ancient indian history

Pravarasena Inscriptions no 6 & 7

Introduction – Vakatakas

1. The founder of the Vakataka’s dynasty was Vindhyashakti, whose name is derived from the name of the goddess Vindhyavasini.
2. The capital of the Vakataka dynasty (that built the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad) was found in present-day Nagardhan village near Ramtek of Nagpur by a group of archaeologists.
3. Nandivardhan, the then capital, was of great significance to the dynasty which ruled south-western India.
4. Pravarasena II ( 420 – 455 CE) was a ruler of the Nandivardhana-Pravarapura branch of the Vakataka dynasity.
5. Pravarasena has often been credited with authoring a Maharashtri Prakrit poem named Setubandha or Ravanavaho which details the exploits of Rama in Lanka against the demon-king Ravana.

Inscription number 6.
Dudia Plates of Pravarasena II (Regnal ) year 23.
Provenance: Dudia, Aser pargana, Chhindwara district, M.P.
Language: Sanskrit
Script: Brahmi of Southern Class, box-headed variety.
Metres: Seal श्लोक ( अनुष्टुभ )
References: F Kielhorn Ep.Ind., III pp. 258-62.
1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind III.
2. The mark of punctuation is Superfluous.
Second plate first side
1. Chammak plates (Supra III,4,8,10) read patragata while siwani plates read
patra-gata. (Pronunciation is different)
Second plate second side
1. Chamak plates have the correct reading sutāyam, is found in other plates before Devagupta, It seems
to be a case of clerical over sight here.
2. Both the other plates have the correct reading.
Third plate First side
1. Between मे and प another aksahara possibly ए or च ,appears, but the back of the impression, according
to Kielhorn, shows that it has been struck out.
2. This and the following adjectives in dual number qualify, क्षेत्रो which is understood.
3. The mark of punctuation is Superfluous
4. Originally engraved, धौ but later corrected to धी

Third plate Second side
1. Read भुञ्जतो, Since the donees are two in number or भुञ्जता if descendants are also to be included in the reference.
2. Chamak plates/read कारयिता
3. Chammak plates read धर्म्मावर-करणे
and siwani plates- धर्म्मावरधिकरणे
5. The other two plates have nothing corresponding to the sentence संकल्पाभियोग आज्ञा पयाम:
The sentence evidently is an order to feudatories and subordinates.
6. The superfluous त after- ष्य was inserted afterwards siwani plates have एष्यन्तत्काल

English Translation of the inscription.

(L1.1-12 are common with Pravarasena’s other plates.
L1.18-27 are also almost similar, the exception being common with his Chammak plates of the year 18. Translation of these segments may be seen under these plates above. In
11.13-15 Officers of identical designations in the state
( i.e ) province of Arammi are issued previously-announced
orders in the same phraseology as before)
(The orders are):-
L1.13-15: *That here we have for the increase of our piety life, strength and supremacy and for our happiness
in this and the next world and as a favour for our selves, in this holy place of victory (or victorious court of
Justice) have granted as a new gift with libation of water, fifty measures of Land in (the village of) Darbhamalaka in the chandrapur a sangamika to venerable Yaksha of Kauska gotra and sixty measures of land in the village of Kamakara in the bhoga ( = district
or perhaps = fief) to venerable Kalisarman of Kaundinya gotra.
L1.28-29: In the (regnal) year twenty three, on the tenth day
of the fourth fortnight of the rainy season when Namidasa is the senapati, written by Goladasa.

Inscription number 7.
Wadgaon Plates of Pravarasena 2, (Regnal) year 25.
Provenance: Wadgaon, Warora tehsil, Chanda district, Now in Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai.
Script: Box-headed variety of Brahmi of the Southern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: V. V Mirashi, Ep.Ind, XXVII pp. 74-79.
1. His Pauni plates prove his rule for more than thirty two years, see III, No 10 below and Ep.Ind. XXXVIII, pp.53-56)
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind XXVII, between pp.76 and 77. The seal, which must have been attached to the plates, is missing now.
3. Expressed by an imperfectly incised symbol.
4. For the Vedic sacrifices his chhamak plates III, No. 10, n.2, below.
Footnote- 2.

