ancient indian history

Karnataka brahmins

MBrahmins are one among prominent communities of Karnataka. They belong to a high social group and are considered to be the priestly class. They have traditionally occupied positions as priests, scholars, and teachers. Carnatic Brahmins are Pancha Dravida Brahmins. They are Smartas, Madhavas, & Sri Vaishnavas They comprise 2.5% of the total population of Karnataka.

Karnataka, Brahmins have played significant roles in many fields, including religion, academia, arts, administration etc.

They have contributed to the maintenance and propagation of ancient hindu scriptures, Vedic rituals, and cultural traditions. They follow the customs and traditions of the Smartha Brahmin sect, which is one of the major divisions among Brahmins in South India. The Smartha tradition emphasizes the worship of Lord Shiva as the supreme deity and advocates a synthesis of various Hindu philosophical schools. They are known for their vegetarianism. Chitrapur Saraswats are another small  Konkani-speaking community of Hindu Brahmins, in Karnataka. They are traditionally found along the Kanara coast and call themselves Bhanaps. There are few surnames like Cukkemane or Kukkemane or Cuckemane which describe family names belonging to members of the Havyaka Brahmin Community. They belong to the Gautama gotra. They originate from and are mainly based in Coorg. They are from Kukke a part of Amara Sulya district, formerly in the old kingdom of Kodagu. Deshastha Brahmin is another Hindu Brahmin sub-caste mainly from North Karnataka. Most of the well-known saints from  Maharashtra,  Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were Deshastha Brahmins. The mother tongue of Deshastha Brahmins is either Marathi or Kannada or Telugu. The traditional occupation of Deshastha Brahmins is priesthood and the Kulkarni Vatan (village accountants)

Halenadu Brahmins  are another sect of Kannada speaking Smartha Brahmins. They follow Advaita Vedanta propounded by Adi-Shankaracharya. They are essentially Rig Vedic Brahmins and are known to follow  Dharmashastra. Halenadu Brahmins originated in South Karnataka,   comprising  Mysore, Mandya and Chamarajanagar of modern Karnataka.

This is a small community from India spread the world over. They have taken names of villages in Karnataka as surnames. Some historians believe that they migrated from the banks of River Saraswati in north India. 

Over the years, Brahmins in Karnataka, have evolved in response to social, economic, and political changes. They continue to be an influential group in the state, with many individuals holding positions of power and influence in various sectors.

Havyaka Brahmins are a Hindu Brahmin community native to coastal Karnataka and the Kasaragod district of Kerala. Havyakas are known by their unique culture and language. They fall under the Pancha-Dravida Brahmin category and are Smartas and follow the Advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankaracharya. The word Havyaka is derived from the Sanskrit word havya which means sacred oblation. Thus Havyaka could mean performer of Havana rituals.

Hebbar Iyengar is a caste of Hindu Brahmins of Tamil and Kannada origin whose members follow the Visishtadvaita philosophy propounded by Ramanuja.

Hebbar Iyengars speak a unique language known as hebbar tamil, which is a Kannadised version of Tamil. The Hebbar language is highly influenced by Kannada and uses many  words from Kannada, Sanskrit and archaic Tamil Vocabulary.

During the 12th Century CE, Ramanujacharya fled Tamil Nadu for the Hoysala Kingdom, escaping the persecution of Vaishnavas by the Chola King Kulothunga II. When he was in Thondanur near Melukote, a group of elderly Kannada Brahmins from Saligrama came to visit, and heard Ramanujacharya’s discourse on Sri Vaishnava philosophy. Impressed by his preachings, they converted to Sri Vaishnavism, and became his followers.

Iyengars spelt Ayyangar or Aiyengar, pronounced are an ethno-religious community of  Tamil-speaking  Hindu Brahmins, whose members follow Sri Vaishnavism and the Visishtadvaita philosophy propounded by Ramanuja. Found mostly in the Southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh, Iyengars are divided into two denominations, the Vadakalai and the Tenkalai. The community belongs to the Pancha Dravida Brahmana classification of Brahmins.

Kannada Brahmins  are  Kannada-speaking Brahmins, primarily living in Karnataka, and also present in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. They belong to one of three traditions: Smartism, Sadh Vaishnavism  and Sri Vaishnavism, and are followers of Adi Shankara, Madhvacharya, and Ramanuja respectively. Madhva Brahmins are also called Sadh Vaishnavas and Madhvas. Sri Vaishnava Brahmins are also called Iyengars and Ramanujas.

Kota Brahmins are a Hindu Brahmin subcaste mainly. Kota Brahmins take their name from their native village Kota. They speak a Kannada different from the other regional dialects. Kota Brahmins are mainly concentrated in the villages of Kota of Udupi district. Kotas follow Smarta tradition.

Koteshwara Brahmins (also known as Koteshwara Magane Brahmins) are another  Brahmin subcaste. The community is mainly concentrated in the Koteshwara, Kundapur, and surrounding areas of Udupi. The community takes its name from the village Koteshwara, which is their native place. Koteshwara Brahmins follow the Dvaita Vedanta propounded by Madhvacharya and are followers of Sodhe Vadiraja Swami Matha.

Madhva Brahmins (also often referred as Madhvas or Sadh-Vaishnavas are Hindu Brahmin communities in India, who follow Sadh Vaishnavism and Dvaita philosophy propounded by Madhvacharya.

The Panchagrama Brahmins are a Brahmin community that follow the Smartha Sampradaya.

The Smarta tradition is a movement in Hinduism that developed and expanded with the Puranas genre of literature. It reflects a synthesis of four philosophical strands, namely Mimamsa, Advaita, Yoga, and theism. The Smarta tradition rejects theistic sectarianism, and is notable for the domestic worship of five shrines with five deities, all treated as equal – Ganesha, Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu

and  Surya.The Smarta tradition contrasted with the older Shrauta tradition, which was based on elaborate rituals and rites. There has been a considerable overlap in the ideas and practices of the Smarta tradition with other significant historic movements within Hinduism, namely  Shaivism,  Brahmanism, Vaishnavism, and Shaktism.

Sthanika Brahmins belong to Hindu Tuluva Smartha Brahmin

 group.  They are ancient Tulu community of Karnataka  also known as Parasurama Kshetra.They are the main founders of  ancient temples of tulunadu. They are among brahmins of ancient India and are referred to in many ancient historical epigraphical inscriptions as; Buddhivantha, Sthaneekam, Sthanapanthulu, Sthanadhikari, Sthanatthar, Sthalatthar, Sthanapadiyan, Thaniker, Sthanikar, Sthanadhipathi, Sthanadhyaksha, Naga brahmins, Nager brahmins, Nagoji brahmins, Tuluva brahmins. Sthanika Brahmins of south canara are referred to as Subrahmanya Sthanika Tulu Brahmins as Lord Subrahmanya is their kuladevata and Kukke subramanya temple was their main center until the 16th century.

Sthanika Brahmins are followers of Advaita Philosophy and practice the Panchayatana form of worship.

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