ancient indian history

Bhanugupta and Goparaja Inscriptions

Bhanugupta was one of the later Gupta lesser known kings, of the Gupta empire. His title was Raja, which indicates that he had control of small part of Gupta empire. Gupta Empire was evidently divided in small kingdoms (Though United to discourage Hunas invasions. Bhanugupta may also only have been a provincial Governor for malwa region. Goparaja son of Bhanu Gupta was his subordinate ruler.
48. Eran Stone Pillar Inscription of the time of Bhanugupta and Goparaja, Gupta year 191 ( 520 AD)
Provenance: Eran, Sagar District. Madhya Pradesh.
Script: Late brahmi of Northem class.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres: श्लोक; अनुष्टुभ ; इन्द्र वज्रा:
References: Fleet. C.I.I. III, pp9 ff. D C Sircar- Sel.Inss, I, pp 345 ff.

Footnote 1
From the facsimile in C.I.I, III Pl. XII B, Opposite pp90.
The pillar also bears two sculpted panels above the inscription,
presumably one representing Goparaja and his wife, and the
other his friends and relatives, both men and women.
2. Expressed by a symbol.
3. ब short for बहुल, and दि short for दिवस
4. Fleet suggested – ल (क्ष)
5. Sircar suggests the illegible name as ध्रुवराज or गोपराज
English Translation of the inscription

L-1. In the year one hundred and ninety one, on the seventh lunar day of the dark fortnight of the month Sravana: (or in figures) the year 100 (+) 90 (+ )1
Sravana: the dark fortnight the day 7.
L-2-3 There was a king, renowned under the name of raja sprung from lineage and his son was that very valorous king Madhava.
Ll-3-4 His son was the illustrious Goparaja. renowned for manliness, the daughter’s son of Sarabharaja; who is
even now an honour to his lineage.
Ll.5-7: There is the Great King Bhanugupta, who is the bravest
man on the earth and like Arjuna is extremely heroic. And
in his company Goparaja followed to this place in the spirit of a follower and friend And having fought a famous battle. He who was almost equal to the celestial king (i.e Indra)
died and went to heaven and his devoted, attached, beloved and beautiful wife in close companionship,
accompanied him on to the funeral pyre.

Footnote 2

1. Fleet -वत्यार

2. लघु (Short) vowel is required by the metre. According to the rules of Sanskrit prosody short vowels before
conjuncts are treated as long गुरु ( but before प्र ह्र व्र and क्र
and this is optional. So च here is लघु
cf. Kumarasambhava, VII, II, Sisupalavadha X, 60.
3. The battle presumably was fought against the Hunas.
This is one of the earliest references to the sati custom in India.
Bhanugupta may have been ruling over the western part of the Gupta empire, independently, while Vainyagupta
ruled over the eastern part. He thus, came directly in the eye of the Huna storm.

49 Damodarpur Copper Plate Inscription of the Gupta Year 224
(543 D)
Provenance: Damodarpur, Dinajpur district, Bangladesh.
Script: Late Northern Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres : श्लोक; अनुष्टुभ:
References: R. G. Basak, Ep.Ind, XV,
pp-142 f, K N. Dikshit.
ibid. XVII pp 193 f, Sircar Sel.Inss, I,
Footnote 1
1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind XV facing pp-143.
2. For. संवत्सरे
3. Basak 10
Footnote 2

Restored as भानु by Basak and as कुमार by Krisna Sastri. Sircar adds विष्णु among the suggestions. The relative
chronological position with respect to Budhagupta, of Narasimhagupta, his son Kamaragupta and grandson Vishnugupta,, as also of Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta is still unsettled.
The latter may have been only provincial Governors.

आर्यमंजुश्रीमूलकल्प (ed. Sankrityayan a vv 671-76) adds other name to the list of gupta kings बालाज्य कुमार, उकाराज्य देव, बालाज्य is evidently Narasimhagupta
Baladitya. whose son we know Kumaragupta was उकाराज्य.
ie one whose name began with उ has been conjecturally restored as उप गुप्त. The possibility of an उप gupta in
the Gupta genealogy has been suggested by Raychaudhary.
(Pol.Hist.Anc.Ind.4th edition, pp-500) on the basis of the name of Upa gupta, the mother of Isanavarman Maukhari. देव गुप्त
of the Aryaman jusrimalakalpa may be identical with Deva Bhattaraka of 1.3 of the present inscription, who
is described as a Maharaja and a Maharaja putra.
2. The technical difference between अनुप्यात and परि गृहीत is not known. Sircar conjectures one of them possibly
indicates appointment and the other acceptance of an appointment or position for at least some cases. He
also suggested correction into -गृहीतस्य here believing it to be an adjective of
देवभटटारक clearly intended to be an adjective of स्वयंभूदेव who was appointed by देवभटटारक and whose appointment
was approved and accepted परिगृहीत
by the sovereign. यादानुध्यात contemplating on the feet i.e finally devoted to, is exolusively reserved in Gupta inscriptions for the sons of the emperor.
Footnote 3

