse face, conjectural.
3. Expressed by the well-known spiral symbol.
4. Sircar: (mekhala-nili) nayam.
5. Sircar: गुप्त – काल
Footnote 3.
1. The city of Tosali is identified with modern Dhauli, near Bhubaneshwar, in Puri district, The necessity of
calling the northern part of Kalinga with this new name arose, when the Gangas founded their Kingdom in southern Kalinga, with capital at Kalinganagara (modern Mukhalingam in chicacole district) and assumed the biruda of lords of Kalinga or Trikalinga’. The description of Tosali as comprising eighteen forest states here is possibly the earliest reference to the
tradition of the Athara-gada-jata of orissa. A similar tradition of eighteen forest kingdoms in Madhya Pradesh
is known from the Khoh plates of samkshobha (supra, III,40) Eighteen in these contexts does not seem
to mean a precise number, but a multitude.
Orissa, like many other regions of ancient India comprised several janapadas & mahajanapadas. In the historical geography of ancient Orissa, Kalinga was regarded as one of the janapadas. The term Kalinga has been mentioned in the Mahabharata many times. Geographical boundaries of this janapada had been changing from time to time. Rulers of Kalinga had fought against Pandavas during Maha-bharata war.  The Purana literature says that the Kalinga residents were settled in southern region along with the Navarastras, Mahiskas etc.
2. Dakshina Tosali roughly corresponded to the Puri district with parts of cuttack and Ganjam), and the
Uttara Tosali to the Utkala country comprising modern Balasore district, with parts of cuttack and Midnapur).
3. Sircar: Utida (or Mutida) vishaya (t)
4. Sircar Viniyu (kta) kā (h) ga-Vaisika-vishayapa – ty-amsa, vri(= bri) hadbhi gik- adhikara ( na)
(Tosali of this Inscription was the capital of the province of Orissa during the Asoka’s time.)
Footnote 4.
1. Sircar vaisvasika-vishayap [ty-amsa] vri (=bri) [hadbhogih -adhikaranan-anyams-cha.
2. Sircar:  यथास्मद्विषय:
3.भ  is inserted slightly above the line.
Sircar suggests that Ekambaka may be a variant of Ekamra (or Emaraka) . which is the old name of Bhubaneshwara. Maninaga son of Kadru, according to the Puranas, seems to have been identical with the Yaksha
Manibhadra, and was widely worshipped in India,.
There was a Maninaga tirtha at Rajagriha. There is a
Maninaga hill at Ranpur in orissa, where the goddess Maninaga-Durga is worshipped.
Footnote 5.
1. This mark of punctuation is superfluous. This mark here and in the following lines, is meant to serve the
same purpose as hyphen does in English.
2. Sircar:  (Sridatta) Jirodam [sa) vri
(=bri) hadbhogika-sudumaka.
3. Sircar (drangapa).. kaischeti.
4. This symbol seems to be a circle within a circle, or a spiral arm running in a direction opposite that of the
symbol for Om.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om ! Peace ! During the currency of the year two hundred increased by eighty of the Gupta rule on the earth,
covered with continents, mountains and cities, and beautiful with the swell of the girdle of waves of the waters of the four oceans, when the Parama-devatadhidaivata (supreme
divinity of the divinities, the illustrious Lokavigraha bhattaraka was ruling over the Tosali, comprising eighteen
forest states the Privy councillors, the Governor of the vishaya, and all the officers of the bhoga (district together with the Viniyuktakas, after paying their respects as due, inform the present and future Mahasamanta-Maharajas,
princes, Kumaramatyas, Uparikas, and their appointees, (Such as) confidential secretaries (or Privy councillors), the
Vishayagoptris (i.e. the Vishayapatis), the army oficers and other enjoyers of the tax-share (serving) in the richly
Variegated southern Tosali:-
Be it known to you that having ascertained that the
village of Urdvasringa, attached to the chaimvad vishaya is since long free from fallow land and possesses many qualities, we have, with the permission of His Divine Majesty Parama-
devata-dhi-daivata), the illustrious supreme Lord granted for the attainment of religious merit, wealth and enjoyment, after recording on a copper-plate according to the regulations, governing permanent endowments to last as long as the moon and the sun endure and after establishing the boundary
marks, or the institution of bali, charu and sattra in connection with the Matha of the Lord Sri Maninagesvara of
chaimvad and or the maintenance of the Brahnana students of
the Maitrayani (sakha (of the Yajurveda) and belonging to
various gotras. Therefore, knowing thus you should, from a desire or (earning) religious merit continue protection. “
The Year 280, the 5th day of Phalguna. Follow up action was taken by the soldiers of Suryadatta by the
Confidential Secretary Bhavanaga, the Governor of the vishaya
Sridatta, executor of the order Ganga, the cavalryman Gandapala Karanika Nagadatta, and by the Drangapala Vasudeva.
Here follow two of the traditional verses)

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