Pravarasena’s Inscriptions

Written by Alok Mohan on September 28, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Pravarasena 2, had founded a new city, which he named Pravarapura. He shifted his capital some time, after his eleventh regnal year of his reign. He built there a magnificent temple of Lord Rama.
Some of the sculptures used to decorate the temple have recently been discovered at Pavnar on the bank of the Dham, six miles from Wardha and have led to the identification of Pravarapura with Pavnar in the Wardha district. Refer Mirashi, Studies in Indology.
Pravarasena 2, authored the Setubandha, a Prakrit kavya in glorification of Ramacandra. According to a tradition recorded by a commentator of this work, it was composed by Kalidasa, who ascribed it to Pravarasena. The latter is also known as the author of some Prakrt gathas, which were later incorporated in the Gathasaptatsati.
Pravarasena 2, was succeeded by his son Narendrasena during whose reign Vidarbha was invaded by the Nala king Bhavadattavarman. The latter penetrated as far as the Nagpur district and even occupied Nandivardhana, the erstwhile capital of the Vakatakas. The Radhapur plates record the grant which Bhavadatta made while on a pilgrimage to Prayaga.

Inscription number 8.
Yawatmal Plates of Pravarasena 2–Year 26.
Provenance: Yawatmal, Yawatmal district, Maharashtra.
Script: Box-headed variety of southern Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: Ajay Mitra Shastri and Chandra Shekhar Gupta,
Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal XXI, Pts.I-II, (June-Dec, 1983), pp.78-84.
Second plate first side
1. From the facsimile in V.I.J. XXI, Pts.I-II, between pp.82-83.
2. The first plate containing the initial portion of the pedigree is lost. only one inner (second) plate inscribed on both the sides, and the final plate
Inscribed only on one side are preserved.
Second plate second side
1. The text of the Second Plate ends here.
2. At least one plate, between this and the second plate, is missing.
3. The whole phrase, as found in his other plates is, धर्मादर – करणे !
English Translation of the inscription

(L1.1-9 contain the genealogical eulogy of Pravarasena 2, almost in identical terms with his other plates, for which translation is already provided above.
L1.9-11. At the command of the devout worshipper of Mahesvara,
Maharaja Sri Pravarasena, the village collectively at Latakapalli in (the district of) Shadgrisaka be told-
L1. 11-12, We have here again granted (ie. confirmed the previous grant of), through this) copper charter land
that is already being enjoyed, and two houses to (the Brahmanas) Indrarya and Svamideva of Vatsa gotra and
Taittiriya sakha.
(L1.13 to 17) are again a repetition of sentiments in identical words expressed in his earlier plates and a couple of usual imprecatory verses assigned to Vyasa. This matter, too has been translated in the above pages),
L1.17-18. The year 26, the summer fortnight 4th, eleventh day,
Written during the term of office of Senapati Bappadeva.

Inscription number 9.
Pattan Plates of Pravarasena 2, (Regnal) year 27.
Provenance: Pattan, Multai tehsil, Betul district, Madhya Pradesh, Now in Central Museum, Nagpur.
Script: Box headed Brahmi of the Vakataka period.
Language: Sanskrit.
Refrences: EP.Ind. XXIII, pp.81-88.
First Plate.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXIII, between pp.86-87 and facing pp.88.
2. For the Vedic sacrifices, see Chammak plates of Pravarasena 2, of the year 18, supra III, No. 4, L2, n.1.
3. Better read सुपरितोष
Second plate second side
1. In other plates except wadgaon the reading is गौतमी पुत्रस्य पुत्रस्य,
which makes the construction ambiguous. The reading in the
present plate makes it clear that the adjectival phrases from
अत्यंत स्वामि महा भैरव भकतस्य
onwards qualify रुद्रसेनस्य
in 1.9.
2. The repetition is superfluous.
3. The u sign of Rudra is not visible on the facsimile, but Mirashi states, it is quite clear on the plate.

Third plate First side
1. Devaraja was the favourite name (priya-nama) of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. See Sanchi Stone Inscription of Chandragupta 2, of the year 93, Volume II, No 12, LL 7-8.
2. The Punctuation mark is superfluous.
3. Varadakheta is probably Waruda in the Morsi taluka of the Amraoti district about 20 km. south of Pattan.
Lohanagara, the headquarters of the division (abhaga), may be represented by Loni, about 15 km, S.W. of
Warud. Asvatthakhetaka cannot be traced; but Mirashi thinks that it occupied the site of Pattan, the find
spot of the present plates, situated on the Multai-Warud road.
Fourth plate First side
Obviously the pronoun esha (1.26) as also the verb, and another pronoun asya (1.29) in the following sentence, all refer to grammar.

