ancient indian history

Inscriptions – VIII – PP1 to PP 60 By Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan

Inscriptions  by Dr Mehra Vasishtha Dev Mohan

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Pune Copper Plate Inscription of Prabhavati Gupta – Regnal Year – 13 – Language Sanskrit

Script: Nail headed variety of the late Brahmi of the southern class (with some peculiarities of northern class) of 5th century AD


  1. The legend on the seal clearly indicates that Prabhavati Gupta received the royal power apparently as a regent. Hence the year given on the seal must be her own regnal year. It is intresting to note that in her 13th regnal year, her eldest son diwakar asena, who had atleast two brothers younger to him, were not invested with the royal power, although he could be a minor at this date.

(See HCIP Classical agee P.180) Yuvraj Diwakar is mentioned as an author in the Sadukti Karomrata.

  1. The plates were found with copper smith of Pune, who originally belonged to Ahmad Nagar. They appear to have been heirloom in the family for several generations.


  1. From the Facsmile in Ep.Ind,XV facing p.42
  2. In the left margin on the level between lines 3-4
  3. The isht deva of Vakataka was Siva. But prabhavati inherited bhagwatism and had made bhagwatism or vaishnavism very popular in India, even the southern parts by 5th century Ad. Many inscriptions of this period begin with Vaishnava invocation. “Jitam Bhagwata’ of Pallava grants of simhavarnman II and his ancestors (infra vol IV 25-30) and grants of Madhava and of Western Ganga Dynasity 9infra IV, S1 S2) It must however be noted that even Prabhavatis son, Pravarasena II continued the family allegiance to Siva.    (See his chanmak grant of the year 18, infra, Vol III Inscription no.  4)                                                                                                                                                                                                       PP3
    1. Nandivardhan has been identified with modern Nandardhan near Ramtek, in Nagpur District, MP.  The city is mentioned in Kothuraka grant of of Pravarasena II regnal year 2 (Ep.ind.XXVI,pp159 f.) and Rithapur plates of Bhavadattavarman (ibid.XIX. p 100) Also infra III,160. It can not be  identified with Nagardhan in the same neighborhood (The first king among the Guptas in her Rithpur
    2. In fact the title of Chandergupta I was Maharajadhiraja
    3. Though in the genecology’s of his successors’ inscriptions, he is eulogized as (Chirotannashvomethahatton” and his Asvamedhatype of coins hearing the legend “Ashvod-prakarmah: are known, It is no where claimed that he performed many Asvamedhas. It should also be noted that the usual epithets of Samudragupta invariably found in official Gupta records are transferred here to Prabhavatiguptas father


    1. We know from Sanchi Stone inscription of Chandergupta II year 93 (Supra II, 12)that he had a favorite alias Devaraja. The present inscription read with chammak grant of Pravarasena II (Infra III, 4) It is clear that Devegupta mentioned as Prabhavatis father in the latter inscription was identical with Chandergupta II and is not to be identified with Devgupta of the later gupta dynasty.

    Note that Prabhavati gupta, uses not only the cognomen and the gotra of her parents , instead of her husbands, but also she gives pride of place of her parental genealogy. Apparently it was due to the great power and prestige of the Gupta emperors that makes her assert her descent from them, not because of any injunctions of Dharamshastras, which Sircar (Sel.incs.I,P436 n.9) discusses in this context


    Second Plate

    1. The district is also known from the kothuraka grant (Ep.Ind XXXI, PP158 f) It is identified as the Hingerghat tehsil of the Wardha district.
    2. Pathak & Dikshit

    Hinganghat is possibly corrupted from (Udduunguna)


    1. “Datti” = Gift – Apporva Dattya – According to the custom this relates to the things which were not previously granted
    2. Better – Srishtha
    3. “Bhat” is probably a policeman- (Chhatra Literally an umbrella bearer) Appears to be the leader of a posse of bhatas Presumably Chhatra & Bhat found compounded with Bhat in other records.



    1. Better Chamadgharah: Alavan-klin-klin kreni = moist commodity, Khanaka- Minerals,

    Charatan=pasturage, according to fleet or as Sircar suggests , Char = free movement

    Paar= free ferrying in some records and “Asan” = encamping – the two phases referring to the needs of kings touring officers or Army According to Mirashi, Char = Grass for the horses of touring officers   ”Asan Charman” =Hides for their seats, Adgar = Charcoal for their cooking. Elsewhere we also have “Aprampra-balivardad-grahan Apramparah” = Free from customary obligations


    1. Pashu Medhya – Sacrificial Animals that the villagers were expected to provide to the King
    2. “Nidhi” = Treasure- Trove or unclaimed wealth “Upnidhi” = Surface finds But according to the Vishnu Samhita III 36, 39 “Nidhi” is wealth whose owner is not known and upnidhi = Sealed deposit
    3. “Klript” = possibly a fixed tax “Upklript” = Occasional or Casual taxes According to Mirashi “ Krliptop klript” = with minor or major taxes of other records


