ancient indian history


Inscription number 67.

Kalaikuri-Sultanpur Plate of the (Gupta) Year 120.(= 439 A.D.)

This inscription provides land details & relevant administrative aspects of a subdivision of Vithi district. It provides information as regards a few land grants to Brahmanas. The inscription also mentions about Sringavera in the Natore subdivision of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh. (Sringavera has been identified with the modern Singra police station)
Provenance: Sultanpur, near Naogaon, Rajshahi district, Bangla Desh. The plate seems to have been brought to Sultanpur from the village of Kalaikuri,
about 13 Km from Naogaon town , in the Bogra district by the last owner’s grandfather, when he shifted from there to sultanpur
Script: Brahmi of the Northern class of about 5th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: D.C. Sircar I H.Q, XIX, pp-12 ff, Select.Inss, pp.352-55 Niradbandhu Sanyal, Ep.Ind., XXXI, pp- 57 66.
1. Sanyal reads the year as 121. The signs for 100 and 20, are clear, but that for one is not so clear.
The horizontal nail-like sign is at a disproportionate distance from the previous figure of 20.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXXI, between pp. 64-65.
3. According to D.C. Sircar, Sringavera Vithi is possibly represented by the existing Singra police station, Rajshahi district, Bangla Desh. It is located about
16 km northeast of the junction of the Atrai with the Baranai, which Sircar proposes to identify with the Vata
Nadi of 1.22 below of the inscription, (I.H.Q, XIX, pp.20) Sanyal, however seeks the location of the
townships and villages mentioned in the inscription in the neighbourhood of Pundravardhana to which the donees
belonged. Pundravardhana is represented by the modern
city of Mahasthan in the Bogra district of Bangla Desh.
Thus he suggests the identification of Singavera with Singahar about 32 km, south-west of Mahasthan of
Gohali or Samgohali with the village Gohali about 10 km
east of Singahar, of Vibhitaki with Beheegaon about 3 km
north of singahar, of Hastisirsha with the village Hatsara, which is about 7 km. north-east of Beheegaon,
and of village Dhanyapatalika on the Vata with the village Dhanpuja about 5 km. north of Hatsara and on
the small stream called Nagar an offtake of the Karatoya. Thus the Nagar should be his Vata Nadi.
1. The Ayuktaka Achyutadasa and the Addkarana being the subjects, the verb needs a dual form, But here also in वयं in 1.12. It seems to be an honorific plural.
1. Sanyal reads उम यश राम शम्र्म etc.
2. Sandhi rules have not been observed in this long dvandya compound, obviously in order to keep the names distinct.
3. Sanyal: रुद्र भवनाथ — The improved reading is due to the editor, D.C. Sircar.
4. Sircar treats विश्व-शडन्कर as two separate names.

1. Sanyal and Sircar: कामनकुण्ड
2. The modern city of Mahasthan in the Bagra district of Bangla Desh is the successor of the ancient
Pundravardhana, which was the headquarters of the
province, also known as such, चातुर्विध
= a community of the chaturvedins or the scholars of the four Vedas.

Footnote 4.
1. Note the Datta cognomen of the two brahmanas. Now it is exclusively used in Bangal by a section of the
Kayasthas, whereas else where in India particularly among the Brahmanas, hailing from the northwestern
parts of the Indian sub continent, e. g Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Delhi etc, and
immigrants from Pakistan, Generally it is still a Brahmana sub-caste.
D.C. Sircar (Sel.Inss,I, pp.353,n, 5)
opines some Brahmaṇa families thus appear to have been merged in Non-Brahmana communities. But in fact, the Kayastha group of sub castes are a mixed community, resulting from the intercaste marriages of Brahmaṇa
men, with Non-Brahmana women. In some cases, the offspring of such marriages retained the cognomen of their fathers, eg. the Dattas, while others were given new
caste names, as the Ambashthas, see Gautama Dharmasutra
IV, 166: ब्राहमणस्य वैश्यायामम्बष्ठ:
Born in learned Brahmana families, the Offspring of these mixed marriages
received good secular education, but for obvious reasons, they could not be given the right of studying the
Veda and adopt priestly profession. The state, however found a good use for their talents, and absorbed them
in state service as record-keepers and administrative officers.
Second Side.
Footnote 5.
1. Vata nadi is probably the same river that is now called Bara-nai, which joins the Atrai about 16 m. from Singra.
2. Eight dronavapas = one kulyavapa ( see infra, III, 68,69, n5, Paharpur Plate of G.E. 159)
1. Sanyal: s (ukh)
2. Sanyal: Samvat, Sircar treats the letter as an erasure.
3. What Sanyal reads as the figure 1, is a dubious stroke, at some distance from the previous figure for 20.
D.C. Sircar is right in ignoring it and reading the Year as 120.
English Translation of the inscription.
Hail !