It appears that पुत्रस्य after Gautamiputarsya is
omitted here through oversight.
Chammak ( supra III, 4, l8)and other*
Plates have गौतमीपुत्रस्य पुत्रस्य,
from which we deduced that Rudrasena’s father was named Gautami-putra, who does not carry a royal title, because he probably died during the life time of his father
Pravarasena 1. Thats why in all these inscriptions, Rudrasena 1, figures as the grandson of Pravarasena 1.
Necessary correction is introduced in the translation.
Second plate second side
Footnote 1.

1. First engraved kri and later changed to Sri.
2. Just below this word the syllables Marade (-da)s (e)
is incised, but the proper place seems to be after Bappadeve in 1.42 below.
3. The serial number of the plate is incised in the left margin of the second side of the second plate.
4. The Supratishtha ahara is mentioned in the Pune plates of Prabhavatigupta (Ep.Ind., XV, pp.39 ff.and
supra III, and Kothuraka grant of Pravarasena 2, ibid XXVI, pp.155 ff.and
The latter and the present grant together indicate that this
ahara roughly corresponded to the modern Hinganghat
tehsil of the wardha district and included the Northern parts of Warora and Yeotmal tahsils of the Chanda and
Yeotmal districts respectively.
5. Gridhragrama is identical with the moden Gadeghat, about 13 km. to the west of the modern chinchamandal,
which seems to stand on the same site as the one occupied by the Vasulaka mentioned below in 1.19.
Foot note 2.

1. Kadambasaraka is modern Kosara about 3 kms to the north of chinchamandala.
2. Niligrama is niljai about 8 kms, to the east of Chinchamandala.
3. Kokilara is modern Khairi about 7 km to the north west of Chinchamandala.
4. Vesulaka seems to have stood where now Chinchamandala lies.
5. Presumably a mistake for panchavimsatitame,, which is
given in 1.41 below as the regnal year in which the charter was recorded.
6. Vishuva = equinox. The vishuva immediately preceding
the date of the grant i.e the regnal year 25, was that of the Meshasankranti falling in the month of Chaitra, when the donee must have recited certain sacred texts for the well-being of the king
and got the present grant.
7. The Gotra-pravara nibandha-kadamba, lists lohita as one of the Brahmana gotras. In that case, Vaji should be read as Vajasaneya, i.e. belonging to the Vajasaneya,
sakha of the Sukla Yajurveda. It is also possible that there was a Vaijilohitya gotra, not listed in the

Third plate Second side
(For the various immunities see Pune plates of Prabhavatigupta Supra III, 1,ll 17-18, notes)
Fourth plate

1. Mirashi कीर्त्तिनं कीर्त्तियाम In Tirodi Plates (Ep.Ind., XXII, pp-173), the reading is कृत पुण्यानुकीर्त्तन – परि हाराय न कीर्त्तियाम:
2. Mirashi takes the two visarga- like curves as double-danda.
English Translation of the inscription.

