ancient indian history

Ajjibal Plates of Krishna-varman

Inscription number 61.

Ajjibal Sirsi Plates of Krishna-varman 2. Regnal Year 19.

Provenance: Ajjibal, Sirsi taluk, North Kanara, district, Karnataka.

Script: Southern variety of Brahmi.

Language: Sanskrit.

Kadambas were major power of north Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra. 

While Gangas of Manavyasa gotra ruled over Gungavadi, South Karnataka, 

 They were Brahmins, & belonged to the lineage of Sharman, a young Brahmin scholar from Talagunda. According to Gudnapur record  Mayura’s father was Bandhushena. The first ruler of the Kadamba dynasty, Mayura Sharman, was well versed in all Vedas.

He had gone to Kanchi, the

capital of the Pallavas, which was a  centre of higher learning. 

The Pallavas ruled parts of Karnataka, 

Talagunda in Shimoga district.

 The home of Mayura, haf become a part of the Pallava kingdom.

 Mayura was humiliated

by the Pallavas.

Mayur had taken offence of this insult & discontinued his studies.

He left Kanchi and take to the life of a warrior. He established his kingdom in the forest of Sriparvata region, after defeating the Pallavas. Pallavas failed to control him and had no choice but to recognise him as a king of the region. His kingdom stretched from the Western ocean to the river Prehara, identifed as the Malaprabha,

Mayura Sharman (c 325 A. D.-345 A. D.) was succeeded by

his son Kanga Varman in c 345 A. D. He is described as receiving

obeissance from a number of chiefs and had to face terrible wars.

Krishna Varman 2, was the second son of Kakustha Varman and had founded the Triparvata branch of kadamba Dynasty in c 430. He had performed an ashwamedha sacrifice. He killed Hari Varman, in a battle. Hari Varman was the last prince in the line of

Shanti Varman.

Krishna Varman was succeeded by his son Vishnu Varman in c 460. Vishnu Varman’s Hebbatta record informs us that he had come to the throne with

the help of the Pallavas.

He had a younger brother, Deva Varman. Vishnu Varman was

killed by Ravi Varman of Banavasi and was succeeded by Simha

Varman, his son, in c 490. Simba Varman’s son, Krishna Varman,

who succeeded him.

 captured Banavasi by killing Hari Varman. During 530 C.E. Pulakesin 1 of Badami, who was a subordinate of Kadambas, over-powered him and the

sovereign rule of the Kadambas thereafter ended. 

A few Inscriptions found from the region describe about  Aja-varman

and Bhog-varman, son and grandson of

Krishna Varman.

But they ruled only as subordinate of the Chalukyas of Badami. 

References: V. S. Sukthankar, Ep.Ind. XVI,  pp 268-72.

Footnote 1.

1. Of the two Krishna-varman’s known from the Kadamba records, the issuer of the present plates has been identified on palaeographical grounds, with the second king of this name,

whose Bannahalli (now Halebid) grant dated 7th year of his reign was published in Ep.Ind,.VI, pp.18, although the title, Dharma-maharaja invariabl y applied to the earlier Krishnavarman and is not found applied to the 2nd Krishnavarman in any record. But it should be noted that the present

Grant does not credit the king with the performance of an asvamedha, something which all other records do.

Further, the characters resemble, those of some later Kadamba records. They represent a palaeographic phase,

later than that of Ravivarman’s copper plates.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind,, XVI, facing pp.271.

Footnote 2.

1. Halanta is written below the line.

2. L in samalkavani is not properly formed. Malkava, like hiranya must be a technical revenue term. It also occurs,

spelt as malkavu, in the Nilambur plates of Ravivarman (1.8) ( See supra, IV, 56, l.8) Girigada village has been

Identified with the existing village named Girigadde near sirsi, and Karvvannadga with modern village, Karur, formerly the headquarters of a magane (=  thana) of

of Karur taluk.

English Translation of the inscription 

Peace At Valjayanti, the city of victory the Dharma-Maharaja, of the family of the Kadambas, who meditated on Lord Mahasena, Karttikeya and the group Holy Mothers and had been anointed at Asvamedha sacrifices, who

were of Manavya gotra and descendant sof Hariti, who regularly

busied themselves in the study and discussion of the sacred books, who were like mothers to the dependent people:- the glorious Krishnavarman, who had earned in numerous (previous)

births an immense pile of religious merit, who has gained fame

and the fortunes of royalty as a result of victories in numerous wars, has given with libation of water, Kamakapalli (hamlet), together with all the immuniti es, together with

malkava and together with cash revenue, in the village of

Girigada, in the district Karvvannadga for the religious merit of his mother and father to the soma-sacrificer somasvamin, who belongs to Varahi gotra, is a past master of the Rigveda

and follows the moral and ethical laws known as the yama and

niyama, in the nineteenth year of his prosperous reign of victory, on the full-moon day of Karttika. whosoever is its protector shall share the Fruit of this meritorious deed.

And whosoever is the confiscator shall join to (i, e. be guilty of) the five great sins. And it has been spoken:-

(Here follow two of the customary admonitory verses).

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