    Seal ; This is the enemy – chastising command of the mother of the heir-apparent, who is the ornament of the vakatakas and Who has obtained royal dignity in due succession

    In margin- seen

    L1 Success Victorious is the lord Vishnu Hail from Nandi Vardhana

    L11-7 There was a maharaja Sri Ghatotkacha, the first king among the Guptas. His noble son was Maharaja

    1. “utkattitam” = Engraved


    Sri Chandragupta – His son was Maharajadhiraja

    Sri Samudragupta – Who was performer of many asvamedha sacrifices : who was the daughters son of the Lichchhavis and who was begotten on the Chief queen Kumaradevi. His noble son accepted or favored by his majesty was Maharajdhiraj Sri Chander Gupta who was a matchless warrior on the earth. Who was the exterminator of all the kings; whose fame was tested by waters of all the four oceans; Who was the giver of many thousands of crores of cows and gold and who was the devout worshipper of Lord Vishnu

    L1.7-13: His daughter Dhraha gotra and begotten on the illustrious chief queen Kubernaga (herself) born in the Naga family; the illustrious Prabhavati Gupta, who is the chief queen of Maharaja Shri Rudrasena (II) of the vakatakas and the mother of the heir apparent Sri Divakarsena ; and who is ornament to both the families and is extremely devoted to the Lord Vishnu – after announcing her well being commands the Brahmins and other house holders of the village in the unguna village in the supratishta ahara and located to the eastern side of the village Vilavinaka to the southern side of village shirsha, to the Western side of Kadapinjana and to the northern side of sidivivarka:-


    L1.13-15 Be it known to you that we have for the enhancement of our religious merit bestowed this village as a fresh grant with liberation of water on ( this) the twelfth ( day) of the bright (half) of (the month) of Karttika; after having first offered it at the feet of Lord Vishnu upon Acharya Chanalasvamin a devotee of Lord Vishnu. For this reason you should carry out all injunctions with proper deference.

    L1.15-18 And here in wew confer the exemptions incident to a agrahara (Village) belonging to a community of Chaturvidyas as approved by the earlier kings viz the village is out of bounds for police men and umbrella bearers or police officers ; is free from the obligation to provide to the state right of improvement and encampment of troops, hides, charcoal,moist commodities and minerals; free from the obligations to provide sacrificaial animals; free from the demands of flowers and milk, with right to treasure troves and other unclkaimed wealth and free from fixed and casual tax.

    Evidently Chaturvaidyas means those well versed with four vedas


    Pp 10

    L1.18-20 So this grant should be protected and increased by future kings. Whosoever disregarding our charter shall make or cause to make the slightest obstruction here, him, on being reported by Brahmnas, we will arrest and punish.

    L1.18-21 In this context there is a verse sung by vyasas :- here a customary imprecatory verse is quoted

    L.22 And this charter is written in the thirteenth year engraved by Chakardasa.

    1. Rithapur Copper – Plate inscription of Prabhavati Gupta of the time of Pravarsena II – Regnal Year 19

    Province: Rithapur (Riddhapura) Amraoty District Maharashtra


    PP 12

    Script : Box headed variety of Late Brahmi of the southern class of the 5th Century AD

    Language Sanskrit

    Metres: V1

    ReferencesY R Gupta Journal and Proceedings of ASB NS XX pp 58 ff DC Sircar Sel INSS I pp 439-42

    Note that this record is later in date than the chammak plates issued by Pravarsena II in his 18 th regnal year (Infra III,4)


    Pp 13

    Second Plate – First Side

    1. From the facsimile in J.P.A.S.A.B., N.S. XX.
    2. Ramagiri is identified with modern Ramtek near Nagpur. The God Ramagiri Swamin at Ramtek must have been a form of Vishnu the isht devta of Prabhvati most probably Rama, to whom the place continues to be sacred even today.



