ancient

Eucratides 1 & Eucratides 2

EUKRATIDES I. King of Bactria. — 180 to 170 B.C.
1.AR. Attic tetradrachm. Commemorating Heliocles and Laodike.
References : E.J. Rapson, C.H.I., Pl. IV. 3, and A.K. Narain, Indo-Greeks, Pl.11.1; M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p. 192,
Pl.V.1.
Obv: within bead-and-reel border, draped busts jugate r. of Heliocles, with bare head, and Laodike, wearing diadem. In 1. field mon. 15.
Above HΛIOKEOYΣ, below KAIΛAO∆IKHΣ.
Rev: within bead-and-reel border, draped bust of Eukratides r., diad. both ends stiffy suspended, wearing helmet decorated with horn and ears of bull. Above BAΣIΛAEYΣ, METAΣ, below EYKPATI∆HΣ.

2.AR . Attic tatradrachm: B.M.

References: E.J.Rapson, C.H.I. Pl. IV.4; M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p. 193. pl.v.2.
Obv: within bead-and-reel border, undraped bust of Eukratides r … diad, both ends stiffly suspended.
Rev: The Dioscuroi, wearing pilei, carrying palms, riding horses r., holding spears. Under horses’ forelegs mon. 17. Above BAΣIΛEΩΣ below EYKPATI∆OY.
3. AR. Attic tatradrachm: B.M.
References: E.J. Rapson, C.H.I.. Pl.IV-5, M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p.193. P1. V.3.
Obv: As the reverse of no. I above, but without any legend.
Rev: As the reverse of no. 2 above, but mon. 13 to 1. and legend, above BAΣIAEΩΣ, MEAΛOY below EYKPATI∆OY.
4. AR. Attic tatradrachm: B.M.
References: E.J. Rapson, C.H.I,Pl. IV.6. M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p.193, B1.V. 4.
Obv: within bead-and-reel border, undraped bust of Eukratides I, , diad, and helmeted, spear in uplifted r. hand
Rev: Same as no. 3 above, but mon. 15 under the horses’ forelegs.
5. AR. Kapisi-devata type. Square. B.M. and P.M.
References: A.K. Narain. Indo Greeks, Pl.IV. 8; E.J. Rapson, C.H.I. Pl, VII., 36, R.B. Whitehead, L.M.C. Sec. I, no. 131, Pl. III: M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p. 193, P1-V, 5
Obv: Bust of king r., wearing helmet. Legend. BAΣIΛEΩΣ, top MEAΛOY below EYKPATI∆OY.
Rev: City divinity of Kapisi, viz. Zeus-Indra, wearing turreted crown, seated to front on throne, an unidentified object in outstretched r, hand. To 1. fore part of an elephant, to r. a mountain or chaitya, Kh. legend r., top and 1. Kavisiye nagara devata.

6. AR. Kapisi-devata type. Square. Overstruck on a coin of Apollodotus. B.M.
References: A.K. Narain, Indo-Greeks, Pl-IV,.9, M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p.194, Pl.V, 6.
Obv: Draped, helmeted and diedemed bust of Eukratides r.legend 1. BAΣIΛEΩΣ, top MEAΛOY, r. EYKPATI∆OY.
Legend, 1. Bae Traces of understrike visible, e.g. on top r.
Rev: Same aa no. 5 above, but traces of understrike visible. The entire name. Apeladatasa, is legible on the coin.
7. AR. Kapisi-devata type. Square P.M.
References: R.B. Whitehead, L.M.C. Sec.I, no. 131, Pl.III; E.J. Rapson, C.H.I. Pl. VII. 36; A.K. Narain, Indo Greeks, Pl. IV, 8, describes the figure as as “female deity” M.V. D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p.194, 21. V, 7.
Obv: Same as no. 6 above
Rev: Same as no. 5 above.

