Written by Alok Mohan on April 17, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

PANTALEON Sub-king in Gandhara at Pushkalavati – 185 to 132 B.C.
. Attic tetradrachm. B.M.
References: P. Gardner, B.M.C. Pl. XXX 4, N.C. 1923, Pl.XIV. 3; E.J. Rapson, C.H.I , PL.III.7; M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p.185. Pl.II.5.
Obv: In dotted circle, draped bust of Pantaleon r died, with both ends floating freely..
Rev: Zeus naked to waist, seated 1, holding figure of Hekate in r. hand and leaning on sceptre with 1 To 1.
mon 15. R.

Pantaleon was indo Greek king who reigned some time between 185-182 BC in Bactria and India He was younger successor of his father Demetrius. Appearance of Brahmi legend on d coins of rulers like Maninder & PANTALEON, shud, for d same reason, indicate some connection with comparative interior of India Scholars hv hastened to draw such conclusions on d assumption that western most limit of Brahmi ended somewhere in east Panjab, they hv placed such coins & also d rulers who issued them in this part of the country. But this assumption as also these conclusions are fallacious Brämhi script is known to hv been in use as far west as d country of Asvakas. Gandhara including Swat Valley The appearance of Brähmi legends on their Pushkalavati Nagata-devata types is, therefore, significant. How offensive d Brahmi script was to Greek mind is revealed by d fact that even On all bilingual coins of d Indo-Greeks, with d exception of two in question, Kharoshthi script is universally used Presumably, it was less offensive to the Greek mind than Brahmi. In fact, all foreign invaders, such as the Sakas, the Pablavas, the Kushanas and the Hünas, who followed the footsteps of the Indo-Greeks, adopted Kharoshthi more readily. PANTALEON was the first Greek king to strike Indian coins, peculiar irregular bronzes representing a lion with a dancing Indian woman, probably the Goddess Lakshmi which suggests he had his base in Arachosia and Gandhara and wanted a political support from the native population of India. Hindu rulers, rarely, used the Kharoshthl script. That explains Greek antipathy to it. Then, how was it that Pantaleon and Agachocles were constrained to adopt Brahmi, and that too on the obverse of their coins, relegating the Greek legend to the reverse, when on all the other issues, including those for use in the neighbouring Käpisa, they consistently refused to accept Brahmi. The explanation is provided by a significant statement in the Mahabhärata to the effect that a certain Yavana prince of Sauvira endeavoured for three years to quell the rebellion of the Gandhara people. The Yavana prince of Sauira (Sindh) is described in a subsequent verse. Sumitra and Dattamittra are obviously sanskritised versions of Demetrius. The freedom-loving Afghans must have revolted soon after the advance of Demetrius into SauvIra. The event took place before the rise of Eukratides, and before the princes of the Indian ruling house, identified with Arjuna and his brothers in order to fit them in the Mahabharata context, led their retaliatory campaigns into the Panjab and the North-West. 189-187 B. C seems to be a fair estimate of the date of this revolt. Pantaleon and Apathocles seem to have had a hard time in trying to placate the turbulent Afghans Adoption of Brahmi was one ot the measures taken to satisty the intensely patriotic feelings of these people. Brahmi was the national script ot the Asvakas or Asvaganas (Afghans)

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The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.