    Pp 14

    1. It appears the brothers Damodarsena and Pravarsena ruled after one after the other. At the time of death of their father Rudesena II, both were minors an eventuality necessitating the regency of Prabhavati Gupta foir at least 13 years. The Rithapur grant was issued when her younger son, Praversena, had completed more then 18 years rule and she had completed a century of life. Thus she was 82, when Praversen II ascended the throne. Since the child bearing age of a woman ends before 50, Praversena must be over 32 at the time. Even if Rudersena II died soon after the birth of Praversena II we have to account for 32 years of rule, of which Prabhavatis regency accounts for 13 years and we have to assign the intervening 19 years to Divakersenas rule. In reality, however the gap between Rudersenas death and Praversenas ascent to throne may have been more then 50 yearsgiving Divakersenaa reign of nearly 40 years. Hence we can not accept the suggestion of Sircar that : “it is not altogether impossible that 5the brothers were ruling different parts of of the kingdom at the same time and that as the lannd granted fell in the kingdom of Pravarsena, his regnal year was recorded. See also his other arguments (Sel.Inss.,I,PP.440,n.2) ) It is note wothy that even in this vakataka grant the Gupta kings are given the higher title of Maharajadhiraj while vakatake kings reveive the lower designation Maharaj, showing that the latter functioned under a subordinate alliance with the Guptas. Extension of Gupta hegemony to the far south is also injdicated by the existence of the dynasity – Guttas –Guptas) of Guttal, in the Darwar district and the story of the connection of a daughter of Chandragupta II with Srisaila and the Satara hoard of more then one thousand coins of Kumargupta I.

    (V V Mirashis suggestion (Comprehensive History of Ind. 1981 p 137 and n 53) that Pravarsen was the coronation name of Damodarsena)

  4. Pp 15 Second Plate Second SlideGupta: Div – and Pottra. V V Mirashi, ( Notes on D.R. Bhandarkars inscriptions of the early Gupta Kings (PP 48-49) explains “Tagr-varsh-shat-jeev-putr-poutra” as “She whose sons and grand sons will live for more then a hundred years” It does not appear plausible. Why only for more then 100 years why not 1000 years. The adjectives “jeevsuta and jeevputra” (= jeevatsutra & jeevatputra occur else where in prescriptions in the sense “She whose son or sons are alive.See also Ep.ind.,VIII p 73; Ep.ind.XXIX p139 and XXXIV p 241 
    1. Identified with Asatnagar in the Elichpur district Maharashtra. It was situated along the road leading to or named after Kasika. Sircar reads Kausikmarga and suggests that it is the name of the region and doesnot mean a road here
    2. “Brree” was originally engraved instead of Brra
    3. Read “ta-putr-poutranam”
    4. I.e. a house Inivesena0 complete with inner ladies apartments (abhyantpur= antahpur)


    Pp 16


    Third Plate Second Slide


    1. Bhuktkabhog-kshetram -= The field that they already enjoy
    2. Same as snidhih sopnidhih: vishti = Forced labor. For other immunities see notes on Pune plates of Prabhavato Gupta above (Supra III,1,ll 17-18 notes)


    Pp 17

    English Translation

    L.1       Om ! Vistopry to the Lord (Vishnu)

    From near the feet of the divine Lord of Ramagiri

    L1.1-13   There was Maharaj Sri Ghatotkacha, the first king among the Guptas. His son was Maharaj Sri


    1. Better Dushkritam ! Iti !
    2. Read Rajyam Prashastah or Rajya Prashasan ) Svaatsre akonvinshtitam. The form vishintim is also possible (vishanti manam yatya sah vishanti ma ) But it is not found in the usage except in the Prakrit
    3. Gupte   (Vavendswami)



    His son accepted at his feet by him, was Maharaja Sri SamudraGupta, Who was the daughter’s son of Lichchhavis, begotten on the chief queen, kumradevi. His son accepted at his feet was Maharajadhiraja Sri Chandergupta, who was the giver of many thousand crore of cows and gold acquired by lawful means; who was the exterminator of all kings; who was the matchless warrior on the earth; who was a devout worshipper of the devine Vishnu and who was begotten on the chief queen prabhavati-gupta, who is of Dharna gotra; Who was begotten on kubernagadevi born in the naga family; who is an ornament to both the dynasties; who has been leading queen of Rudrasen (II) of the vakataka fanmily; who is the mother of Maharaja Sri Damodarsena and Pravarsena II ; who is devoted to the feet of the (Divine) Bhagvat; who is above a hundred years in age and has living sons and grand sons – After mentioning her well being, commands the villagers led by Brahmins and the village Mahattaras in Asvatthanagara located on the road of Kasika:-

    L1.13-16   For the purpose of increasing our religious merit for this world and the next , we have bound down 9ie granted) by this Copper plate charter with


    Pp19 liberation of water, the field that was already being enjoyed by him and four home steads for cultivators together with a house with ladies inner apartments; to the brahmins of Parasara gotra And of Taittiriya Sakha (Of the Yajurveda) along with their sons and grandsons also.

    L1.16-21 And we grant for this (gifted field ) appropriate exemptions and restrictions assign4ed to the villages of the communities “Chaturvedins” as were approved by former kings. These are (as follows), are free from taxes, out of bounds for regular and irregular soldiers, free from obligation of supplying flowers and milk, free from the obligation of supplying fodder, (Chara) Seats, hides and charcoal ( to passing troops) free from the obligation to supply salt, moist and purchasable commodities and minerals, exempted from all types of forced labor, with the right to hidden treasures and deposits, together with the right to fixed and other miscellaneous taxes, to be enjoyed for as long as the moon and the sun endure and inheritable by sons & grand sons.

