Inscriptions of Budhagupta – 2

Written by Alok Mohan on August 23, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Budhagupta had developed good relations with neighbouring kingdoms like kannauj and this strategy empowered him to drive out Hunas from his territory,. Hunas had been attacking his empire from all the four directions East west north and south.
Northern India, was invaded by Alchon Huns and Toramana had set up his own coinage & inscription there.
The Hunas were a Central Asian Xionite tribe that consisted of four hordes: Northern Huna, also known as the Black Huns; Southern Huna, the Red Huns; Eastern Huna, the Celestial Huns; and the White Huns, the Western Huna. The White Huns, those who invaded the Gupta Empire during the reign of Kumaragupta, were also known as the Hephthalites, and caused great damage to the failing Gupta Empire.
Budhagupta had close ties with the rulers of Kannauj and together they sought to run the Alchon Huns (Hunas) out of the fertile plains of Northern India.
Northern India, and in particular the area of Eran, was next invaded by the Alchon Huns ruler Toramana, who set up his own coinage and there are some inscriptions of Toramana, found from Eran.

Inscription number
Damodarpur Copper Plate Inscription of the time of Budha gupta-(Gupta) Year 163 (482 A.D)
Provenance: Damodarpur, Dinajpur, district,Bangla Desh.
Now in the Museum of the Varendra Research Society,
Raja shahi, Bangla Desh.
Script: Late Northern Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
References R G Basak, Ep. Ind. XV pp135 f, D.C. Sircar, Sel.Inss, I, pp-332-34.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XV,
Pl-iiia and iiib facing pp138.
2. The record proper now commences with the pious invocation स्वस्ति
3. Two towns in the neighbourhood of Dinajpur, one about 16 km. to N,E. and the other about 25 km. to N.E., are named Palasabari. The first is about 22km. north and the other 32 km. north of the findspot. Another place, about
15 km.. N,W. of the findspot and about 18 km. S. E. Dinajpur is known as Palasadanga. It is not certain, which of these represents the ancient Palasavrindaka.

Footnote 2

महत्तर = Chairman of a village (ग्राम महत्तर)
Or of a larger administration unit (e.g. – (विषय महत्तर ).
ग्रामिक= headman of a village.
According to manu VII, 115-19, he was the king’s representative in the village.
अष्टकुलाधिकरण = the village jury consisting of eight
members including the Chairman.
According to Sircar
आमिकं = village headman
कुटम्बी = agriculturist householder
The word is the origin of the peasant
subcaste kurmi or kulambi of East Bihar and U. P. Chandagrama
appears to have been located within the jurisdiction of the
legal administrative headquarters at Palasavrindaka.
2. According to the customary terms of sale prevalent in the villages.
3. समुदय – बाहय = yielding no income अपर्दा = non-transferable
4. Read कत्र्तुमिति

Footnote 3

1. द्वयं which was inadvertantly left out was later inserted in the lower margin of the plate. The rates per kulyavapa
of waste land sold by State varied. Presumably according to location and fertility. In another Damodarpur plate of
the same reign the rate recorded ie three dinaras per kalyavapa instead of two dinaras as here (See infra,II, 40, .12)
2. Revenue Clerks. Sircar’s amendation “स्थानपाल”
3. The same as modem Baigram near in Bogra district.
4. Read अष्टक-नवक -नलाभ्याम
The measurement appears to
have been 8 x 9 reads (measuring rods). Sircar op.cit
pp 334, n.2, suggests that since dual number is used in length with a rod 9 cubits long and breadth by one 8 cubits long. He also suggests the possibility here of and being related respectively to अष्टक-नवक = having measured apart.
and नवक being related respectively to
दक्षिन पश्चिम and पूर्व of 1.9.
अपविनछय = having measured apart
5. Read. चतु स्सीमा उल्लिड्य i.e. After marking out all in four boundaries

English Translation of the inscription.

