ancient indian history

Dharikatura Copper-plate grant of Achandavarman

Inscription number 35.
Dharikatura Copper-plate grant of Achanda-varman, Regnal Year 35 (Later half of the 4th century A.D.)
These plates comprise salankayana records of Maharaja Achandavarman, in the prakrit language. He was assigned a status of Maharaja 
Some historians are of the opinion that  the status of Achandavarman was Yuvamaharaja & not as a Maharaja. But  
Achandavarman did rule as Maharaja.
Perhaps he might be assisting his father, during early years of his life. This record refers to the gotra and to the tutelary deity of the Salankayana family.  He was succeeded by Skandavarman. In the war of succession for the Vengi throne between Skandavarman and
Nandivarman 2, the latter succeeded to the throne. Salankayana power therefore got diminished due to internal conflicts. .
Provenance: Unknown, The grant was issued from Vengi-pura (Modern 
Pedda-vegi) near Eluru in the West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Late Southern Brahmi of 4th-5th century A.D.
Language Prakrit influenced by sanskrit customary quotations at the end are in sanskrit.
References: D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind. XXXVI pp.1-7.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind,. XXXVI, Plate.I, (i-iv).
2. Vengipura has been identified with the modern Pedda-vegi, near Eluru in the west Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh.
3. This figure is engraved in the left margin against line 5.
4. Sircar: इदाणि
5. Engraved in the left margin against line 8.
Footnote 2.
1. Donnampi as also Dharikatura, have not been identified.
2. All these figures indicating the serial numbers of the Plate-faces are incised on the left margin.
3. Agrahara = revenue- free holding granted to Brahmanas for pursuit of religious and academic activities.
Footnote 3.
1. Better read
2. The figure is engraved on the left margin.
3. The full verse is:
Cf. Srirama Kasyapa gotra of Prithvi-maharaja
(See Ep.Ind, XXXV, pp.221ff, Supra, IV, II,L5-6)  Bhemana may have
been one of the pravaras or eminent persons, in the apa go tra to which the donees belonged.
English Translation of the inscription.
L1.1-5: From the victorious city of  Vengipuras — the illustrious Yuvamaharaja Achanda-varman,– who meditates on (or, is favoured by) the feet of Lord chitraratha-svamin, who is devoted to the feet of his lordly father
as if he were a supreme divinity, and who belongs to the salankayana gotra, —orders all the villagers of
Dharikatura en masse.
L1.5-12: Now (the, said village) has been granted by us as an agrahara, having made it to last as long as the moon, the sun and the stars endure, to the (two) brothers, (hailing) from Donnampi, (namely), Bhava-skanda-sarmarya and Bhatti-sarmarya, who are (brahmanas) of Bhemana-Kasayapa gotra, for the increase of our religious merit, longevity, military power, means of transport, wealth and sovereignty and for the increase of good fortune and
success of (our) family and clan.
L1,12-16: Therefore, having known this 
you, the in-charge of the district, should order the collection of the tolls (customary) offerings and free labour for the two donees and their descendants.
Those who cause obstruction and inconvenience  to the donees, shall fall from royal grace. Those who
exempt it (i.e the gifted land) by all the customary exemptions will be given approval (lit. pleasure) by us
L1.17-18: Year thirty five, 35, the sixth fortnight of the rainy season, 6, the third day, 3.
Footnote 4.
1. व्रात = manual labour, Sircar takes the word in the sense of ‘multitude’.
2. According to D.C. Sircar (Ep.Ind, XXXVI, pp.3-4).
Achanda-varman of the present grant is identical with the Maharaja Achanda-varman, mentioned in the Kollair (Tnd.Ant, V, pp.175 ff.) and Pedda-Vegi plates (J.A.H.R.S. I,
pp-92 ff; The Successors of the satavahanas. pp.331f) of Nandi-varman  2, grand son of Nandi-varman 1.
It appears that Nandi-varman 1, ruled for 35 years or more, and in his later years, his eldest son and crown Prince
Achanda-varman ruled on his behalf as the de-facto king.
From his title Maharaja in the Kollair and Pedda-Vegi plates, it is clear that Achanda-varman did rule as king
for a few years. D.C. sircar has reconstructed the Salankayan a genealogy as under:-
1. Devavarman (320-40 A. D.) Year 13 in plates.
2. Hastivarman 1   (340-350 A.D.)
3. Nandivarman 1  (350-390A.D) years 14 and 35 recorded in plate.
4 Achandavarman (390-395 AD.)
5. Hastvarman 2.   (395-400 A.D.)
(Recorded in Plates)
6. Nandivarman       (400-430 A.D.)
 7. Skandavarman    (430-450A.D.)
( Year 7 and 10 recorded in plates)
Of these Hastivarman is identified with the Vaingeyaka Hastivarman, whom samudragupta, in his, Allahabad pillar
inscription (1.20, Fleet C.I.I, III, pp.6 ff) claims to the earlier charters of the Salankayanas, e.g. those of
Devavarman and Nandivarman 1, were Written in Prakrit, while
the later records, e.g. of Nandivarman 2, and Skandavarman, were written in Sanskrit.

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