ancient indian history

Barganga Rock Inscription of Bhutivarman 

Inscription number 78.
Barganga Rock Inscription of Bhutivarman (6th century A.D.)
Provenance: In Tekegaon, Near Dakmaka,on the bank of Barganga
rivulet and about 30 km Dabaka Bazaar, in the Nowgong district Assam.
Script: Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
References:  N.K Bhattasali, Journal of the Assam Research Society, VIII, 1941. pp.138-39, Ep.Ind, XVII, pp.18-23, D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind, XXX, pp-62-67.

महरस्य कणि 20 + 3 ग्र 1 एतस्य पुर्वयं वहारिस्य
मस्यगुतस्य धिता पुग्यद । ता
a . बोधिसत्व
b . प्र त् ( इ ) ष्ट्पय । ति ।
स्वके विहरे [ सर्व-सत्वनं । हितसुखाय भवतु * संस्कृत छाया
महाराजस्य कनि । ष्कस्य संवत्सरे त्रयोविंशे २३ र्मी ( ष्म
ऋ तो:
। एतस्या पूर्वायां ‘ । तिथौ । व्यवहारिण मत्स्य गुप्तस्य दुहिता पुष्यदत्ता बोधिसत्त्वं
= तस्य प्रतिमां प्रतिष्ठापयति = स्वके विहारे । सर्व सत्त्वानां [हित-सुखाय भवतु ।
हिन्दी अनुवाद
महाराजा कनिष्क के तेईसवें २३ वर्ष में ग्रीष्म ऋतु के 1 म दिन इस पूर्वोक्त तिथि में व्यवहारिक = धर्माध्यक्ष = मैजिस्ट्रेट मत्स्यगुप्त की पुत्री पुष्यदत्ता अपने बिहार में बोधिसत्त्व (प्रतिमा) प्रतिष्ठित करती है। सब प्राणियों हित तथा सुख के लिए होवे !

Footnote 1.
Bhutivarman figures as the eighth king of the Bhauma-Naraka dynasty of  Kama-rupa of Prag jyotisha i.e.
modem Assam, in the seals of Bhaskaravarman (600-650 A.D.)
who was according to Bana Bhatta (Harsha charita), a contemporary and and an ally of Harsha.The earliest king,
Maha-raja-dhiraja Pushyavarman was a
contemporary and a subordinate of Samudragupta. This is deduced by Sircar from the fact that his son and successor Samudravarman 
and the latter’s queen Dattavati, are obviously named after the former’s overlord, Sircar refers to other
instances of feudatories naming their sons after their overlord (see also his successors of the Satavahanas
1939 pp-176f, 248 n). This accepting Pushyavarman as a conttemporary of Samudragupta and the probability of
Susthitvarman and Supratishtitavarman having brief reigns, Sircar has tentatively fixed the chronology
of the Bhauma-Naraka kings as under:-
1. Maharajdhiraja  Pushyavarman, lord of Pragjyotisha, descendant of Naraka as also of the Bhagadattta of the
Mahabharata fame and Vajradatta
350-74 A.D.
2. Maharajahdhiraja Samudravarnan, Son of No.1. 374-98 A.D.
3. Maharajahdhiraja Balavarman, son of No-2, from Dattavati. 398-422 A.D.
4. Maha-raja-dhiraja kalyanavarman son of No 3 from Ratnavati. 422-46 A.D.
5. Ganapativarman, son of No.4 from Gandharvavati 446-70 AD.
6. Mahendravarman, son of No 5 from Yajnavati. 470-94 A.D.
7. Narayanavarman performer of two Asvamedhas, son of No 6 from Suvrata.494-51 A.D.
8. Butivarman, Son of No 7 from Devavati. 518-42 A.D.
9. Chandramukhavarman son of No 8 from Vijnanavati 542-60 A.D.
10. Sthiravarman, performer of two Asvamedhas, son of No 9 from Bhogavati. 566-90 A.D.
11 Susthita- varman son of No.10 from Nayanasobha 590-95 A.D.
12 Supratishthitavarman son of No 11 from Dhruvalakshami. 595-600 A.D.
13. Bhaskaravarman, younger brother of No 12 from Dhruvalakshami 600-650 A.D.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXX, facing pp.67.
Bhattasali’s readings from his defective impressions and doctored transcript has several mistakes.
2. Bhattasali: Paramabhagavata.
3. Bhattasali Asvamedha yajnam Sri-Bhutivarmmadeva-padanam.
Note that Bhaskaravarman’s seals do not credit Bhuti-Varman, with the performance of an Asvamedha. Sircar 
suggests that his father’s Asvamedhas
must have been performed, when Narayanavarman was too
old to undertake them, himself and Bhutivarman ruling on his behalf carried out the actual performance.
Narayanavarman’s Asvamedhas probably signalled declaration
of independence from Gupta suzerainty.
4. Bhattasali:
200 (+) 30 (+) 4 ma, where he thinks ma stands for the month of Magha.
5. Bhattasali: Aryagunasya or Adyagunasya. All the rules of sandhi being optional are ignored here.
English Translation of the inscription.
Hail !  Peace This asrama (lit. rest-house) is of (i.e. constructed by)
the district governor, Avaguna, for the longevity of the illustrious Paranadaivata Paramabhattaraka, the Maharajadhiraja, Sri Bhutivarman, the performer of the Asvamedha Sacrifice.
Under his reign, “Kamarupa became a powerful kingdom
The King Bhutivarman of Bhauma-Naraka dynasty ruled Kamarupa from 518-542 A.D. ..He was the most important figure of the kingdom and  was given a divine status. &  titles like, Paramabhattaraka, Parama-daivata, etc 
The Varman dynasty  was the first historical dynasty of 
Kamarupa and was established by Pushyavarman.

Bhutivarman married Vijnanavati and had successor to throne namely Chandramukhavarman.
There after He married Bhogavati and had successor to throne named Sthitavarman.

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