Samvat (100) + 60+3 on the 13th day of Ashadha, while
Paramadaivata, Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja, the illustrious
Budhagupta was the lord of the earth, and while in the Pandra-vardhana province (bhukti). Uparika Maharaja Brahmadatta, favoured by His Majesty was the administering agent..
Peace from Palasavrindaka, the village jury of eight families headed by the Mahattara, and the village headman and the householders, being in confidence, after wis ning their well-being inform the prominent householders among the subject,
led by the Brahmanas in (the village of) Chandagramaka, as follows:

Nabhakas, the village headman, petitions to us for the increase of religious merit of another father and myself.
I desire to settle some noble Brahmans. So kindly favour with the transfer of non-transferable fellow fields yielding no income after collecting from me the price in cash (hiranya)
according to the customary terms of sale prevalent in the village, whereas it was determined by the record keeper Patradasa (thus), ” has rightly petitioned. This is a case within
the customary terms of sale. Therefore, (the Same) be granted to him for the increase of religious merit of His Honorable Majesty the Great King.
Again as determined in accordance with the determination of this ‘same Patradasa, (and) on receipt of two dinaras fromNabhaka, after being duly entered in the revenue register by
the Revenue-Clerks, Kapila and Sribhadra after inspection
in the south, west and north of the exact boundary (satya maryada) having been measured out with rods of eight, nine and nine standard and (duly) de-markated with boundary-marks
on all the four directions by the jury headed by the Mahattara and the householders, one kulyavapa of non-transferrable fellow land yielding no revenue situated to the Northern circumference of the Vayi-gamaka has been given to Nagadeva. So in future
(this grant) should be Preserved by the administration,
having regard for dharma (pious duty). And the great sages.
have said:-
Here follow three of the customary verses of impercation.

Persva is obviously used here in the Sense of circumference or outer boundary. since the farmland was
situated to the south of the clearly marked Northern perimeter of the village, only to Southern, western and
eastern boundaries of the farm needed inspection and


Eran Stone Pillar Inscription of Budhagupta
(Gupta) Year 165 (464 AD.)
Provenance: Eran, Sagar District. Madhya Pradesh.
Script: Late Northerm Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres: . 1-3 Arya
References: J. Princep. J.A.S.B. VII, pp.633 f. F. Hall, J.AS.B.. XXX, pp.17 ff. Cunningham, A,S.I. X, pp.82, Fleet. CI.I,.III, pp 88-90, D.C. Sircar,
Sel.Inss. pp334-36.
Footnote 1,

1. न्यय = क्षय = प्रलय The restoration is due to Hall.
2. Princep त्रयो The date is Thursday, the 21st June (484 AD.)
3. This is the earliest instance of naming week days in Indian inscriptions. Some scholars believe that the Indians learnt this from the Greek astronomers of Alexandria, cf. Varahamihira’s (6th century AD.)
Paulisa-siddhanta, which is based on the works of Paul of Alexandria ( 378 A.D) and of also his Romaka
Siddhanta, where Romaka obviously means Roman.
4. Read : गुणै: ! जगति Lokapalas, or the guardians of the points of the compass, are reckoned sometimes eight, viz.
1. Indra, of the east
2. Agni, of tne south-east
3. Yama, of the South
4. Nirriti or sometimes Surya,
of the south-west
5. Varuna, of the west.
6. Vayu, of the north-west
7. Kubera, of the norths
8. 1sana or sometimes Chandra, and sometimes Prithivi of the north-east- and Sometimes four viz. Nos. 1,3.5 and
7, above.
English Translation of the inscription

V.1 Victorious is the lord, the four armed (vishnu) whose couch is the broad waters of the four oceans, who
is the original cause of the continuance, the creation and the destruction of the universe (and) whose ensign is Garuda.