L1,1-2. From Purnakausika in the Sringavere sub-division
(vithi), the Avuktaka (subdivisional officer) Achyutadasa and the members of the Administrative Board (adhikarana) after mentioning
their well-being, inform the Brahmanas and other farming families residing in the villages of Hastisirsha,
Vibhitaki, Gulmagandhika, Dhanyapatalika and the Gohali
L1.2-12 Because, it may be known to you that the kulika headman Bhima, the kayasthas Prabhuchandra Rudradasa,
Devadatta, Lakskmana, Kantideva, Sambhadatta, Krisnadasa, and the Record-keepers, Simhanandin and
Yasodaman of this vithi have petitioned to ourselves and the vithi elders (mahattaras) namely Kumaradeva,
Ganda, Prajapati, Umayasas, Ramasarman, Jyeshthadaman,
Svamichandra, Harisimha, and by the householders, Yasovishnu, Kumaravishnu, Kumarabhava, Kumarabhuti, Kumara, Yasogupta, Vailinakha, Sivakunda, Vasusiva,
Aparasiva, Damarudra, Prabhamitra, Krishnamitra, Maghasarman, Isvarachandra Rudrabhava, svamideva,

Srinatha, Harisarman, Guptasarman, Susarman, Hari,
Alatasvamin, Brahmasvamin, Mahasena, Bhatta Amin
Dhanagupta, Prabha, Sarmen, Rushtasarman, Krishna datta, and Nandaman, Bhavadatta, Ahisarman, Somavishnu, Lakshamanasarman, Kirttisarman, Kshemasarman,
Sukkrasarman, Sarppapalita, Kankuti,
Vishvashankra, Jayasvamin, Kaivarttasarman, Himasarman, Purandara, Jayavishnu, Umasarman, Simhatta, Bonda Narayanadasa,
Viranaga, Rajyanaga, Guha, Mahi, Bhavanatha, Guhavishnu,
Sarva, Yashovishnu, [ Ratna]. Kuladaman, [Deva] Shri Guhavishnu, Ramasvamin , Kalyanakunda, Ratibhadra, Achyutabhadra, Lidhaka, Prabhakirtti, Jayadatta, Kaluka,
Achyuta, Naradeva, Bhava, Bhavarakshita, Pichchakunda,
Parvarakunda, Sarvadasa, Gopala and others, (As follows)
L1.12-17: In accord ance with the rule (maryada) as prevalent in this vithi, in respect of fallow land, not yielding any
revenue, for being enjoyed for ever as a perpetual endowment, at the rate of two dinaras per kulyavapa. We wish to purchase nine kulyavapas of land and to donate it, for the increase of religious merit of the parents of each of us, to the Brahmanas, Devabhatta,
Amaradatta and Mahasenadatta who are the inhabitants of
Puandravardhana, (and) are versed in the four vedas and who belong to the Vajasaneya charana, for conducting
the five great sacrifices. In the villages referred to above, there are fallow lands, So you may you grant us
nine kulyavapas of Lands after having accepted from us eighteen dinaras (as due price)
L1.17-22: whence, having received the petition of these, namely headnan Bhima and others and having it been
determined through verification by the record-keepers, Simhanandin and Yasodaman that there is prevalent in
this vithi, the rule (or practice) of sale of uncultivated lands, not yielding revenue, and enjoyable for all time as a perpetual endowment, at the rate og two dinaras per kulyavapa and having established that there is no opposition (to the sale) and having entered the
eighteen dinaras collected from the headman Bhim and others in the revenue account (khila land is granted)
in the villages, Hastisirsha, vibhitaki, Dhanyapatalika and Gulmagandhika, (of this grant) eight kulyavapas
are located in vibhitaki in the southern tracts with respect to the river and are surrounded by an ancient excavated moat to their north is Vata river, and bounded by the Gulmaagandhika village. (and) one kulyavapa is
in Gulmagandhika towards the east and to the western side of the ancient road.
L1.23-24 (Of the eight kulyavapas in vibhitaki mentioned above) Two dronavapas are in Tapasapottaka and Dayotapottoka bo th in the revenue circle of Hastisirsha and seven kulyavapas and six dronavapas are located in chitravatangara in the revenue circle of Vibhitaka (or vibhitaki)
L1.24-27: Thus in the villages and locations, as specified above, for the increase of religious merit of these,
Namely headman Bhima, clerks Prabhuchandra, Rudradasa
and others, Five kulyavapas, i.e. kulyavapas, five to Brahmaṇa Devabhatta. two kulyavapas to Amaradatta, and two kulyavapas, (ku. 2) to Mahasenadatta to these three,
nine kulyavapas of land have been gifted for enabling them to conduct five great Sacrifices.
L1.27-29: Therefore,.it is being intimated and written to you. In future times, whosoever other Governors of provinces, ayuktakas, agricultural
householders, and members of administrative boards or
magistrates, come to power by them also, Considering the reward for land-grants, this perpetual endowment
should be nursed.
L1,29-331 And venerable Vyasa has stated in the Mahabharata.
(Here five of the customary verses are quoted).
L.34. The year 120, the 1st day of (the month) vaisakha.
1. The plural ending indicates that several settlements of, probably, cowherds are meant. The prefix sam shows that these settlements formed a group of closely located bastis.
2. कुलिक =headman of a guild,
कुल here stands for inter-related families engaged in a common profession and organised into a guild.
1. 8 dranavapas = 1 kulyavapa.
It appears that out of
the eight kulyavapas of land earmarked in the village of vibhitaki only 7 kulyavapas and 6 dronavapas were in
vibhitaki revenue cirele, while 2 dronavapas were in the Hastisirsha circle. Hence the necessity to
express clarification.

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