According to Sircar,खिल is the land not tilled for a long time while अप्रहत
is the one not cultivated for a short period.
Others translate खिल as follow and
as untilled’.अप्रहत Literally means not broken and levelled up for cultivation
i.e the Pahari word नौतोड़ which is used in revenue terminology in Himachal Pradesh in the sense of land newly broken and levelled for cultivation.
Ve. Vot. , No 4,2t. 5-6,
2. See supra. Vol II, No 40, Pl -5-6,
Damodarpur Plate of Buddhagupta.
3. A Prakritisation of the correct Sanskrit word स्फुट
263, 64, 65, 66
Footnote 4

बलि = oblation. = sacrificial animal.
चरु = Oblation of rice or barley boiled in milk.
सत्र = A sacrifice lasting a long period. सत्र – प्रवत्र्तन = General expense for the undertaking and continuation of a
protracted sacrifice.
मधुषर्क is an offering usually for guests. consisting of curd, ghi. water honey and
white sugar. (दधि सर्पिजलं क्षोर्दं सिता चैतैश्च पंचभि : प्रोच्यते मधुषर्क)
2. Basak भट
3. धर्म परतावाप्ति = धर्मरुप फल प्राप्ति:
Basak’s translations is irrelevant
4. इति indicating the end of the sentence is carried to the
Second Side of the plate and is combined euphonically with अनेन
of the next sentence.
5. Out of consideration for his mother
6. included in the arddhati to form a single unit for the assessment of revenue.
प्रावेश्य from प्रवेश = Revenue

Footnote 5
1. Basak and Sircar: साटुवना
2 Purana-vrindikahari is possibly represented by the modern
Brindakoores, 23 kilometres to the north of Damodarpur.
“The areas of land referred to as
पंच – कुल्यवापक and पाटक
according to sircar. “possibly already belonged to the God.
3. Sircar takes it वास्तु in the sense of building land. But वास्तु literally means ‘a building’ not the land on which it stands.
4. By officers incharge of the administration.
English Translation of the inscription
Seal of the Board of Administration of the headquarters of Kotivarsha,
on the 5th day of bhadrapada in the year 204, while
Paramadaivata, Parama-bhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja Sri Gupta was the ruler of the earth and while the Kotivarsha district, within the Pundravardhana province (bhukti) is being administered
as a fief comprising elephants, horses and general public, of the uparika Maharaja Devabhattaraka, a son of the maharaja and his appointee here was the district administrator. Svayambhadeva who was accepted (i.e. comfirmed) by His Honourable Majesty (the Maharajadhiraja Sri -gupta) and while the board of administration
of the headquarters (of the district was being managed by members The prominent ones being the honourable Nagarasreshthin Ribhupala,
the chief caravan merchant Sthanudatta, the head artisan matidatta,
and the head-scribe kandapala, the nobleman Amritadeva of Ayodhya
“In this district (vishaya) prevails the custom of sale of uncultivated fellow fields yielding no income at the rate
of three dinaras per kulyavapa, So please grant me after
collecting (the appropriate number of dinaras (as price) a piece
of farmland, registering it on a copper-plate according to the law
of non-transferable property (i.e. as a perpetual endowment) for
the provision of bali, charu performance of long sacrifices. supply.

of cows Milk incense and flowers, madhuparka and lamps etc. And
for asking repairs of whatever is broken and torn in the temple of the Lord Svetavaraha svanin located in this forest for the increase of religious merit of other, according to the determination of the chief record-keepers Naranandin Gopadatta and Bhaganandin. It
was determined that this petition is in order and has been made with
a spirit of piety ( and) there is no objection from the Vishayapati,
Rather it leads only to the attainment by a Supreme majesty of
religious righteousness.
According to this list of considerations
(or determinations) after receiving fifteen dinaras from this said
Amritadeva. (and) out of consideration for his mother five
kulyavapas of khila land with building sites (vastu) were dedicated
according to the law of perpetual (non-transferable) endowment to
the Lora Svetavarahasvamin to be enjoyed in perpetuity. Thus
(specifically). a couple of kulyavapas together with building sites
in Svachehhandapataka and in Lavangasika which (latter) is included
in the revenue circle of Ardhati, also one kulyavapa together with
building site in the hermitage of Sadhuvana, one kulyavapa to the north of the five kulyavapaka unit (and) to the east of the Jambu river and one kulyavapa to the east of Pataka in
Puranavrindikahari. So in future times the administrators should out of devotion for God, approve it.And further there are verses in the context of land gifts.
(Here follow three of the customary imprecatory verses)

(Or perhaps the intended sense is: as a fief attached with
(an army unit of an elephant corps. Cavalry and infantry)

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