Maitrakas of Valabhi

Written by Alok Mohan on September 3, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

The Maitraka dynasty,  comprised Kayastha Kshatriya community. They were followers of shaivism. They ruled western India from 475 to approximately 800 CE
Maitrakas were presumably Kshatriyas and their origin was Mitra dynasty, which, had once ruled region around Mathura. Consequent to the fall of  Gupta Empire, Maitraka dynasty was founded by Senapati Bhatarka, the then governor of Saurashtra under Gupta Empire. He declared the region under his influence as a sovereign state.
The earlier Maitraka rulers Bhatarka and Dharasena 1, carried titles of only Senapatis. The third ruler Dronasimha declared himself as the Maharaja. During the reign Dhruvasena 1, Jain council at Vallabhi was held. Maitrakas had also set up a Vallabhi University, which became very popular due its scholastic pursuits and could be compared with the Nalanda University.
Consequent to repeated attacks/invasions by Arabs from the sea, the kingdom got weakened and the dynasty ended by 785 CE,.
Several temples of this period, on the western coast of Saurashtra, were also destroyed by the invaders.
Bhatarka was succeeded by his eldest son Dharasena 1, who initially used only the title of Senapati. He consolidated his power by weakening Gupta Empire.
Dhruvasena 1, was the third son of Bhatarka and the younger brother of Dronasimha. During his rule, Yashodharman of Malwa had defeated Harisena of the Vakataka dynasty, as well as the Huna king Mihirakula. Dhruvasena probably had to acknowledge to overlord-ship of Yashodharman. It is known that they had regained their glory as Yashodharman’s rule was short lived and was supplanted by the Guptas.

Inscription number 58
Maitrakas of Valabhi
Bhamodra-Mohota Copper-plate Inscription of Dronasimha-
(Gupta-valabhi ) Year 183 (502 A.D.)
Provenance: Bhamodra-Mohota, Bhavnagar District, Gujrat.
Script: Late Brahmi, Wastern variety of the Southern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
Gupta era, introduced in Kathiawar by the Guptas during their rule was continued to be used by their feudatories, the Maitrakas of Valabhi, even after they became independent. Then it came to be known as
Valabhi era in these parts, But there was a difference of seven months between the initial dates of the two.
the Gupta era commenced on chaitra sadi 1, and Valabhi era on Karika sadi.
Alberuni was aware of the identity of the two eras, but he wrongly believed that valabha was the last Gupta king hence the alternate name for the era.
Metre: Verses 1-3, श्लोक (अनुष्टुभ् )
References: A.M.T. Jackson, J.B.B.R.A.S, XX, No: LIV,
pp – 1 ff, L.D, Barnett, EP.Ind, XVI, pp-18,
D,C. Sircar,, sel,Inss, I, pp-426-29.


1. From the Facsimile in Ep.Ind XVI, facing pp-18.
2. Expressed by the spiral symbol.
3. Dronasimha’s father Bhatarka, founded the Maitraka dynasty of Valabhi (modern Wala near Bhavnagar).
Dronasimha acknowledges the suzerainty of an overlord
whom he does not name but refers to as the Paramabhattaraka a common honor, of Gupta emperors in their
inscriptions.This vague reference indicates that the hold of the sovereign Gupta ruler, had already weakened over those parts presumably owing to the
Huna occupation of neighbouring Malwa.
4. Barnett suggests: विषयकाम्
The word विषय is used here in the sense of dominions.

Footnote 2 सन्तक is a Pali word meaning ‘belonging to’ विनियुक्तक seems to be the same as तदा युक्तक
They were perhaps “Officers on special duty”
Rajatarangini, VIII, 2010, uses the word in the sense of a watch station for collecting duties.
so द्राड़िन्गक would be a collector of
duties incharge of a द्रडन्ग
Many villages in the southern hills of Himachal Pradesh have द्रडन्ग as
part of their Names as द्रडन्ग खड्ड etc.
Sircar suggests ओोद्रा द्राड़िन्गक from उद्रडन्ग a fixed tax on permanent tenants”, as the intended reading.