Om ! Seen from the Hiranya river camp. At the command of the Maharaja, the illustrious Pravarasena 2, of the
family of the Vakatakas who is a devout worshipper of Mahesvara (siva), who has maintained the Sata-yuga golden age) with the favour of (the god) siva, who was born of Prabhavatl gupta, the daughter of Maharajadhiraja Sri Devagupta (i.e. Chandragupta Vikramaditya), who is the son of the Maharaja, the illustrious Rudrasena 2, of the Vakataka family, who
had earned his growing prosperity from the favour of the Lord Vishnu, and, who was the son of the Maharaja,
the illustrious Prithivishena 1, of the family of the Vakatakas, who
possessed Yudhishtra’s good character, whose treasure, armed
might, and the network of assets (sadhans) sons and grandsons
had been growing for a hundred years, who possessed the virtues
of truthfulness, uprightness, compassion, bravery, valour
righteousness, humility, loftiness, wisdom, a devotion to the
worthy object, (i.e God), pious victiories, purity of mind and
others; who was a very devout worshipper of Mahesvara, and
who was the son of the Maharaja, the illustrious Rudrasena 1,
of (the familY of) the Vakatakas, who was the son of Gautami-Putra and was the maternal grandson of the Maharaja the illustrious Bhavanaga of the family of the Bharasivas; who had
had the ritual baths following ten horses Sacrifices, whose
foreheads were anointed with the sacred waters of the Ganga
obtained with their own valour and whose royal family was
created by the highly satisfed siva from carrying a siva-linga
after placing its weight on their shoulders; who, i.e Rudrasena 1, was a great devotee of the Lord Maha-Bhairava (i.e. siva)
(Rudrasena 1) who was the son’s son of the emperor Maharaja, the illustrious Pravarasena 1, of (the family of) the Vakatakas, who was of the Vishauvriddha gotra and who had performed the agnishtoma, aptoryama, ukthya, shodasin, atiratra, vajapeya,
Brihaspatisava, sadyaskra and four asvamedha Sacrifices; (the following land gift has been granted)
In the Supaatishtha ahara,
to the east of Gridhragrama, to the
south of Kadambasaraka, to the west of Niligrama, to the north
of Kokilara, there is a village named Velusuka. In this (village)
four hundred, 400, nivartanas of land according to the local
royal measure have been granted to Rudrarya, a scholar of two
Vedas. (and) a resident of Ekarjunaka, ( and) a reciter of Vishuva, (and) of Vajilohitya gotra in the twentieth regnal year of his reign?. Wherefore, all our existing appointees in superintending offces, the noble officers carrying (our)
orders, the regular and irregular soldiers should be comanded,
as per the orders already announced. ‘Be it known to you that
here in this our victorious Court of Justice, we have donated
with libation of water (four hundred nivartanas of land)
according to the custom relating to fresh gifts, for the increase
of (our) religlous merit, longevity, strength, victory and
royal power, (and) for the sake of our welfare in this and the
other world, as a favour to ourselves. Further, we grant him
(I.e. to Rudrarya) the terms applicable to the agraharas assigned
to scholars of the four vedas, as allowed by former kings to, with
tax-free, out of bounds for regular and irregular soldiers, free from the customary obligation of supplying cows and bulls, of flowers and milk, of providing pasturage, camping sites,
hides and charcoal (for passing troops) of supplying salt moist Commodities, (like cane juice) and minerals, together with the (benefit of) treasure troves and surface winds, together
with fixed and casual taxes –
स – क्लृप्तोपक्लृप्त and
immunised with the imunities of all type of free labour, to last as long as the moon and the sun do, passing in succession to Sons and grandsons. Nobody should cause obstruction, when being enjoyed (accordingly), and it should be protected and enhanced
by all means, whosoever, ignoring our command, makes or causes to
be made even a small impediment reported by the Brahmanas, we
shall punish him with penalities. And in this honouring of piety, we render praise for the meritorious deeds done, the care and protection given by many past kings. And in this context the
two verses sung by Vyasa should be accepted as the authority.
Here two of the usual imprecatory verses are quoted)
In the twenty fifth regnal year, On the tenth of the bright fortnight of jyeshtha, in the term of office as senapati
of Bappadeva, it was written by Maradasa. May there be peace.

(gobalivarda means “a bull”)
Footnote 1.

1. Also mentioned in the siwani plates of Rudrasena 2. C.I.I, III, pp.247) Senapati Bappadeva was probably
the dutaka.
2. Maradese (= Maradase) was inadvertently omitted and was
later inserted below the last word in 1.14 at the bottom
of the first side of second plate.
3. A Floral design marks the conclusion of the charter. But the
final म् in लीखितम is carried beyond it and changed to ञ् to go with च
4. The conclusion of the entire text is indicated by several dandas (7 in number) and also by six hyphens
below them.
Footnote 2. (See his Chammak plates)
Supra III, 4, 12,n, for these Srauta sacrifices. The sentence is abruptly broken here to indicate location
of the village in which land is granted, and after that the broken half sentence is carried further in 1.19 beginning with the word अत्र.
In 1.41 below, the year of the charter is given as the twenty fifth, Hence, it seems to be mistake, or perhaps
the grant was orally made in his twentieth year, but for some reason the charter was recorded five years later.

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