V 2. In the year one hundred and sixty five, while Buddhagupta is the king, on the twelfth lunar day of the bright fort
night of the month, Ashadha on Thursday.
L 3. (or in figure) the year 100 (+) 60 +( 5)
Ll.3-4 And while Surasmichandra is governing. with the
qualities of the regent of one of the quarters of the world
(lokpala).the country between the (rivers) kalindi
(Yamuna)and Narmada, (and) is enjoying the majesty
(i.e. rank) of Maharaja)–
Ll.4-7 On this (lunar) day: (specified as above by the year, month and days–by the Maharja Mitrivishnu, who is
extremely devoted to the Divine Vishnuj, who by the will of
(the god) vidhatri (the Creator. was expoused by the goddess of sovereignty as if a maiden choosing her groom, in a svayamvara, whose fame extends up to the four oceans,
who is possessed of unimpaired honour and wealth1 (and)
who has been victorious in battles against many enemies,
–who is the great-gandson of Indravishnu, who performed
sacrifices, who was engaged in the studies (of the scriptures) who was a Brahmana saint and who
was the most excellent of the (followers of the) Maitrayaniya (Sakha of the Yajurveda ) — who is the
grandson of Varunavishnu who initated the virtuous qualities of ( his) father – (and) who is the son of
Harivishnu, who was equal to his father in meritorious qualities and was the cause of the extension of his race.
L89 By him and by his younger brother Dhanyavishnu
who is obedient to him and has been accepted with favour by him this flag-staff of Lord Janardana, the
destroyer of the demons has been erected for the purpose of increasing the religious merit of their parents.
L.9 May good fortune attend al the subjects headed by the cows and the Brahmanas.
Inscription number 40.
Damodarpur Copper Plate Inscription of the time of Budhagupta (476-94 AD.)
Provenance Damodarpur Dinajpur district, Bangla Dash.
Script: Late Northern Brami.
Language: Sanskrit:
Met res
References R G. Basak, Ep.Ind. pp.138f, D.C. Sircar Ind.Culture, V, pp432f, Sel.Inss. pp 336-39.

Footnote 1
We have at least five copper plate grants from Damodarpar
Issued over the years from GE 124 (444 AD) to GE.224 ( 543 AD) i.e from the reign of kumaragupta 1, to
that of a Gupta king, whose name is lost. They provide an interesting information regarding the succession to various offices. We find that the names, of the successive incumbents
to the same office generally end in a common component e.g
उपरिक or उपरिक महाराज चिरातदत्त
ब्रहमदत्त and जयदत्त Nagarsarthis धृतिपाल and रिभुपाल sarthavahas बंधुमित्र
वसुमित्र and स्थाणु दत्त Prathamakulikas धृतिमित्र, वरदत्त and मतिदत्त parthamakayasthas शाम्बपाल, विप्रपाल and स्कन्दपाल
Apparently the offices were hereditary and there was a
fairly well-established custom of giving to the succesive generations the same name ending, which often developed
into a dynastic name e. g. Guptas Palas etc.
2. Basak शण्डके
Footnote 2
Obviously located somewhere in the Himalayas, D. C. Sircar,
Stud.Geog.Anc.Med.Inde, pp 217 ff. and Sel.Inss I,
pp 337, n.3. Identifies the place with Varahakshetra. I.e. modern Brahachhatra in Nepal. It is surmrised that the Kotivarsha Vishaya could extended as far north as the
Southern hills of Nepal. But D-C. Sircar believes that a devotee came on a pilgrimage to the temples of
Sveta Varahasvami and Kokamukhasvami somewhere in the
forest adjoining Barahanhatra in Nepal and donated land situated in his home district. not far from Damodarpur
Actually the text of the grant is vague
All we can say is that the Donga grama also mentioned in a copper Plate
Grant of the Gupta Year 124 of Kumaragupta I (see above Vol.II, No 20,1,ii) where the donated land was located within the Kotivarsha-vishaya and that the temples were located in
the Himavachchhikhara which may be a settlement or just a mountain peak. Another Copper-plate grant of the Gupta year 224 (see infra. vol.II No 49A) is made at Kotivarsha vishaya इह विषय(for the temple of svetavarahasvamin
which was located there in a forest. अत्रारण्ये
We there fore are constrained to believe that Himavachchhikhara was incuded in the Kotivarsha vishaya.
Footnote 3
1. Kokamukha was a form of the Boar incarnation of Vishnu Kokamukha. Tirtha is mentioned in the Mahabharata III. 84, 158, XIII, 25, 52, and the Puranas. The place is now known as Barahachhatra at the confluence of the Koka and the Kausiki in Nepal आध original refers to the deities in the original temples at Barahachhatra as distinguished from the new images to be installed in the projected temples in
the gift land.
2. Possibly .नामलिड़न्गमेतददेवकुलद्वयम this double temple
bearing the emblems. लिड़ण्न ie. the names of the two original gods at Varahakshetra. D C Sircar opines (Sel.Inss, pp 338, n.1) that the gift land appears to have been
transferred to the local imitatians of the gods of Barahachhatra. because it was difficult for the donor to send
the income of the land to the original gods in distant nepal.
3. र्कयमर्यादा and विर्कयमर्यादा (in 1.12 below) The former term is used from the purchaser’s viewpoint and the latter from that of the seller.

