ancient indian history

Gadhwa Stone Inscriptions

  1. The Gadhwa Stone Inscriptions, are early 5th-century Sanskrit inscriptions discovered in different parts of ancient India.
    These Inscriptions highlight the fact that the Indian kings were aware of their responsibility towards society, as these Inscriptionsare the evidences, of existence of institutions, looking after the poor .
    The tradition of charitable feeding houses for Brahmins and the needy can be traced to the mid-2nd century CE in several Kushana inscriptions.  The inscriptions suggests that the Hindu temples had charity-based community kitchens shich fed the poor and sadhus. and the destitute.

Inscription no 142
Gadha (Jasdan) Stone Inscription of Rudrasena I
Saka year 127 (=205 A D.)
Provenance: Garha, near Jasdan, Rajkot distict. Gujrat.
Now in watson Museum of antiquities. Rajkot.
Script: Brahmi early Southern gupta variety.
Language: Sanskrit influenced by Prakrit.
From the facsimile in EP.Ind. XVIII, facing pp.340.
Bhau Daji, J.B.B. R.A.S VIII, pp.234 f.
Hoernle, Ind.ant, pp-32f, -Bhagwanl lal
Indraji and Rapson J.R.A.S, 1890, pp.652, Rapson, B.M.C., pp 1xii. Number 42, Luder’s list no. 967; D.R Bhandarkar. A.S.I. Reports. W, Circle, 1914-15.
pp.67-68, R. D. Banerji and V.S. Sukthankar. Ep. Ind.XVI, pp.236-39
D.C. Sircar Select.Inss, pp.185-86.
From the Facsimile in Ep.Ind.. XVI,pp 237,
2. Bhandarkar and Sukthankar alternatively suggest.
The Mulwasar stone inscription now in
the Dwarka Library, has the date
राझो महा क्षत्रपस स्वामि रुद्र तेनस्य वर्षे वैशाख बहुल पँचम्या
and records the
erection of a Sila-Yashti by the sons of Vanijaka.
See Luđers’ list, number. 962.

1. भद्रमुख = having an auspicious face: cf. the Abhijnanaa-Sakuntalam VII.
2. Bandarkar reads शव त्र
and others शत्र
Bhau Daji translates it as tank.
Hoernle connects it with सत्र a kind of expensive some sacrifice extending
over many days and takes in the sense of liberality munificence. Luder takes it to be the सत seat of a cave Inscription.As already pointed out by
Banerji and Sukthankar, the word ऊथावित clearly implies the erection or raising of a structure.

Banerji connects the word सत्र with
the change of सत
“almshouse” but the change of स into श is difficult to explain.
According to D.C. Sirkar, it apears to indicate a lath or pillar raised in memory of Kharapartha by his brothers.
In that case, the last word in l .6 should be read as
3. Hoernle Bhau Daji मान तु तुंगोत्रस्य प्रता र थक Bahu Daji सप्रनाधक
4. Bahu Daji and Hoernle:खरपौंत्रस्य
Bhandarkar: खरपीत्थस्य
Banerji and Sukthankar खरर्पत्थस्य
apparently redundant र is inserted after and above खर
5. Banerji and Sukthankar भ्रात्रभि Bhandarkar भ्रात्त्रभि
6. Bhauji Daji. उत्थाविथास्व Hoernle उत्थावितास्ति
7. Sirkar स्व र्ग followed by सुखार्थ, I agree with
Sircar that there are tracees of three aksharas below line 6.
Banerji and sukthankar think that.

English Translation of the inscription
In the year 127, on the 5th (day of the dark fortnight of Bhadrapada (in the reign of the king Mahakshatrapa, Lord
Rudrasimha. (son of the king, the Mahakshatrapa, Lord Rudrasimha,
of auspicious appearance and son’s son of king, the Mahakshatrapa, Lord Rudradaman of auspicious appearance; (and) grandson of the son of the king, the Kshatrapa Lord Jayadaman,
(and) great-grands son of the son of the king, the Mahakshatrapaa, Lord Chashtana of auspicious appearance, is this stone pillar.
This (pillar?) has been erected for a happy life in heaven?
by the brothers of Kharaparttha. the son of Pratasaka (Pratyasaka) of the Manasa gotra.

Inscription number 143.

Devnimori, is a Buddhist archaeological site in the Aravalli district of Gujrat. The site contains archeological evidences of several international trade routes. The excavations of this site, have yielded many Buddhist artefacts.
Devni Mori also has some residential caves with water cisterns & stupas, as at uparkot in junagarh.
 The Buddha images inside stupas clearly show the influence of Greco buddhist art of Gandhara.