    L1.21-24 : Obstruction (During the enjoyment of the field) should not be caused by any one (rather) it should be protected or increased. And he who ignoring our charter puts even a

    Pp 20

    small obstruction or causes one, to be put him on being reported by the Brahmins, We shall arrest and punish.

    L1.24-29 In this honoring of religious persons, we are not mentioning the gifts, care and nursing by many past kings to avoid repetition of meritorious deeds. We are commanding present people who have been made to submit by persistent determination and valour. And in this context a verse sung by Vyasa is the authority

    (Here an imprecatory verse is quoted)



    L1.29-31 In the 19th year of  reign of Maharaja Sri Pravarsena (II) of the Vakataka family, on the 12th day of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of karttika

    L.31 The Dutaka is Devanandasvamin written by Prabhusimha


    Pp 23

    1. Two incomplete grants of Pravarsena II from Wardha District – Regnal year 11 (of second grant)
    2. Provenance: Belora Arvi Tehsil, Wardha District Maharashtra

    Script: Box headed variety of Brahmy

    Language: Sanskrit

    Refrences: V V Mirashi, Ep.Ind- XXIV, pp. 260–67


    1. The two sets of A and B were found in the possession of N H Jane of Belora. Originally each of the two sets had three plates of which only two each have survived. The last plate of set A and the first of set B are missing. All the four plates are palimpsests showing clear traces of earlier letters, which were beaten in before incising the present charters. Set B records the grant of two villages one of which had already given by the same king to the same donee by set A giving the impression that the set B is a forgery made with the purpose of adding another village to the original grant. But there was no need of replacing the third plate of the first set. Also the formation of letters and occurrence of same orthographical pecuilarities and grammatical mistakes in both the records make it highly probabale that both the grants were written by same clerk in the secreteriate of the Vakatakas. Senapati Chitravarman mentioned in set B, continued to hold office till atleast the 18th year of Pravarsena II (C.I.I, III p-240 infra II,4, P60). These facts indicate its genuineness. It appears that on a request from the donee to issue him a consolidated charter for the grants the Set B was issued.



    Pp 24

    1. From the Facsimiles in Ep.Ind,XXIV, facing p.264, for set A and facing p 266 for set B
    2. Nandivardhan is most probably identical with the Nagardhan ( Also called Nandardhan) near Ramtek as suggested by Hiralal9 Ep.IX, P 43)
    3. This mark of punctuation and several others in the text of both the sets are superfluous

    Pp 25

    Second Plate Second Slide


    1. The mark of punctuation is superfluous
    2. Sailpura has been identified with salbardi situated in the midst of hills about 24 Kms east of Ladki.It is an ancient place where some old caves and hot springs are located. Asi the chief town of Bhukti may be identified with Ashti, about 16 kms south east of Belora. Mahallalata or the larger lalata may be represented by Ladki or Ghat Ladki in th43e Morsi Taluk of Amraoti district about 29 km N.W. of Belora. The smaller Lalata of times may be the same as the modern Ladegaon on the left bank of Wardha, about 32 kms south of Belora.




                   Pp 26

    Set A

    English Translation The text of the seal and of L1.1-12 is identical with the corresoponding text in the chamak plates of Pravarsena II. For translation of this section See Chamak Plates above)

    1. This mark of punctuation is superfluous
    2. Perhaps this town received its name from a shrine of Sivacalled Pravaresvara installed by Pravarsena and named after himself.
    3. The stop is indicated by two concentric circles with horizontal arms on either side.Pp27
    4. L1.12-14 At the command of Param Maheshvara Maharaja Sri Pravarsena II, the village Mahallalata in the ASI bhukti on the road tyo Sailapura, has been granted to the Brahmna Suryasvamin of Kasyapa Gotra and Taittiriya sakha and a resident of Praveresvara-shadvinisati-vataka. L1.14-16 Wherefore all our officers appointed on supervisory assignments and the high born officers incharge of conveying orders and regular soldiers and their leaders be commanded with the already announced orders.L1.16-18   Be it known to you that for the increase of our piety, life strength, victories and royal fortune in this world and for our welfare in this and the next world and for favoring ourselves, this village has been granted with liberation of water as a fresh gift and as a religious endowment conducive to victory.
      1. “Chhatrah” is variously interpreted as irregular soldiers or officer in charges of soldiers or as the umbrella holders (from Chhatra=umbrella)

      Pp 28

      Incomplete grants of Praversena II from Wardha District – Regnal Year 11- Set B

      Second Plate First Slide






      Since Set B is almost a verbal copy of Set A it is evident that the missing first plate carried the first six lines of the text as in Set A



      Pp 29

      Second Plate Second Slide

      Perhaps identical with Dighi on the left bank of the Wardha about 48 Kms from Ashti. Pakkana can not be identified.