This emendation is un-necessary ध्रुव = the King’s fixed grain share,
Buhler pointed out that dhruva was
still used in Kathiavar and Kachchh to denote a person, who on the part of the raja, superintends the collection of the royal share of the produce in
grain” from the farmers.
He explained ध्रुवाधिकरणिक
found in later Maitraka records as one who has the superintendence of the Dhruvas.
The duties of are not clear.
Vogel regards Chata, the same as char (= head of a pergana) in erstwhile Chamba state.
Sircar, suggests that Chata was the leader of bhatas, while seems
to be a Paik or Barkandaz.
For full discussion, see Sircar, Sel.Inss., I, pp-391, n,6.
Footnote 3
Hastavapra s modern Hathab, kilometres, south of Ghoga in Bhavnagar district.
It is possibly identical with Ptolemy’s Astakampra. आहरणी seems
to be related to आहार (district), both being derived from आ +ह. They were originally jagirs like the Buktis and bhogas, for the maintenance of princes and high Officers.
2. Possibly, पाण्डुराजाया: i.e the goddess Panduraja.
3. Bali is an offering of portions of food such as grain rice and C to certain gods, semi-divine beings,
household divinities, Spirits, men birds other animals and all creatures even lifeless objects it is made before the daily meal by arranging portions of food in a circle or throwing them into the
air outside the house or into the fire. It is also called bhuta-yajna, and as one of the 5 mahayajnas. Charu
oblation of rice or barley boiled in milk and butter for offering to gods and manes. Vaisvadeva is an offering
made collective to all gods. Adyanam is
used to include agnihotra sacrifice) and
atithi-pujana (homage to guests).
4. समुत्सर्पण = performance, continuation.

Footnote 4

1. त्रिसंगमक is identifed with Tarsamia near Hathab.
2. Read प्रतिसंस्करणार्थ. पतित and विशीर्ण i e. Fallen and broken”. The phrase used in many Inscriptions is खण्ड – स्फुटित

3. र in दानैरचाट is engraved below the line हिरण्यादेय = revenue in east.
सहान्यैश्चादानै = सह अन्यै: च आदानै = together with other recoveries by the state.
Sircar, wrongly analysed: सहान्यै: as
स – हान्यै: and interpreted as, together with losses”.
4. विचारणा = doubting Ownership.
5. The five mahapatakas are:
ब्रहमहत्या सुरापानं स्तेयं गुर्वड़न्गनागम: !
महान्ति पातकान्या हुस्तत्संसर्गश्च पण्चमम् !! मनु 11.55.
Footnote 5
1. Punctuation mark is not needed.
2. A engraved between
and was later
execution work, = Officer incharge
of execution of business, (here, of the
goddess). The property was, it seems, handed over to bhiruvaka, the Officer incharge of the temple property.
5. Seems to be equivalent to of other
inscriptions e.g. Komarti copper Plate Inscription of Achandavarman of Kalinga, infra, IV, 10, I, 19 and Khoh Copper Inscription, of Samkshobha, Gupta year 209, Infra, Vol.III, No: 40,
English Translation of the inscription

L1.1-2 Om ! Peace from Valabhi.
Maharaja Dronasimha, who is devoted to the feet of His supreme Majesty (the sovereign), being on good health commands all his officers serving in his
vishaya (dominions) such as Ayuktakas, Viniyuktakas,
Mahattaras, Drangikas, the grain collection authority, the irregular and regular troops and others:
L1.2-6: Be it known to you that for the increase of (our) victories, longevity rewards or piety, fame and territory for the enrichment of all sorts of well-being
and desires for a thousand years; for the increase of religious merit of my mother and father and for the increase of my own merit, I have granted the village of Trisangamaka in
the Hastavapra aharani, with the libation of water to the goddess Sri Pandurajyay for as long as the moon,
the sun, the oceans, the earth, the rivers and the mountains last, according to the settled rules applicable to gifts to Brahmanas, e.g. together with taxes in
cash and kind, together with other recoveries, (and) out of bounds for district beyar officers, for
the purpose of maintenance of rites, viz, bali.charu, vaisvadeva and others, (and) or meeting the expenses
of perfumes, insence, lamps, oil and flowers, (and) for for the repair of breakdown and damages, and for
meeting the expenses of sacrifices in the temple (of the goddess Sri Pandurajya).

L1.6-7; For this reason, nobody should obstruct or question the ownership (of this village land) while it is being
enjoyed, cultivated, ordered about and got tilled, in terms of the appropriate law.
Ll. 7-8: And he, who supports its confiscation, shall be guilty
of the (five great sins and (five) minor sins.
L1.8-10: The future kings of our dynasty and others, considering
the merit of) gift-land as common, should confirm this grant of ours, also in this context there are verses composed by Vyasa:-
(Here follow the three of the customary verses).
L.11. Bhiruvaka is the executive officer of the Goddess. The year 183, the 15th day of the bright fortnight of
Sravana. The executor is (the king) himself. Written by the Kshatriya (named) Kumarila, the son of Shashthi-datta.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.