Footnote 4
1. In due course.
2. L1.13-14 recorded the demarcation of boundaries. The second side of the plate in quite worn out and only a few
syllables here and there are legible with the aid of magnifying glass. The letters in brackets are completely eroded and the others become legible only because the text consists of well-known customary verses, which can
be recognised from the few readable syllables.
3. Read दत्ता वा

English Translation of the inscription

On the 15th (7) day of Phalguna, in the year – – while Parama-daivata, Parama-bhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja Sri
Budhagupta is the ruler of the earth and while the Kotivarsha.district within the province (bhuk) of Pundravardhana, is
being administered as a fief of uparika Maharja Jayadatta, who is favoured by His Honourable Majesty and the local commissioner (ayuktaka) appointed by him is Gandaka and while the local
Board of Administation is being managed by Ribhupala the Chief
of the City Chamber of Commerce, vasumitra the Chief Caravan Merchant, Varadatta the Chief of the guild of artizens, and Viprapal the Head-Scribe as the prominent members and others
the said Chief Merchant Ribhupala petitioned, expecting the
resulting benefits for myself, I had earlier donated in the Donga-grama non-transferable land measuring four kulyasvapas
to ( the temple of) Kokamukhas vamin and seven kulyavapas to
(the temple of) Svetavarahasvamin, (both located) on the
Himalayan peak. Now in the land adjacent to those fields.

I wish to build a pair of temples of both of the original gods, Kokamukhasvanin and Svetavarshvamin, to be named
after them, and two store-rooms for the same. (Therefore) please grant me kulya vapas (of land) together with building sites according to the prevailing terms of sale. whereas, it was detemined on the ascertainment of the record-keepers (namely). vishnudatta, vijayanandin and Sthanudatta (that)
it is a fact that he had donated eleven kulyavapas of non transferable fields to kokamukhasvamin and Svetavarahasvamin on the himalayan peak. And the petition, for that purpose
i.e. building temples and store-rooms here, is in order.
In due course for the purpose of granting building sites adjacent to those fields, (having received the price of land at the customary rates of sale of three dinaras per kulyavapa
— – (kulyavapas of land for building) were given (with the following boundary marks): the pond of – – .in the east
the pond of Ribhupala to the south
So in future times the same be approved by the administrators
out of devotion to the gods.
It has been stated by Vyasa
(Here follow three of the customary admonitory verses)

Inscription number 41.
Shankarpur Plate of the time of Budhagupta
Gupta Year 168 (487 AD)
Provenance: Shankarpur Sidhi District. Madhya Pradesh.
Script: Late Brahmi of the Northern Class.
Language: Sanskrit.
References B.C. Jain. J.Sp.Soc.Ind, IV (1977). pp-62-66.
and plate facing pp.64 Kiran Kumar Thaplyal, Inscriptions of the Maukharis, Later Guptas, Pushpabhutis and Yasovarman of Kannauj, pp. 156-57
and Pl. XII.
Footnote 1
1. Fom the facsimile in J.Ep.Soc.Ind. IV,
pp.65 and Inss. of Maukharis. Later Guptas, Pushpabhutis and Yasovarman of Kannauj. Pl. XII.
2. Expressed by a symbol, which some scholars read as
3. Balchandra Jain:
This reading as corrected by KV Ramesh. The Executive
Editor of the J.Ep.Soc.Ind. IV.
Footnote 2