      Pp 30

      Third Plate first Slide


      1. The mark of punctuation is superfluous




      Pp 31

      Third Plate Second Slide


      Set B

      English Translation

      (L1.1-6 are missing. Text of 11.7-12 and 11.19-29 is identical with the corresponding text of chammak plates below. And the text of 11.3018 is common with that of set A above.)

      L1.29-30: In the year eleventh 11, on the thirteenth 13, tithi of the bright fortnight of (the month of ) Kartika, written in the time of Chitraverman’s generalship.





      Chammak copper –plate inscription of Pravarsena II – Regnal Year 18

      Provenance: Chammak, near Elichpur (Ilichpur) Amravati District Maharashtra

      Script:           Box headed variety of Late Brahmiof the Southern class of the 5th century AD

      Language:      Sanskrit


      Meters: Vv.1-3 Anushtub ( shlok)


      References: Buhler, Arch.survey of W. India, IV, pp.116 ff., Ind.Ant,XII, pp239 ff, Fleet C.I.I , III No 55 pp 235 ff.; Sircar Sel.Inss. I pp 442-49

      1. Called Ilichpur (Elichpur) grant by Buhler





      1. From the Facsimile in C.I.I., III,Pl.XXXiii, C opp p234 for seal opp pp 240 and 241 for plates. There are seven plates. The forst and seventh bear the inscription of one side only, while the rest of the plates are engraved on both sides.
      1. Drishtam      Occurs in other grants   e.g Basim Plates of Vindyashakti II (See infra III, 13) ) in the sense of “seen” ie checked or examined and is not a contraction of Drishtam Bhagwata as Fleet suggests.


    PP 34 

    “Agnishtom” (ie praise of Agni, a spring sacrifice lasting 5 days), Aptoyami, ukathya, shodshin, atiratr, vajpay & Atyagnishtom (not mentioned here), together in this chronological order made up the principle sacrifice, known as Jyotishtoma and connected with the ritual of soma pressing. The Brhispati – sav, was a one day sacrifice in honor of the preceptor of Gods. Sagaskar may be identical with sghaskriya, a one day sacrifice described in the Asvalayana Srauta Sutra, IX.6. Ashavmedh, was performed by ambitious kings to establish universal sovereignity.

    1. Read “ Yajino vishnuvridh”
    2. Soonoh: Soonoh: = Potrasya (of son’s son) This phrase as also ‘Shri bavnagadhohitrsya” are the adjectives of Rudrasena I who occupies the same position in this vakataka genealogy as samudragupta does in the Gupta one. The vakatakas apparently drew up their genealogy on the model of the Gupta draft. Sircar has rightly rejected Bhandarkars suggestion that the two phrases refer to Gautamiputra is a matronymic. It is clear that his mother was a brahman prince of Gautama gotere and not a Bharasiva Naga. Since Gautamiputra is not given any royal title like others in the succession list, he must have predeceased his father.


    PP 35

    1. The avabhritha bath was taken at the completion of a sacrifice
    2. The Naga ending of the name Bhavanage indicates that he was a Naga king. The reference to frequent bathe in the Bhagirthi (Ganga) indicates that their kingdom touched Ganga. Jayaswals suggestion that the Dasasvamedhaghata at Varanasi commemorates these very ten horse sacrifices referred in here, is quiet pausibleA large number of Naga coins, including those of Bhavanaga have been discovered. Sircar suggests that Bhavanaga had probably his capital at Padmavati modern Padampavavy in the former Gawalior state.
    3. Better Gautamiputra-putrasya, The phrase also occurs in Pattan Plates of Pravarsena II (Ep.ind.XXXIII,p85 infra III.9)
    4. Cf. the reading in Pauni Pls of Pravarsena II (III,10 below)
    5. “Pa” was made out of “hee” that was originally engraved.