Devnimori Stone Casket Inscription of the time of Rudrasena I– Saka year 127 (205 A. D.)
Provenance: Devnimori, near Samlaji, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat.
Script: Middle Brahmi
Language: Sanskrit
References: R. N. Mehta and S.N Chowdhary,. Journal of Oriental
Institute, Baroda, XII, pp.173 ff. P. R. Sinivasan, Ep.Ind, XXXVII, pp67-69, Sel.Ins, pp.519.

1. From photographs published in the Journal of oriental Institute, Baroda,.pp176 ff., figs. 4, 6, 5, 7 and 8
respectively, snd tcom EP.Ind toNI between PP.68 and 69.
2. The space below नम सर्वज्ञाय forms the left margin.

1. On the analogy of अष्टाविझति Correct form is सप्तविझति
2. कथिक means a Preacher of Buddhist faith’.
The reference apparently, is to the kings of the Kanishka house, whose zeal for the propagation of Buddhism is
well-known. They were overlords of the Saka Mahakshatrapas. Thus
the date given is in kanishka era,
which later came to be known as the Saka era and seems to have replaced the original Saka era established by
the Saka emperor Aya or Azes (see supra number 5, I,1, Number 52,1,I,j)
Menta and Choudhary, as also D.C. Sircar identify Kathika era with the Saka or Kanishka era. Srinivasan
referred it tentatively to Kalachuri-Chedi era of 248-49 A.D. following such assumption in the Arch.
He places the records in 376 A. D. and assigns it to the reign of Mahakshatrapa Svami Rudrasena III,
( 348-51 A. D. and 360-90 A D.) He identifies the subordinate ruler. Nripa Rudrasena, with Rudrasena IV, who is known from a single coin and who was the son of Simhasena the sister’s son of Rudrasena III. However, there being no ground for accepting his views on the era and the date the record,we have accepted, with Mehta, Chowdhary and Sircar.
(the Kathika era as the same as the Saka era of 78 A. D.)
3. Mirashi considers this Rudrasena as an Abhira king.
4. कार्मान्तिक = Supervisors of the construction. पाशान्तिकपकली = mod Devnimori, the two monks, Agnivaman and sudarsana built the Great Stupa in the Premíses of the great monastery
under thei own supervision.
5. is an epithet of the Buddha.

English Translation of the inscription
Salutation to the Omniscient (.e. the Buddha). Salutation to the True and completely enlightened, (Buddha)
who is the very sun that drives away the darkness of revilers,
and who is the storehouse of knowledge, Pity, Compassion and
influence, when one hundred and Twenty Seventh year of the
preacher (kathika kings (i.e. the Kusnanas) had arived on
tne fifth day of Bhadrapada and when sri Rudrasena, was the
King. the great stupa, which became banner to (.e. formost
on) the earth as constructed in the Precinets of the Maha-Vihara, by Sadhu Agnivarman by name and by the faultless Sudarsana the two Sakya bhiksus. engaged in many compassionate acts towards creatures. The supervisors of the construction
were also the two Sakya-bhikshus of Pasantikapalli (= mod.
Devanimori (And) this casket made of stone and blessed for being the receptacle of the relics of the buddha, was himself, made by Samudgakasena’s, son Varaha, the maker of the pavement.
The famous bhikshu Mhasena, who is desirous of the blessings
of the Buddha, got this casket made for the increase of Dharma and samgha.

1. Read : धर्म संघयो
The casket was made, for
interring the relics of the Buddha under the Stupa, by the sons of Varaha,the maker of the kuttima or pavement. on behalf of the monk Mahasena, who
wanted property for himself as well as the Dharma and the Sangha.
Lines.4-5, are engraved on the base of the casket. The two final dandas are followed by book like mark, indicating the conclusion of the record.

Inscription number 144
Intwa Clay sealing
Provenance: The ancient site of Intwa, in Saurashtra, about 5 kilometres from the famous Junagarh rock,
which bears the inscription of Ashoka, Rudradaman, and skandgupta.
Script: Brahmi of the early Kshatrapa period.
Language: Sanskrit.
Refrences: B Ch Chhabra, Ep.ind, XXVIII, pp.174-75.
Buddhist sites at Junagadh and its surrounding area, supported a large number of Budhist monks. The caves as well as the vihara at Intwa, had a strong Buddhist presence
The edicts of Ashoka also provide us the earliest evidences of the existence of Buddhism in Saurashtra.
Engish Translation of the inscription
(The seal) of the congregation of friars in the monastery of Maharaja Rudrasena.
1. From the Pencil rubbing and the enlarged photograph in
Ep.Ind XXVIII, facing pp174.
2. Of the four lines of this name in the dynasty of Chashtana,
the reference is probably to Rudrasena-1 (199-222 A. D)
Tue paleography of the legend rather rules out the Later Kings. The historical importance of the seal lies
in the fact that this is the only evidence to the effect that the Saka Mahakshtrapa built a budhist monastery at junagarh.

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