ancient indian history


This ancient inscription number 40, relate to donation of half of a village to a brahmin namely, Chhodugomin to ascend the light of steps to heaven, (for building Shiv Mandir)
Similar grants to build temples, well, and other public utilities were given usually to Brahmins, who were expected to operate and maintain these temples and other public utility services.
These temple constructions and various other maintenance grants mentioned either Vishnu, Devi, Shiva or Surya.

Inscription number 40.
Khoh Copper-plate Inscription of Samkshobha.
–Gupta year 209 ( = 529 A.D.)
Provenance: Khoh, former Nagaudh State, Satna District,
Madhya Pradesh.
Khoh is situated in south-west of unchehara town.  (Ancient Uchchakalpa town which is now vanished)
Script: Late Brahmi of the Northern Class.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres: vv.1-3.श्लोक अनुष्टुब
v.4 उपजाति (इन्द्र वज्रा + उपेन्द्रवज्रा)
References: Cunningham, A.SI.. IX,
pp.15, No.7, Fleet,
C.I.I.. III, pp.112 ff. ; D.C. Sircar, sel,Inss.
I, pp.394-96.
First plate
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in C.I.I., III Pl.XVB, opp pp.112.
2. symbol for ओम


1. व and ब are confused throughout the text, presumably under the rule, वबोरभेद:
2. This refers to the cycle of twelve solar years, in which the Jupiter completes eleven years. In
this Jupiterian cycle the years are named after the luner months in accordance with the nakshatra
or constellation, in which Jupiter’s heliacal rising takes place; one month name remains unused.
3. The fourteen traditional branches of knowledge are:-
षड्ड्न्ग – मिश्रिता वेदा धर्म शास्त्रं पुराणकम् !
मी मां सा तर्कमपि च एता !!
i.e. 4 Vedas + 6 Vedangas + Puranas
+ Mimamsa + Nyaya + Dharma or law.

1. Fleet suggests इहाला as an alternate reading. For that we have to ignore the lower stroke of भ. The eighteen forest kingdoms are also referred to, in the Kanas plate of Lokavigraha Ep,Ind., XXVIII, pp-331,(infra IV, 18)
Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta (Supra, II. 5)
refers to सर्वाटवीराज्य These were all in Madhya Pradesh. डभाल is represented by mod. Dahala in Jabalpur District.
2. तमेव obviously refers to chhodugomi, since merit for himself and his parents is already claimed in the previous phrase. Sircar suggests, Chhodugomi may have been the priest of the temple.
Second plate.
1. The local goddess, Pishtapuri or Pushtapurikadevi, as she named in another inscription (C.I.I, III, No 29) was possibly an aspect of Annapurna, suggests sircar.
2. Petha denotes a territorial unit, cf. Marathi peta.
3. i.e barring the right to fines from thieves and rebels (विद्रोही)
4. अवध्यान = Contempt, fury or meticulousness. The contact requires a sense combining all these.
5. The visarga-like sign may also have been intended as punctuation mark.

English Translation of the inscription.

L1.1-3 Om ! Obeisance to divine Vasudeva ( = Krishna), Hail !
In the year two hundred increased by nine, during the enjoyment of sovereignty by the Gupta kings, in
the glorious augmenting and victorious reign in the Maha-Asvayuja year, on the thirteenth lunar day of the
bright fortnight of the month of Chaitra,-

L1.3-11 On the aforesaid year month and day, by the Maharaja, Sri Samkshobha, who is born in the Family
of the Parivrajaka king Susarman, who had leant the highest meaning of the fourteen sections of science,
who knew all the tattvas ( true principles (of sankhya philosophy) like the great sage Kapila,
who was of Bharadvaja gotra, Samkshobha, who was the great-grandson of the son of the Maharaja Sri Devadhya, who is the great grandson of the Maharaja, Sri Prabhanjana, who is the grand son of the Maharaja Sri Damodara, who is the son of Maharaja Sri Hastin, who was the giver of thousands of cows and of
elephants, horses, gold and many (plots of) lands, who was earnest in paying respect to (his) spiritual preceptor and to (his) father and mother, who was
extremely devoted to the gods and the Brahmanas, who was the victor of many hundreds of battles, who sought to govern properly the kingdom of Dabhala, which had come (to him) by inheritance, together with (all the country) included in the eighteen forest
kingdoms (and) whose fame for many good qualities was widespread -(samkshobha) who is intent on
establishing the duties of the (four-fold) castes and stages of life, who is the devout worshipper of Vishnu, who is extremely devoted to (his) parents
(and) who brings happiness to his dynasty.
L1.11-15. By him, for the increase of religious merit of his mother and father and (also) of himself, —
at the request of Chhodugomin, (and) also causing him (i.e. Chhodugomin) to ascend the light of steps to
heaven, half of the village of Opani in the Maninaga petha, is granted by a copper-charter, (with the usual immunities) except (entry by officials in
pursuit of) thieves and rebels for providing bali, charu and sattra, and for repairing damages and breakages, in the temple of divine Pishtapuri,
which (he) had caused to be built.
L1.15-18. Therefore, even in future times, no obstacle to the enjoyment of this grant) is to be caused by those who are born in our family or by my
feudatories. This injunction, having been given, he who behaves otherwise him I will consume with
a great contempt, even when have passed into another body. And it has been said by the venerable supreme
sage, Vyasa the arranger of the Vedas.

L1.18-23. (Here four of the customary verses are quoted).
L.23: And this charter has been written by Isvaridasa, the grand son of Jivita, (and) the son of Bhujangadasa.
This is an order from my own mouth. 28th day of Chaitra month.

(This order was personally conveyed to the officials, not through Dutaka.

1. Fleet: पुत्रेश्वरदास
2. Same as Prakrit Phrase, अवियेन अाणतं
order from the king himself.
3. Fleet 20 (+) 9.
1. Kapila was the famous propounder of the Sankya darsana,
The 25 tattvas in samkhya are a-vyakta buddhi, ahamkara, the 5 tanmatras, the 5 mahabhutas, the 11 organs including manas, and Purusha.
However, the total number given in other works varies e.g the Mahabharata (xii, 11242) and Hariv 14840 m.) give the number as 24. They vary elsewhere. See also Mahabharata. xii, 11840 xiv, 984 Ramayana, iii, 53, 42.
1. Bali is offering of ghi, grain, rice, etc.. to the gods and all the creatures, charu is the oblation of rice, barley and pulse, boiled with butter and milk, for the
deceased ancestors; and sattra, the giving of alms and refuge.
These are three of the commonly mentioned five great Sacrifices, (pancha-mahayajnas), namely
bali, charu, vaisvadeva (the offering to all deities), agnihotra, and atithi (hospitality the sattra of the present inscription. Sattra rite was the special
object of the sattra or charitable hall or almshouse (see 1.6 of Gadhwa stone Inscription of chandragupta 2– The year 88.

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