ancient indian history

Devnimori Stone Casket Inscription

Inscription number 143.

Devnimori, is a Buddhist archaeological site in the Aravalli district of Gujrat. The site contains archeological evidences of several international trade routes. The excavations of this site, have yielded many Buddhist artefacts.
Devni Mori also has some residential caves with water cisterns & stupas, as at uparkot in junagarh.
The Buddha images inside stupas clearly show the influence of Greco buddhist art of Gandhara.

Inscription number  143.

Devnimori Stone Casket Inscription of the time of Rudrasena I– Saka year 127 (205 A. D.)
Provenance: Devnimori, near Samlaji, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat.
Script: Middle Brahmi
Language: Sanskrit
References: R. N. Mehta and S.N Chowdhary,. Journal of Oriental
Institute, Baroda, XII, pp.173 ff. P. R. Sinivasan, Ep.Ind, XXXVII, pp67-69, Sel.Ins, pp.519.
V .1: अनुष्टुभ्
V.2: आर्या
V.3: मीति
Around the body of casket.
1. नम: सर्वज्ञाय ! ज्ञानानुकम्पा -कारुण्य-प्रभाव-निधये नमः सम्यत्संबुद्ध सूर्याय पर-वादि-तमो नुदे ।। सप्ताविंशत्यधिके कथिक-नृपाणां समागते शब्द शते (T)

2. भ (T) द्रपद-पंचम-दिने नृपतौ श्री रुद्रसेने च । कृतमवनिकेतुभूतम्महाविहाराश्रये महास्तूपं -पम् । ) सत्वानेकानुग्रह-निरताभ्यां शाक्य-भिक्षुभ्या’ (भ्याम् ।।)
3. साध्वग्नि वर्म्म-नाम्ना सुदर्शनेन च विमुक्त रन्र्धेण(I) कार्म्मान्तिकौ च पाशान्तिकपकौ शाक्य-भिक्षुकावत्र (I) दश-बल -शरीर-निलय-शुभ-शैलमयस्स्वयं वराहेण (I)
At the bottom of the Casket :
4. कुट्टिम – क ( = कृ ) ता कृतोयं समुद्गकस्सेन-पुत्रेण ।। महासेन-भिक्षुरस्य च कारयिता विश्रुतः समुद्गस्य (1)
5. सुगत प्रसाद कामो वृदयर्थन्धम्र्म -सड्न्धाभ्यां (भ्याम् ) |

1. From photographs published in the Journal of oriental Institute, Baroda,.pp176 ff., figs. 4, 6, 5, 7 and 8
respectively, snd tcom EP.Ind toNI between PP.68 and 69.
2. The space below नम सर्वज्ञाय forms the left margin.

1. On the analogy of अष्टाविझति Correct form is सप्तविझति
2. कथिक means a Preacher of Buddhist faith’.
The reference apparently, is to the kings of the Kanishka house, whose zeal for the propagation of Buddhism is
well-known. They were overlords of the Saka Mahakshatrapas. Thus
the date given is in kanishka era,
which later came to be known as the Saka era and seems to have replaced the original Saka era established by
the Saka emperor Aya or Azes (see supra number 5, I,1, Number 52,1,I,j)
Menta and Choudhary, as also D.C. Sircar identify Kathika era with the Saka or Kanishka era. Srinivasan
referred it tentatively to Kalachuri-Chedi era of 248-49 A.D. following such assumption in the Arch.
He places the records in 376 A. D. and assigns it to the reign of Mahakshatrapa Svami Rudrasena III,
( 348-51 A. D. and 360-90 A D.) He identifies the subordinate ruler. Nripa Rudrasena, with Rudrasena IV, who is known from a single coin and who was the son of Simhasena the sister’s son of Rudrasena III. However, there being no ground for accepting his views on the era and the date the record,we have accepted, with Mehta, Chowdhary and Sircar.
(the Kathika era as the same as the Saka era of 78 A. D.)
3. Mirashi considers this Rudrasena as an Abhira king.
4. कार्मान्तिक = Supervisors of the construction. पाशान्तिकपकली = mod Devnimori, the two monks, Agnivaman and sudarsana built the Great Stupa in the Premíses of the great monastery
under thei own supervision.
5. is an epithet of the Buddha.

English Translation of the inscription
Salutation to the Omniscient (.e. the Buddha). Salutation to the True and completely enlightened, (Buddha)
who is the very sun that drives away the darkness of revilers,
and who is the storehouse of knowledge, Pity, Compassion and
influence, when one hundred and Twenty Seventh year of the
preacher (kathika kings (i.e. the Kusnanas) had arived on
tne fifth day of Bhadrapada and when sri Rudrasena, was the
King. the great stupa, which became banner to (.e. formost
on) the earth as constructed in the Precinets of the Maha-Vihara, by Sadhu Agnivarman by name and by the faultless Sudarsana the two Sakya bhiksus. engaged in many compassionate acts towards creatures. The supervisors of the construction
were also the two Sakya-bhikshus of Pasantikapalli (= mod.
Devanimori (And) this casket made of stone and blessed for being the receptacle of the relics of the buddha, was himself, made by Samudgakasena’s, son Varaha, the maker of the pavement.
The famous bhikshu Mhasena, who is desirous of the blessings
of the Buddha, got this casket made for the increase of Dharma and samgha.

1. Read : धर्म संघयो
The casket was made, for
interring the relics of the Buddha under the Stupa, by the sons of Varaha,the maker of the kuttima or pavement. on behalf of the monk Mahasena, who
wanted property for himself as well as the Dharma and the Sangha.
Lines.4-5, are engraved on the base of the casket. The two final dandas are followed by book like mark, indicating the conclusion of the record.

Inscription number 144
Intwa Clay sealing
Provenance: The ancient site of Intwa, in Saurashtra, about 5 kilometres from the famous Junagarh rock,
which bears the inscription of Ashoka, Rudradaman, and skandgupta.
Script: Brahmi of the early Kshatrapa period.
Language: Sanskrit.
Refrences: B Ch Chhabra, Ep.ind, XXVIII, pp.174-75.
Buddhist sites at Junagadh and its surrounding area, supported a large number of Budhist monks. The caves as well as the vihara at Intwa, had a strong Buddhist presence
The edicts of Ashoka also provide us the earliest evidences of the existence of Buddhism in Saurashtra.
Engish Translation of the inscription
(The seal) of the congregation of friars in the monastery of Maharaja Rudrasena.
1. From the Pencil rubbing and the enlarged photograph in
Ep.Ind XXVIII, facing pp174.
2. Of the four lines of this name in the dynasty of Chashtana,
the reference is probably to Rudrasena-1 (199-222 A. D)
Tue paleography of the legend rather rules out the Later Kings. The historical importance of the seal lies
in the fact that this is the only evidence to the effect that the Saka Mahakshtrapa built a budhist monastery at junagarh.

Gadhwa Stone Inscriptions

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