Eucratides 1, was an important Greco-Bactrian kings. He had overthrown the Euthydemid dynasty of Bactria and restored the Diodotid dynasty of Diodotus I, and had allied to the Parthian Empire.
Eucratides fought against the easternmost Hellenistic and Indian  rulers in India, holding territory in the indus and as far as Barigaza until he was finally defeated by Menany  and pushed back to Bactria. Eucratides minted a vast and prestigious coinage, suggesting a rule of considerable importance and prosperity.
Eucratides came to power by overthrowing the Euthydemid dynasty in Bactria, possibly when the king, Demetrius was conquering northwest India.
His son, Heliocles I was father of Heliocles II, who was the last Greek king to rule in Bactria, as Yuezhi and Saka nomads overran the country c.100 BCE.
Eukratides, who rose in revolt and drove the Demetrian family out of Bacteria, was succeeded by his parricide
son, Heliokles. This is indicated by provenance of coins and
by the unilingual legends on an early type of Heliokles. It is admitted that the coins issued in Bactria bore only
Greek legends. Barring Plato and Eukratides II, who
were subordinate rulers, he was the last Greek king to rule north of the Hindu Koh, and is believed to have been driven south by the Sakas, who imitated his coin types. Wherever the Saka nomads went they copied
the coin-types of the supplanted rulers. Thus he was Eukratides successor in Bactria. Commemorative medallions of Eukratides 2, indicate that his father’s name was Heliokles, Among the Greeks the grandfather and the
eldest grandson generally bore the same name. Hence our belief that Heliokles, the successor of Eukratides in Bactria, was the eldest grandson of Heliokles and Laodike of Eukratides commemorative medallions, i.e. he was Eukratides’ eldest son, probably the one who is stated to have assassinated him, driven his chariot over his dead
body and ordered the corpse to be cast away unburied.
Eukratides 2  was a successor and probably a son of  Heliokles and grand son of Eukratides 2. He ruled for a very short time after the murder of Eukratide 1.
As senior Eukratide returned from India, he was killed on the way back Presumably by his son Herakles, whom he had associated to his rule.
PLATO AND EUKRATIDES 2
Plato and Eukratides 2, whose Bactrian, i.e. unilingual, coins have come down to us, appear to have been Heliokles contemporaries. The small areas with which their coin-types connect them, as also the scarcity of their
types, indicate that they were only subordinate rulers. Their suzerain at this period could only be Heliokles.
First suggested by Bayer, the existence of a  Eukratides, a younger brother or son of Heliokles, is now generally admitted by scholars”.Other things apart, the resemblance of the youthful features and his type on a
tetradrachm with those of Heliokles, is so striking that it is impossible not to agree with the conclusions of Prof
Macdonald. And the title Soter of the youthful Eukratides on a number of newly discovered coins leaves Iittle
room for doubt about his existence. If Eukratides I had adopted this title in his youth, he would certainly have
used it in his later coins, especially on those where Dioscuroi the saviour Gods figure.  Moreover the engineering of conspiracy that led to the acces of Eukratides 1 could hardly have been conceived and successfully executed
by a man so young as portrayed on this set of coins.
Eukratides 2 may have preceded Plato as the sub-king of Bactria. He is in no way connected wIth India. His
youthful portraits indicate that he died young, most probably, during the life time of heliokles.

EUKRATIDES 1  King of Bactria

180 to 170 B.C

1. Dr M.V.D Mohan

Indo Greek Coins page 192 P V, 1

Observation: within bead-and reel border, draped bust  jugate r of

Haliocles, with bare head

Wearing diadem.

Reverse: within bead-and reel border,

draped bust of Eukratides, diad 145 BCE  (at the age of 59), both ends stiffly  suspended, wearing helmet decorated with horn and ears of bull.

2A Attic tetra drachm BM

Dr M V D Mohan Page 193 Pl V 2

Observation:  within bead-and reel border,

draped bust of Eukratides diad. both ends stiffly  suspended

Reverse: The Dioscuroi wearing pilei carrying palms, riding horses, holding spears, under horses forelegs

3A Attic tetradrachm

Dr M.V.D Mohan Indo Greek Coins Page 193 Pl V, 3

Observation: As the reverse of no 1 above

Reverse As the reverse of no 2 above 

4A  Same as no 3 above, bot mon 15 under the horses forelegs

5 A Kapisi devata type square B.M, P.M

Dr M V D Mohan Indo Greek Coins page 193 Pl V, 5

Bust of king r wearing helmet. Legend 1

Reverse: city divinity of Kapisi, viz. Zeus-Indra, wearing turreted crown Seated to front on throne, An

unidentified object in outstretched right hand to one forepart of an elephant, to right a mountain or chaitya,

Khroshthi Legend, top and one Kavisiya nagara devata.

6 A Kapisi-devata type Square overstruck on a coin of apollodotus B.M

Dr M.V. D. Mohan Indo Greek Coins, page 194, PL.V. 6.

Observation: Draped, halmeted and diadomed bust of Eukratides

 Traces understrike visible

Reverse: Same as no 5 above

7. A Kapisi Devata type Square P M

References: 

Indo Greek Coins Dr M V D Mohan

Page 194 Pl V 7

Observation: Same as no 6 above

Reverse: Same as no 5 above

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