PP 36

Second Plate Second Slide

  1. the reading in Pauni Pls. PraqvarsenaII infra, III,10
  2. A century of Vakataka rule, commencing possibly with the accession of Vindhyasakti I, seems to have been completed during the reign of Prithivishena I, suggests Sircar.
  3. First engraved “jji” and then corrected to “jjer”
  4. properly – Rudersenusya for whom the preceding adjectives in genitive singular are meant. Prabhavati’s father is named as Maharajadhiraja-Sri-Chandergupta II in her own inscriptions (See supra III Nos 1 and 2) A clear proof that Devgupta was an alias of Chandragupta II


PP 37 Third Plate Second Slide


  1. Apparently covering the modern district of Ellichpur, round chammak. Sircar (Sel. I,p.445 n.1) suggests that some of the territorial divisions of Vakataka kingdom were called Rajya, either because they were still being ruled by subordinate local rulers or they retained that old political designation even after the vakataka occupation. Sircar also ventures the conjecture that if Bhojakatya rajya was under the local ruler
  2. Kondaraja, son of satrughna raja, senapati chitravarma was a high commissioner or the vice roy of the province in which Bhojakatarajya was included.
  3. Commonly spelt as Bhoomi, Rajmanik Bhoomi – seems to be the state recognized standard unit of land. After 8000 add “Primitah”

PP 38

Fourth Plate – First Slide

  1. Fleet amended the phraqse to “ytheshatmano’ But Sircar thinks  Mano can be justified in the text in the sense of faculty of judgment.
  2. For the immunities and rights conferred (See Pune Plates of Prabhavati Gupta year 13, supra III,1,pp17-18 notes)
  3. For translation of the whole passage see SI,I P 434 n.) Sandoh= extraction “Pushp-ksheer-sandoh= tax in kind in the form of flowersw and milk   “Char” = grazing ground “Asan” = encampment

“Charm”= hides for saddles etc “Adgar” = charcoal for cooking food for passing forces. “Klin-Kreni” = Liquid marketable commodities” “Vishti” = Forced labour   “upnidhi” = sealed treasure. “Klript ( upklript” are not clear. Possibhly they stand for the royal share in major and minor produce respectively.

PP 39

Fourth Plate Second Slide

  1. “ku” of the next word was first engraved here and then erased
  2. Originally “nee” “Kartt” was engraved
  3. Reduplication of “va” under “va pdantsya” ! Panini VIII.4.59



PP 40


Fifth Plate Second Slide

  1. Originally “Chch” or “Chchha” was engraved
  2. The seven limbs of state are ( swamyamatya, suhrit, kosh, rashtra, durg, balani cha = ( the king, ministers, allies, treasury, the state, fortress and armed forces) Amara VIII, 17
  3. Originally Choura was engraved, Fleet likes to supply “aa” before “Brahmgn”
  4. Sircar amends to “prabritibyah” and translates (Provided) they always on hostile terms with slayers of Brahmnas thieves etc
  5. The punctuation mark is redundant




PP 41

Sixth Plate First Slide


  1. “Var” = “Arbitrator” According to Sircar Sel.inss.,I,p448 n.3 “The Donees” he suggests were made responsible for distribution of shares of the gift village among themselves
  2. “Yourr” is engraved below the line appearing almost at the end of next line.
  3. Gotra Name which invariably precedes the proper name in this text, is some times compounded with the first of several proper names that follow. In correct grammatical construction, it should be an independent word in dual or plural number as required by the number of names it qualifies.






PP 42 & 43

Sixth Plate Second Slide and Seventh Plate


Seal: This is the seal of government, that chastises enemies of King Pravarsena II, the ornament of Vakatakas, who has attained royal dignity by inheritance.


LL.1: Seen. Peace From the city of Pravarapura


L1.1-17: At the command of the most devout worshipper of Mahesvara Siva Maharaj Sri Pravarsena II of the ( race of) vakatakas — Pravarsena II who sustains the age of virtue through the favor of Siva, who was begotten on Prabhavati Gupta, the daughter of Maharajadhiraja Sri Devaguopta and who is the son of Maharaja Sri Rudrsen II of the line of Vakatakas, who acquired a rising fortune through the favor of the divine Vishnu (Who is arnmed with a discus)

  1. The sign read as Visarga may actually have been intended as a full stop.
  2. See also D.C Sircar Sel.inss,I,448,n1 for the translation of 11.40-44


PP 44

Who (RudrasenaII) was the son of Maharaja Sri Prithvishena I of the line of Vakatakas; Prithvisena I who was exceedingly devout worshipper of (The God) Siva; who was endowed with the qualities of truthfulness, straightforwardness, compassion, heroism, political wisdom, modesty highmindedness, wisdom, devotion to worthy people, victory through piety, purity of mind etc etc; whose treasures,armed forces, equipment and succession of sons and grand sons have been growing for a hundred years and who conducted himself like Yudhishtra;- Who (Pritvisena I) was the son of the Maharaja of Vakatakas, Sri Rudrasen I, who was an exceedingly devoutworshipper of the Lord Maha- Bhairava; who was the daughter’s son of Maharaja Sri Bhavanaga of the lineage of the Bharasivas, whose royal line owed its origin to the great satisfaction of (The God) Siva (Caused) by 9Thier) carrying a lilnga of Siva placed as a load upon (their) shoulders.