1. Thapilyal: Jain
2. This king is most probably identical with the Maharaja harivaman, the great grandfather of the Mukhari king
Maharajadhiraja Ishavarman. mentioned in the Asirgarh
Copper seal inscription (C. I. I., III, pp. 219, No. 47)
and in Harahi Stone inscription (Ep. Ind. XIV pp.115, f, infra II, 82.
This would carry the Mukhari genealogy to the second quarter of the 5th century A. D. when they were ruling
as Gupta feudatories in Baghelkhand, which was, thus their original home.
Maharaja Gitavarman (or Bhimavarman if that be his correct name) was probably a Senior contemporary of Skandagupta, and may have ascended
the throne during the closing years of Kumargupta’s reign, which ended in 455 AD.
3. चार is usually translated as ‘ Irregular troops’ but Vogel in a letter to Hiralal pointed out that in the erstwhile chamba state in the western Himachal Pradesh Char was evidently derived from चाटा, was the designation of the head of a pargana. His job was to collect villagers for forced labour for the state and to arrange supplies and load carriers, whenever Raja or some state important person visited the district. The privilege of the chata-pravesya implies that the district officer was not allowed to collect revenue ie tax and other demand supplies.
English Translation of the inscription

L1. Om.
L.1-2 In the year hundred increased by sixty eight. in the
cyclic year (called) Mahamagha, in (the month) of Savana (on the 5th day) while His Supreme Majesty Budhagupta
was the king.
L 1.2-6: On this aforesaid day, Maharaja Harivarman — who is the daughter’s son of Sri Maharaja Salanadaksha (and) who is the Grandson of Sri Maharaja Gitavarman (and) who is the son of Sri Maharaja Vijayavarman (and)
who is begotten on Mahadevi Sarvasvamini— granted
through this copper charter, to this brahmana Gosvamin of Kautsa gotra, this agrahara (named) Chitrapalya, free
from taxes, out of bounds for District begaar officers, soldiers. (in perpetual endowment) to endure as long as
the moon, the Sun and the stars last.

L1.6-8, And venerable Vyasa has said
(Here follows two of the usual imprecatory- cum-benedictory verses)
L1.91, Order issued by) Kumaramatya. Maha-Pratihara, lavana, the Chief of the district (bhoga) called Bhagavad-
L1.9-10 written by Sri Yashtaraja, the son of Nagasarman and
the chief of the Bapidra district who is also the executor (dutaka)

Nalanda Seal of Budhagupta (476-94 A.D.)
Provenance: Nalanda, Patna district. Bihar.
Script: Late Northern Brahni
Language: Sanskrit.
References: H Sastri, A.S.I. Memoirs,, No. 66. pp 64. A. Ghosh,
Ind.Hist.Quart,. XIX, 1943. pp119 ff. D.C. Sircar. ibid. pp 273 f. Sel.Inss.I, pp. 339.
Footnote 1

From the photograph in A.S.I. Memoir, No.66. Though the record is fragmentary the surviving text clearly
establisnes that Budhagupta was the son of Purugupta and the grandson of Kumaragupta 1, The full text of the Seal can be restored with the help of the Nalanda seal of Narasimhagupta, son of Purugupta and the Nalanda and
Bhitari seals of Narasimhagupta ‘s son Kumaragupta. There is striking similarity in size. the number of aksharas
(syllables)in each line and the surviving texts of the seals of Budhagupta and Narsimhagupta.

English Translation of the inscription

L1-4 The son of Samudragupta who was the exterminator of all kings who was a matchless warrior on the earth
who was the great-grandson of Maharaja Sri gupta, who
was the grandson of Mabaraja, Ghatotkacha, who
was the son of Maharajadhiraja Sri Chandragupta; who
was the daughter’s son of the Lichchhavis, who was
begotten on the Chief queen. Kumaradevi, was the
Maharajadhiraja Sri Chandragupta, a devout worshipper of vishnu, who was accepted by him (i.e samudragupta)
who was begotten on the Chief Queen Dattadevi and who himself was a matchless warrior
Ll.48: His son, devoted to his feet. begotten on the Chief
queen, Dhruvadevi was Maharajadhiraja Sri Kumaragupta; his son devoted to his feet, begotten on the Chief queen Anantadevi was the Maharajadhiraja
L1.68. (this seal of) his son devoted to his feet begotten on the chief Queen sri Mahadevi the
Maharajadhiraja Sri Budhagupta, a devout worshipper of Lord vishnu.

