ancient indian history

Kodavali Rock Inscription

Inscription number 175.
Kodavali Rock Inscription of chandasati
– Regnal Year 2.
Provenance: Dhanam-dibba (i.e. Treasure-mound) 3 kilometre to the
north-west of tbe village kodevali on Samallkota-Kattipudi road, Pithaparm, East Godavri district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi of about 3rd cetury AD.
Language: Prakrit.
References: Sten Konow, Z.D.M.G, LXII, pp – 91 f, . Director General of Archaeology. Annual Survey Report,
1907-08, pp.225, Luders. List of brahmi Inscriptions, Ep.Ind, Krishna Sastri. Ep.Ind.. XVIIL pp-316-19.
Kodavali is a small village in East Godavari district, about 20 kilometers north of Pithapuram and about 35 kilometers north of Kakinada. On a hill there is the Kodavali archaeological site that is predominantly Buddhist. There is a major stupa and a vihara complex, also in Kodavali. Kodavali Buddhist site comes from the golden era of Buddhism.The site is located on the hilltop consists of a Mahastupa 12 (meter) and a Pradakshinapath around it. As many as nine votive stupas were built surrounding the Mahastupa. Remains of huge vihara were also found by the Archaeological Survey of India. ASI also recorded the fragments of stone caskets, Chhatri, redware bowls, vases, and carinated handi. A flight of steps was also laid to reach the hilltop.
It is evident from the events of recent history, that there has been a tendency to look for Brahmans behind every process of sanskritization. Various archeological sites & Inscriptions, suggest that Sanskrit, was not limited to hindus but it was also a native language of Jain and Budhist monks. This assumption becomes evident if we study relations between various ancient scripts, languages, religions like Jainism & budhism, and their identity in society. There were various competing schools of Jainism and Buddhism that had emerged consequent to Asoka’s violent conquests, in south asia.

This Brahmi inscription states Chandasati – a Hindu king had established a cellar, in the stupa premises of the amatya. The hindu king used to give liberal gifts to the Buddhist and Jain monasteries and constructed water wells for the monks.
Three centuries preceding and after, witnessed phenomenal rise and growth of Buddhist & Jain institutions in south asia, with the help of generous gifts from Hindu kings.
This inscription helps us to reach a conclusion that the Kodavali site was built before or during the 2nd century CE.
1. सिधं रत्र ( ओ) वासिठी
2. पुतस सामि सिरि
3. चंडसा ति स वर्ष 5
Footnote 2

1. The Andhra or Satavanana king chandasati is already known from a number of coins found in Krisnna and
Godavad districts.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XVIIl, facing pp.318.
The rock-face is considerably worn out. Readings of several letters are conjectural.
3. Sten Konow सवछरे
H krisna Sastri र ज़ि – वछरे
But there is neither space nor any trace of ज़ि before what he reads वछरे
What Konow reads as स and Sastri as र
seems to be an irregular depression caused by weathering in the
space left between complete words, which Latter, fact has been noticed by Sastri.
4. ( मा — ) हे प 2 दिवस 2(1) एत
5. अमचस (भू ) मिवेश ( म ) धम (रा -जिए)
6. थापित

Footnote 3
1. Konow है प 3 दिवस दसमे and Sastri
म 1 प 2 दि 1 खडवलि
Mention of the month before the name of the paksha, is neither necessary nor ia found elsewhere in Inscription. In fact the reading is extremely doubtful and is based on the erroneous assumption that successive lines begin
symmetrical one under the other.
Sastri identifies खडवनि with Kodavali, where the inscription is found.
Phonetic similarity in this case lends some plausibility.
to hi Deadinç
2 Konow भुमिवेस Sastri स (स )मि खगु , Sastri conjecturally explains खगु or खड्न्गु as a rock out
Well (7), and ससमि as ‘by Sasa (the amatya).
3. The traces of these two letters are visible. though they are to the left of था which is exactly under in the beginning of l.5.
4. The word “Dharmarazika” frequently used in the inscriptions of the period, in the sense of stupa ot
rather for the entire building complex around a stupa.
English Translation of the inscription

In the year 5, of the king,. the Lord
Sri Chandasvati, the son of vasishthi, (in the 1st month,) the 2nd fortnight of autumn on the 2nd day, on this (date this) Underground cellar was established in the stupa premises of the amatya. ( minister)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top