ancient indian history

Santa-Bommali Plates of Indravarman

Inscription number 45.
Santa-Bommali Plates of Indravarman 2, Ganga Year Eighty Seven.
Hastivarman was succeeded by his son, Indravarman 2, during the year 585 C.E.
The Eastern Ganga dynasty also known as, Rudhi Gangas or Prachya Gangas were a large medieval era Indian royal dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from as early as the 5th century to the mid 20th century. Eastern Ganga dynasty was therefore the longest reigning dynasty. Their currency was called Ganga fanams which was similar to that of the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas of southern India.
The territory being ruled by eastern ganga dynasty comprised Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal & Chattisgarh.
Provenance: Santa-Bommali village, Ganjam district, A. P.
Script:  Brahmi of the southern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metros: vv. 1-4:  अनुष्टुब.
References: Utkala sahitya Parishad Patrika, XXXI, Cuttack,
R.K. Ghoshal,  J. Andhra History, Residential Society, IV, pp.21ff, and plate. (ii) Ep.Ind, XXV, pp.194-198.
Footnote 1.
The other two known plates of this king are: (i) Achyuta-puram plates of the year eighty seven, and (ii) the Parla-Kimedi plates of the year 91. Another single plate, (S.N.
Rajaguru, J.A.H.R.S, III, pp.54) from Tirlingi in the Ganjam district, whose writer is also vinayachandra, the
son of Bhanuchandra, has been assigned to this king by D.R.Bhandarkar. (A List of inscriptions of Northern India, pp.285, n.1) He suggested very plausible emendation of the date, Ganga year 28, to the year 88. Ghoshal does not agree with
him. Banamalinagara is corrupted into Bommali, and since shandy (= santa in Telugu) used to take place there, the
town came to be called Santa-Bomnali.
Foot note 2.
1. From the facsimile in J.A.H.R.S, V, facing pp.23.
2. Expressed by the spiral symbol.
3. Variously Identified with modern Kalingapatam (Ind.Ant, XVI, pp.132) at the mouth of Vamsadhara river and with Mukhalingam near chicacole.
4. The punctuation mark is not required.
5. Mentioned in several early and later Ganga records.
Kroshtuka-varttani has been identifled by Hultzsch with modern chicacole.
Footnote 3.
A district (bhoga) called Dantayavagu is mentioned in the Brihatproshtha grant of Umavarman Ep.Ind.. XII, pp.5)
Footnote 4.
1. Talavara and Bhogika are both official designations.
2. This temple presumably is identical with the siva temple of Palesvara or Phalesvara, situated near ganta-Bommali .There is also a rock inscription near the temple.
3. Kulluka on Manu, VII, 119, defines hala and kula thus:
षडगवां मध्यमं हलमिति तथाविध – हल – द्वयेन यावती
भूमि र्विधते तत्कुलमिति
Hala thus may be an area of land capable of being cultivated with the help of six bullocks. Kula was double that area.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om Hail ! From the victorious (city of Kalinga-nagara, which is comfortable and pleasant in all seasons,
the illustrious Maharaja Indravarman, from whom the impurities of the Kali age have disappeared as a result of obeisance to the palr of lotus-feet of the Lord Gokarnasvamin the sole
architect of the entire world, who is the support of courtesies, moralities (naya) and wealth, who has attained the overlordship of the entire Kalinga by dint of the action of the ( sharp) edge
of his sword; whose flawless fame has spread over the entire surface of the earth girdled by the waves of the four oceans, who has caused the proclamation of his victories in the melle of many a battle who is the main stay of the prestige of the flawless family of the Gangas whose feet are dyed in the thick effusion of light emanating from the crest-jewels of
all the subordinate rulers made to bend by his excessive prowess, devoted to the feet of his parents and a devout
worshipper of mahesvara (siva) addresses the following order to all the peasant householders en-masse at the village of Haribhata in the district of Kroshtakavarttani.
Be it known to you that for the increase of religious merit of our parents and ourselves, we have, on being apprised
by the Bhogika and Talavara, Deva, having exempted from all taxes and having constituted it as an agrahara for the granted two halas of land in this village after portioning it off, for the
sake of performing the rites of bali, charu and sattra and for
the repairs of damages and breakages of the temple of the Lord God Ramesvara situated in the town of Dantayavagu and itself is granted for the same god, having constituted it as an agrahara for the god or as long as the moon and the sun last. Having known thus nobody should cause any
hinderance. The boundary marks of the farm in Haribhata are: To the north is the overflow channel of the tank belonging to the Kshatriyas. To the east is an arjuna tree, after that
a row of ant-hills, then an artificial line of heaped up stones, then a neem tree, to the south also is the overflow
channel of the same tank. To the west is a well, then the twin arjuna trees and then the royal road. And the future
kings should protect this pious gift. Moreover, in this context, they cite the following verses sung by Vyasa.
(Here follow three of the customary verses)
The year eighty seven of the increasingly victorious reign,
the 30th day of Jyeshtha. The charter of Rajasimha has been wri tten at his
own oral order by Vinayachandra, the son of Bhanuchandra.
The copper plate grants of Ganga kings available are listed as below:-
1. Tirlingi Plate, Ganga Year 28
2. Urlam Plates of Hastivarman, Ganga Year 80.
3. Telkali Plates of Indravarman, Ganga Year 87.
4  Santa-Bommali Plate of Indravarman,
Ganga Year 87.
5. Chattarpur plates of Devendravarman son of Rajendravarman, Ganga Year 91.
6. Tekkali plate of the same king,
Ganga Year 110.
7. Chicacole plates of Indravarman, Ganga Year 128.
8. Chicacole plates of Indravarman Ganga Year 138.
9. Purlipeta plates of Indravarman
son of Danarnava, Ganga Year 149.
10. Tekkali plate of the same king, Ganga Year 154.
11. Chicacole plates of Devendravarman son of Gunarnava. Ganga Year 183.
12. Adava plates of the same king, Ganga Year 184.
13. Sidhantam plates of the Same, Ganga Year 195.
14 Talateru plates of Anantavarman
son of Devendravarman, Ganga Year 204.
15, Tekkali plates of Indravarman
Son of Anantavarman. Ganga Year 221.
16. Kalinga grant of Devendravarman
S/o Anantavarman. Ganga Year 251.
17. Vizagapatam plates of the same as
above. Ganga Year 254.
18. Grant of Devendravarman son of Rajendravarmen. Ganga Year 308
19. Jirjingi plates of Indravarman, Ganga Year 309.
20. Plates of Rajendravarman son of Devendravaman. Ganga Year 342.
21. Chidivalasa plates of Indravarman or Vajri Manasimha son of Devendravaman. Ganga Year 397.
(JBORS,XII, pp.101)
22. His son Bhupendravarman. His son
Devendravarman. Ganga Year 397.

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