Fifth plate
Footnote 5.
1. Though the land-gift through this charter was being made in favour of the temple (or the attached charitable hall) of Vishnu, the drafting was being
done keeping the temple priests (the Brahmanas) as the
beneficiaries in mind.
Hence also the inclusion of
such terms as पुत्र पौत्रानुगामी etc.
Footnote 6.
1. The cognate Pali word, santika, means proximity, presence, santaka, occuring in several vakataka
grants, appears to have been used in the sense of subordinate officials serving in the proximity of the
employer, and a presumably may be equated with the Private Secretaries or Personal Assistants PA,s),
The poor quality of the draft precludes the possibility of identifying this Kalidasa with the great poet, who
is now generally accepted to have flourished in the court of Chandragupta 2, Vikramaditya, and is known from the passages quoted from Kalidasa’s lost work, Kuntalesvara-dautya, by Rajasekhara (Kavyamimamsa, 2nd edition, pp.60-61, Gaekwar Oriental series), in the Sringara
prakasaa (Chs, XII-XIV, Intro.p.xxii) and the Sarasvatikanthabharana (Nirnayasagar Press edition., pp.168)
of Bhoja and the Auchityavicharacharcha (ed. ib, pp.139-40, Kavyamala, Guchchha 1), to have stayed for some period, as an ambassador of Chandragupta, in
the court of Kuntalesa, who seems to be no other than Pravarasena 2.
since the conquest of Kuntala by
Prithivishena I (see Ajanta Cave Inscription, A. S. W. I. IV, pp. 125), the Vakataka princes seem to have assumed this title. Pravarasena 2, who is assigned the authorship of the setubandha is called Kuntalesa in
the Sanskrit work, Bharatacharita, I,4). Ramadasa, a commentator of the Setubandha cites the tradition that,
this Prakrit work was composed for Pravarasena by Kalidasa by the order of Vikramadiyta. The inspiration
of composing his immortal poem, the meghadutam must have come to
Kalidasa during his sojourn at the Vakataka capital after a visit to the Lord of Ramagiri modern Ramtek,
near Nagpur) from whose feet Prabhavatigupta Issued
her Riddhapur (Rithapur) plates (See supra, Vol, III, N. 2)
2. Karavaka used here corresponds to karapaka, used in Eklingji Stone Inscription (J.B.B.R.A.S. XXII,
pp.167) and elsewhere, It seems to be used as an agent noun from the causative of कृ to make.

English Translation of the inscription.

Hail ! From Pravarapura.

At the command of Parana-Mahesvara, Maharaja Sri Pravarasena 2, of the Vakatakas ( i.e. Vakataka family)
who maintains an era of righteousness with the favour of (Lord) siva, who was born from Prabhavatigupta, the daughter of Maharajadhiraja Sri Devagupta who is the son of Maharaja Sri Rudrasena 2, of the Vakatakas, who had attained glory and good fortune from the favour of Lord chakrapani (Vishnu), who was in his turn) the son of Maharaja Sri Prithivishena of the
Vakatakas, whose conduct was like that of Yudhishthira, whose
treasury, armed forces, means progeny, sons and grandsons had been
growing for a hundred years, who was endowed with truthfulness,
rectitude compassion, bravery, valour, good conduct, modesty,
magnanimity, wisdom, devotion to Worthy objects, victorious-ness,
Wth lawful means, purity of heart and other virtues, who was
deeply devoted to Mahesvara (siva) who (Prithvishana) was
the son of Maharaja Sri Rudrasena 1 of the Vakatakas, who, Rudrasena 1, was the son of Gautamiputra and was the
maternal grandson of Maharaja Sri Bhavanaga of the Bharasivas
who the Bharasivas) had taken purificatory bathsin ten Horse-Sacrifices, who were anointed in the head, with the sacred waters
of the Ganges obtained with their valour, whose royal family
was created by siva being highly pleased at their carrying the