Inscription number 43.
Nandapur Copper-plate Inscription of the.Gupta year 169 488 A.D.
Provenance: Nandapur near Surajgarha. MR Munger District, .Bihar
Script: Late brahmi of the Northern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
References : N. G Majumdar Ep.Ind- XXIII, pp.52 ff.
D.C. Sircar Sel.Inss PP-382-84.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind XIII
2. संव्यवहारिन The word is used here in the sense of a judicial officer, is clear from the context in 1.16 below. The
other meaning of the word is a merchant.
3. The subject, the adhikarana or the board of administration being in singular, the verbs are also the pronoun in the next sentence, should have been in the singular, But the
Writer allowed the plurality of the board’s membership, to govern his verbs and pronouns.
4. Nanda pur, the find spot of the plate may have been the headquarters of the territorial unit called Nandavithi
Majumdar notes similarity in style of this Deo ord with that
of the Baigram and other plates from North Bengal and hence
suggests that the document was drafted and the land was situated, in North Bengal even, though the donee hailed from the Monghyr District. But there is no reason, why Mandavithi should not be identified with Mandapur the finds spot.
Footnote 2

आध स्तम्ब

1. समुदय – बाहय = not yielding any crop or revenue
Covered ith original shrub
2. ब originally left out was later incised below the line
3. अप्र प्रतिकर=उत् प्रतिकर=अकिञ्चित् प्रतिकर = not yielding any
revenue c.f उबलिके (= उदबलिक) of free from tax in Rummindei Pillar Inscription of Asoka (Hltzsch C. I. I., I, pp 164)

English Translation of the inscription

L.1. Peace
L1.1-2 Administrative Board called. Atmavisvasa of the agrahara of the Ambila village after mentioning their
well-being, in form the judicial officers and other householders led by Brahmanas at the village Jayongika
and write ( to them)

L1.2-4 The Vishaya Chief Chhatramaha, informs us, I desire to purchase four kulyavpas of uncultivated fields
and bestow them with the purpose of increasing my religious merit to the Brahmana – – –Svamin, A
samavedin of Kashyap gotra. (and) belonging to the agarhara
Khatapurana, located in the Nandavithi for the performance of five great sacrifices.
Ll.5-6 And in your district there continues the practice of sale
at the rate of two dinaras per kulyayapa of uncultivated fields; which are under primeval shrub (and) not yielding
any revenue (and) which can be enjoyed as a perpetual
endowment for as long as the moon. the Sun and the stars endure.
L1.6-7: Therefore. you are requested to grant as a perpetual
endowment through a copper-plate charter. four kalyavapas,
of uncultivated land in the village. Jayongilka, after
collecting from me eight dinaras.
L1.8-13 wherefore having bean determined through ascertainment by
the record keepers. Pradyotasimha and Bandhudasa, that in
this district. there continues the practice of sale of barren fields under old shrub, not yielding any crops nor
any revenue. And the sale of Such barren fields , not yielding any revenue. there is no conflict with the
interest of the king: but if given there will be gain of the sixth part of the religious merit (accruing from the
Pious gift) to His Majesty, the king.
Therefore. it may be given.
Hence having received eight dinaras from this Vishayapati Chhatamaha four kulyavapas, of barren fields have been given in the Jayongika village. (located)
to the south of the copper-chartered land of Corashitta, (and) to the west of (the, village) Gopilibhoga.
LL.13-15 Having known thus, you should give (land) ata site not
in conflict with the cultivation of (the other house holders, after measuring it out with the ashtaka-naya ka
measuring through the agency of Darvikarma, and after
making this measurement regulated on the four sides with
long-lasting marks of straw and charcoal etc. And having
given. you should protect it for ever as a perpetual endowment.
L1.16-19 And this (gift) is should be nursed by tne present and
future judges in consideration of their pious duty.
And venerable Vyasa has said
(Here two of impecratoy verses are quoted).
L. 19 The year 169, the 8th day of the bright fortnight of Vaisakha.

Alok Mohan

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