Matharas of Kalinga.

Written by Alok Mohan on December 13, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Matharas of Kalinga.
Shaktivarman was  the well known ruler of Mathara dynasty. He bore the title Kalingadhipati which means Lord of Kalinga. His son Prabhanjanavarman succeeded him.
 This inscription, which records creation of Ningondi village (Agrahara) was issued from Siṃhapura describes him as Sakala-Kalingadhipati, (“Lord of entire Kalinga”)
Inscription number 13.
Ningondi Grant of Prabhanjanavarman.
Provenance: Some where in the Parlakimedi taluk, Ganjam
District, Orissa, original find-spot unknown.
Footnote 1.
1. The Andhavaram plates of Anantasaktivarman (Ep.Ind, XXVIII, pp-230-31) and the present plates together reveal the following  genealogy of the Mathera dynasty:
1) Sankaravarman, 2) his son, Sakti-varman, 3) his son, Prabhanjanavarman and (4) his son, Anantasakti-varman. Their claim to being the lords of Kalinga or
entire Kalinga’ seems to be a mere pretention, because we find similar claims advanced by their contemporaries, the Pitribhaktas, eg. Umavarman, Achand avarman and
Nanda-prabhanjanavarman (supra, IV, 7-11) and the Vasishthas of central Kalinga, who later conquered
southern Kalinga from the Matharas. Vasishtha Gunavarman was the lord of Devarashtra, i.e. modern
Yellamanchili taluk of vishakhapatan district.
He was succeeded by his son, Prabhanjanavarman,
whose son Anantavarman, who claimed to be ‘the lord of Kalinga, issued his charters from Devapura (apparently
in Yellamanchili area) and from Pishtapura (modern Pithapuram) in south Kalinga. Another king, visakha-
varman, whose relation with the other contemporary dynasties is not known, issued his charter from sripura
After discovery, the first and the third of the three plates reached the hands of a goldsmith  of Adaba, in Parlakimedi taluk, while the second
came into the possession of a certain P. Gopalkrishna Varma of Kannayavalasa, about 15 km from Tekkali, Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh.
(modera siripuram in the old Vavilavalasa zamindari
of the Visakhapatnam district) when these kings were struggling for supremacy, the Gangas established
themselves about the close of the 5th century A D. at Kalinganagara, (i.e. modern Mukhalingam near srikakulam,
and gradually became the strongest power in central Kalinga. In south Kalinga we find, at slightly a later
date, a king Prithivimaharaja, son of vikramendra the grandson of Ranadurjaya, whose relation with the
Matharas or the Vasishthas is not known, ruling at Pishtapura. He or his immediate successor was over
thrown by the chalukya Pulakesin 2, of Badami before 634 A D. Thus the claim to the sovereignty over the Kalinga or the whole of it, os merely a political pretention.
Script: Brahmi of the southern class of the 5th-6th centuries A. D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: Lakshminarayan Harichandan Jagadeb, Raja of
Tekkali, Adaba-Kannayavalasa Plates, Vaitarani, IV, June, 1930, pp. 293 ff. D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind, XXX, pp.112-18.

Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind,. XXX, plate facing pp.117.
2. Simhapura has been identified with modern singupuram, near srikakulam.
3. Compare Astihona with Astihavera village of the Tekkali Plates of Umavarman (Ep.Ind., XXVIII, pp.302, Supra,IV, 9) 
4. Better सीमभिर from सीमन् or सीमाभिर from सीमा or सीम
5. Read ningondi before a Chandra taraka.
6. The sentence is defective. Other records have
भविष्य तश्च राझो विझापयामि
विझापयति धम्र्म क्रम विक्रमाणामिदं दानं 
सद्धर्ममनुपश्यदिमरेषो ग्रहारो नु पाल्य: 
(See Ep.Ind, XII, pp.5, 11.8-10; and ibid, XXVII, pp 35 11.10-13) etc. The sentence should run:
धम्र्म क्रम विक्रमाणामन्यतमेन पृथिवी संप्राप्य सद्धर्म मनुपश्य दिभरेषो ग्रहारो नुपाल्य: 
Footnote 2.
1. The same as the Rivers Krishaa and Mahanadi.
2. It appears the word purvana is left out through oversight 
and, therefore, vyaghraprastara, probably a village
formed the eastern boundary and the mole-hill formed the western one.

English Translation of the inscription.

Hail !  From the victorious (city of simhapura, the illustrious Maharaja Prabhanjanavarman, who is the lord
of entire kalinga, who wishes to adorn his family, who contemplates the feet of Lord Narayana, who is the enhancer
of the fame of the Mathara family, who is the son of illustrious Saktivarman the righteous ruler of his subjects (living)
between the rivers Krishanavenna and Mahanadi, who is the grand son of illustrious Sankaravarman, commands all the assembly of householders in the village of Astihonaramas:-
This here village (Ningondi) is demarkated, by Rukmapati on the north, Vyaghraprastara together with a mole-hill by a salmali tree on the west and the sea (i.e Bay of Bengal)
on the south. The village of Ningondi, de-markated by these
boundaries has been granted to (the Brahmanas of Various gotras
and charanas, after being made an agrahara to last as long as
the moon and the stars. Therefore knowing thus, service should
be rendered according to the proper past tradition and cash
Hiranya) and kind meya, lit measurable commodities) should be presented (to the donees). And I reguest the future kings that they should protect agrahara (in consideration of the true religlon after attaining sovereignty over the earth through right inheritance or prowess) This indeed is ( the king’s)
own duty. And in this context they cite the verses sung by
Here follow three of the customary verses)
The annual cess is two hundred and one panas.The twelfth day of the bright night of Karttika. The executor
is Maha-Pratihara-duta and Mahanandanayaka Jyeshtha.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.