Siva-Linga weighed on the shoulders, who (Rudrasena 1) was deeply devoted to the Lord Mahabhairava, who was the
grandson of the Enperor Maharaja Pravarasena 1 of
the Vakatakas, who was of the Vishnuvriddha gotra, and had performed agnishtoma, aptoryama, ukthya, shodasina-tiratra,
vajapeya, brihaspatisava, sadyaskra and four asvamedha, sacrifices, the village (community) headed by the
Brahmanas in (the village of) Asvatthakhetaka on the road to
Varadakheta, within the Lohanagara division be told, as follows):-
Four hundred nivartanas of land by the royal measure, have been granted in this village on the petition of
Narayanaraja for the maintenance of a charitable hall (sattra) in honour of the footprints of Mahapurusha (Vishnu)
wherefore, our serving officers, charged with all the supervisory duties, the officers of the noble families charged
with the transmission of orders, the regular and irregular soldiers be commanded, according to the aforesaid order.
Be it known to you that this village, with libation of water, has been donated as a fresh gift, in our victorious Court of Justice as a favour to ourselves, for our welfare in this and the next world (and)
for the increase of our piety longevity, strength, victory and majesty. Further we grant to it/appropriate status,
of an agrahara as allowed by the former kings to the scholars of the four Vedas, which (status) is as follows- tax-free,
Out of bounds or the regular and irregular soldiers, free from the customary obligation of supplying cows and bulls, of flowers and milk of providing pasturage, camping sites
and hides and charcoal (for transiting troops) of supplying salt, (other) Commodities and minerals immunised with the immunity from all types of Forced labour, together with (the
benefit of) treasure troves and surface finds, together with fixed and casual taxes, to last as long as the moon and the sun do, passing in succession to sons and grandsons.
When being (thus) enjoyed nobody should cause hindrance, and
should be protected and enhanced by all means. Whosoever ignoring our command, makes or causes to be made even a small impediment, being reported by the Brahmanas, we shall punish him with penalties. And in this honouring of piety, we are
(ie. I am) not mentioning (various deeds) in order to avoid repetition of pieties made in the form of gifts, care and protection by many past kings. And in this context the verses sung by Vyasa should be accepted as the authority:-
(Here follow two of the customary verses)
In the twenty seventh year, on the seventh tithi of the dark fortnight of Karttika, it was written by Kalidasa, a
serving official of General Katyayana. Engraved by the goldsmith Isvaradasa, an employee of Kaundaraja. Pitaaha
and Nanda caused this charter to be drafted.
This charter the chastiser of enemies, is from the king Pravarasena, a crest ornament of the Vakataka family, who received sovereignty in a hereditory succession.

Inscription number 10.
Pauni Plates of Pravarasena 2,
(Regnal) Year 32.
Provenance: Pauni Distrlct, Bhandara, Maharashtra,
Script: Brahmi, Box headed variety of the southern Class.
Language: Sanskrit
Metres: VV.1-2: श्लोक ( अनुष्टुभ )
Seal: श्लोक ( अनुष्टुभ )
References: V.B. Kolte, Ep.Ind. XXXVIII, pp.53-56.
Footnote 1
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind.. XXXVIII.
2. Pravara-pura 1s identified with modern Pavnar. But Kolte does not, on philological grounds, consider
this identification convincing. However, Pavanar obviously evolved from Pravaranagara.
Second plate second side.
1. Kolte identified the town with modern Achalapura (or Elichpur), Amravati District, Maharashtra,
Krishnalesali, the district headquarter,
has not been identified.
2. Final consonants of words are engraved without boxes at the heads.
3. Delete का as it is repeated in the next line.
Third plate Second side

1. This phrase is used here adverbially, while all the previous ones are adjectives of gramah, which is
understood. As a matter of fact, only 50 nivartanas of land were granted, not a whole village and therefore the adjectives should have tallied with
the word nivarttanani in 1.20. The vertical stroke in कं is missing.
English Translation of the inscription.

(The seal, 11.1 to 18 upto
and 11. 21 to 40 from

are virtually identical
with the corresponding text of the chamak Plates of
Pravarasena 2, year 18.
For the translation of the
same Chammak Plates, see supra III, No:4.
L1.18-21 (We have) granted fifty nivartanas of land by the
royal (standard) measure, along with a house for residence, to the Rigvedic scholar, Durgarya of
Aupamanyava gotra in Achalapura in the valley of Krishnalesali as a pious endowment for (benefits in) this world and the next.
L1,40-42: This charter was written in the year thirty-two, 32, on the third day of the dark fortnight of the lunar
month Jyeshtha, while Madhappa was the Senapati.

Alok Mohan

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