(and) who were besprinkled on their forehead with the pure water of (the riverz) Bhagirthi that had been obtained by their valour and who performed ablutions after the celebration of ten asvamedha sacrifices; who (rudersena I) was the son of Gautamiputra:–



And (Rudersena I who was the son’s son of the Maharaja of the sovereign Vakatakas, Sri Pravarsena I, who performed the agnishtoma, aptoryama, ukthya, shodasin, atiratra, vajapeya, brihaspatisava, and sadyasakra and four asvamedha sacrifices (and) was of Vishnuvriddha gotra:—

L1.18-20: The village named charmanka on the bank of the river Madhunadi, in the Bhojakata kingdom (measured) by 8000 bhumis (Eight thousand) according to royal measure , is given at the request of Kondaraja, the son of Satrughnaraja, to one thousand Brahmnas of various gotras and charnas.


L1.21-22: Wherefore our serving obedient and high born officers, employed in all the supervisory assignments, and the regular and irregular soldiers be directed in persuit of the already announced (lit,heard) order:-


L1. 22-30: Be it known to you that for the purpose of our mental faculties, piety, life, strength, victory and superimacy and for the sake of (our) welfare in this world and the next (and) for our own benefit , this (village) is granted with liberation of water in (our) victorious office of justice, as a grant not previously made(ie as a new grant)Further we confer on this villagethe appropriate preveleges that were approved by earlier kings for the villages of

Pp 46


The brahmnas versed in four vedas namely


PP 47

kings for their meritorious deeds of giving sympathetic consideration and of nourishing the earlier grants.



And in this context two verses sung by Vyasa should be accepted as an authority:

Here follow two usual imprecatory verses


L1.39-44 And this settled position of the charter should be maintained by the Brahmna and the future kings for the same time with the sun and the moon in as much as they ( the donees) do not commit treason against the seven limbs of the government of successive kings, are not slayers of Brahmnas and are not thieves,

Adulterers harmers of kings and do not involve themselves in wars (and) or not guilty of causing harm to other villages. But if they act otherwise or approve of such acts the confiscation of land by the king shall not be a theft.


L1.44-59 And the recipients in this context as appointed by the arbitrators are :- Arya (Noble) Gana of Satyavana gotra; noble Deva of Vatsa Gotra Noble Kumarasarman of Bhardwaj GotraGuhasarma of Parasara Gotra; Noble Dev, Noble mahasevara and Noble Matra of Kashyap Gotra, Noble Rudra Noble Soma and Noble Harisarman of Kaundinya



PP 48 gotra; noble kumarasarman of bhardvaja gotra; matrisarman , Varasarman, Gondasarman, and Nagasarman of Kaundnaya gotr, Santisvarnman and rudrasarman of bhardvaj gotra; noble Bhojakadeva, Maghasarman and Devasarman of Vatsa gotra; Moksha-sarman, Nagasarman, revatisarman and noble Dharma, Noble Bhardwajasarman, noble nandana, Mulasarman, isvarasarman and varasarman (All) of Bhardwaja gotra; Arya skand of Atri gotra; Arya Somasarman,Bhartrisarmnan, Arya Rudrasarman Arya Magha, Arya Matrisarman and isvarasarman of Gautam gotra; Arya Matrisarman of Gautam gotra; Arya Devasarman Arya Varasarnmman and Arya Roha of Kaundinya gottra; Arya svamideva Arya Revatisarnman (and) Arya Jyeshthasarman of Gautam gotra; Arya Kumarasarman nad Arya svatisarman of sandilya gotra and Arya Kanda of Satyavana gotra and others


The charter has been written, while chitravarman is the senapati in the eighteenth year ie in figures 18, on the thirteenth lunar day of the bright fortnight of the month of jyestha.










PP 52

5 Indore plate of Pravarsena II —— (Regnal)0 Year 23.
Provenance: Exact find-spot uncertain. They were originally in the possession of late wamanrao islampurkar sastri of the erstwhile indore state

Script: Box headed variety of central Indian brahmi.

Language: Sanskrit
Reference: S.K. BoseEp.Ind. XXIV pp. 52-56
Of the original four plates the first together with the ring and the seal is lost. A comparison of the test with that of the other plates of the king shows that the lost plate was inscribed with seven lines on one side only.
PP 53
Second Plate: Second Side
From the facsmile in Sp.Ind., XXIV facing p.55

PP 54

Third Plate first Slide
1. The sign of colon with hyphen is actually engraved after “datvabiti” the phrase mya datvabiti is superfluous.
2. Base hints at the identity of this place with Kosambakhanda mentioned in the tirondi plates of the same king.

PP 55 Third Plate: Second Slide

1. Tadyath refers to the word parihararan in the last but one sentence. The last sentence beginning with “atra” and ending with bhagvatpadam should have been placed immediately after the sentence ending in atisrishtha
2. Note the sign for the matra of “ Loo” in “kloo”

PP 56
Siwani and Tirodi plates have also dharmmadhikarana , while chammak Dudia and Riddhapur plates (Supra,III,4,infra III 6i and infra III, 2 respectively) have “dharmmadara — karana”

PP 57

English Translation

The first part of the inscription supplies the stereo typed pedigree of Pravarasena II. The first plate being lost the geneology from Gautamiputra onwards only survives. For transplation of the genealogy part see chammak plates III No: 4 above. Translation with effect from the line 8 in our text above is as follows:-
At the command of Maharaja Pravarsena II of the vakatakas, our serving officers in Gepurakamargha assigned to supervisory offices, officers of noble birth charged with transmission of orders (ajna-sancharins) the regular and irregular soldiers be ordered according to the orders already
1. Rajuka was an important limb of the Mauryan revenue administration and is frequently mentioned in Asokas inscriptions. But after them this is the first and presumably the last occasion that existence of this official is recorded. In gupta administration this official does not seem to figure at all. In northern India the Mauryan administrative machinery was perhaps toatally supplanted by the Kushanas with their own brought from their central Asian home. The Guptas may have retained some of the Kushana system giving the various offices sanskrit names. But south of Narmada, the Mauryan system seems to have continued longer, though Rajukas being senior revenue officials, rarely come to picture in the land transfer deads.

PP 58
Transmitted (vyushtapurvaya) Be it known to you that since we had already given land in this victorious and sacred place to the northern side of Armaka, to the eastern side of kovidaraka, to the southern side of kosambka and to the western side of Anjanavadaka to Gondarya son of visakharya, of Kausika gotra and vajasaneya sakha and a resident of
Aramaka and to Gondaryas sons namely Manoratharya, Govarya, Dronarya for increase of our piety longevity, strength and superimacy and for our welfare in this and the next world. We have written down this charter in respect of Vishakharya-vataka and have granted (this vataka or enclosed land) with the liberation of water as a new gift and grant to this village the appropriate immunities customery for the villages of the scholars of the four vedaas as approved by former kings. Here half the vataka ie the village has been purchased at a price for the Brahmnas as the Lord’s portion by the merchant Chandera. These immunities are free from taxes, out of bounds for regular and irregular soldiers and free from the customary supply of cows and bulls free from extraction of flowers and milk free from the obligation of supplying pastures camping sites hides and charcoal (to passing troops) free fron obligation of supplying minerals, liquid commodities and salt immunized with the immunity of all types of free labour together with major and minor treasure troves together with fixed and casual taxes to last as long as the moon and sun do as aheritage going to sons and grand sons. . While enjoying this gift no body should cause hinderance and should be protected and enhanced by all actions. And who disregarding our command makes or

( The garden described as the viskharyavataka was evidently a former gift to Visakharya the father of present donee and his sons. Half of this gift from a merchant named Chandera. Persumably due to loss of original copper charter the necessity of issuing a fresh copper charte ralong with reaffirmation of the gift arose. Accordingly this charter was issued in favor of the descendents of Viskharya)
PP 59 & 60
Taxes, out of bounds for regular and iregular soldiers and free from the customary supply of cows and bulls, free fr om extraction of flowers and milk, free from obligation of supplying pastures, camping sites, hides and charcoal (to passing troops) free from the obligation of supplying minerals, liquid commodities and salt, immunised with the immunities of all types of free labour, together with major and minor treasure troves, together with fixed and casual taxes, to last as long as the moon and sun do, as a heritage going down to sons and grand sons,. While enjoying this gift no body should cause hinderance and should be protected and enhanced by all actions. And he who disregarding our command makes or causes to be made even a small obstruction on being reported by the Brahmnas, we shall arrest and punish him. In this legal instrument, we do not praise the pieties performed in giving caring and nursing (of such religious gifts) by many past kings in order to avoid repitition. And to the present kings subdued with our valour, exertion,and determination we issue it and as a commandand to the potentates of coming ages because of our regard for their power we request.
And in this conteswt a verse sung by vyasa should be regarded as authoritative.
( Here follow one of the usual impercatory verses
In the twenty third year on the fifth teethi of the dark fortnight of vaisakha, order issued by self written by Rajuka kottadeva.

1 Chhatra, according to Sircar 9Select Inss IP 437 n.7) is used in the grants of Pravarsena, II in the same sense as chata is used elsewhere and has the sense of a leader of a group of bhatas. But since the officials are referred to in these records in the order of seniority and diminishing status, the chhatra here should be an official junior to Bhata.
2 Asana – Charma can also be taken together to mean hides for seats or saddles.
3 According to Arthsastra Klipta is one of the seven sources of state revenue. According to Sircar (op.cit. p.438,n.3) an occassional tax)



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