ancient indian history

Magha dynasity

Consequent to fall of Kushan empire,
Maghas gained control of Kausambi region. There is a mention of Maghas. (Meghas) dynasity in puranas also.
Inscriptions and coins of Maghas have been found in prayagraj region & region corresponding to the area of the ancient kingdom of Vatsa (Fatehpur)
Consequent to the rule of Kushan king Vasudeva,a king named Nava, had influence, in this region.
The lack of worthy rulers led to the declination of the Kushan Empire. One of the greatest Kushan rulers was Kanishka. After him, there was only one powerful ruler, Vasudeva I, who was able to manage the empire. After his death, the empire got disintegrated.
Bhimasena was another independent king of Bandhogarh. (300 km south of Kausambi) Inscriptions of King Bhadramagha, have been found in both Bandhogarh and Kausambi.

Following kings ruled this region, 

1.  Bhimasena (51 = 178 CE) 

2.  (Maharaja) Magha 

3. Bhadramagha (81-87 = 208-214 CE) 

4.Praushthasri (86-87 = 213-214 CE) 

5. Bhattadeva (90 = 217 CE) 

6.  Sivamagha I (Kautsiputra) 

7. Vaisravana (107 = 234 CE) 

8. Sivamagha II (Gautamiputra)

9. Bhimavarman (130-139 = 257-266 CE) 

10. Vijayamagha

11. Jayamagha,
12. Rudramagha
13. Satamagha

Inscription number 122.
Kosam stone-slab Inscription of Bhadramagha —- Year 81
Provenance: Village Nauhai, nearly 242 kms, North West of Kosam Pillar, Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh.
Script Brahmi of later Kushana period.
Language: Prakrit Influenced by Sanskrit.
References: Krishnadeva, Ep.Ind. XXIV, pp.253-56.
Text of the inscription
1. महरजस्य श्री भद्रमघस्य वर – वत्सरे
एक सीते (80+1) र्गिष्म पक्षे द्वि ती ये 2, दिवसे पँचमे 5(1)
2. एत ये पुरूवये कत्स पस्थरिक श्रेणिय आसन-पट्टा स्थपत

संस्कृत छाया
महाराजस्य श्री भद्रमघस्य वर-वत्सरे एकाशीतितमे, ८ १
ग्रीष्म-पक्षे द्वितीये, २. दिवसे पञ्चमै ५ । एतस्यां पूर्वायां प्रस्तरिक-श्रेण्या आसन-पट्टा स्थापिता
हिन्दी अनुवाद
महाराज श्री भद्रमध के इकासीचें, ८१ वर्ष की ग्रीष्म ऋतु के दूसरे, २ पक्ष की पंचमी, ५ तिथि में इस पूर्वोक्त तिथि मे । कत्स की प्रस्तर-शिल्पी श्रेणी ने, यह आसन-पट्टिका स्थापित की

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind.. XXIV, facing p.256,
2. Krishna Deva: सवत्सरे
3. A number of records, found in Kosam region, bear a striking likeness in point of script, language,
style and the system of dating.They are 1- Bandogarh Inscription of Raja Bhimsen- year 52
2. Kosam Inscription of Mahaaja Bhadramagha Year 81.
3 Kosam Inscription of Maharaja Bhadramagha
Year 86 (Ep.Ind.. XVIII, pp160 Pl -.III;
and infra, . 123).
4 & 5 Two kosam, Prayagraj Inscriptions of Maharaja Bhadremagha Year 87 (Jha com.Vol, pp 101ff, Ep.Ind, XXIII, pp245 ff, and infra number 124)
6. Kosam Inscription of Maharaja Sivamagha- Year lost (Ep-Ind, XVIII, P159, Number 2, and Infra Number 126.
7. Kosam Inscription of Maharaja Vaisravana–Year 10
Ep.Ind,. XXIV,. P.146 ff,.
8. Kosam Inscription of Maharaja Bhimaverman, Year 130 (Ind.culture, III. No-1, pp.177 ff.) opinion on the ldentification of the era used in the
above series of inscriptions differs. Daya Ram Saini, who edited Nos. 3 and 4 above, was inclined to refer the dates to the Gupta era (Ep.Ind. . XVIII Pp 60). Cunningham (Arch, Surv.Rep..Vol. XXI, pp119)
refers No.1 to the Pre-Gupta period. Jayaswal followed him (Hist. of Ind.. 150-350 AD.. pp 229-30.
& held that these dates refer to the chedi era of 248 AD. The editor of Nos.4-5 thinks that the years are either in the era of 78 AD. or 120 AD. (Jha Com, vol.. pp.106-7). Amlananda
Ghosha believes in the possibility of the
existence of a local era current in the Kosam region
The paleography of these inscriptions
places them in the period intervening between the end of Kushana rule and the advent of the Guptas.
The earlier ones in the series are more akin to the Kushana records and the last ones to the Gupta records in the matter of paleograpy.
English Translation of the inscription

In the year eighty one, 81, of the Maharaja, the illustrious Bhadramagha, in the second., fortnight of
summer. on the fifth, day on the afore-mentioned (date this) slab-seat was set up by the guild of stone-
masons of Katsa.

Inscription number 123
Kosam Stone Slab Inscription of Bhadremagha. Year 66 ( A.D 164)
Provenance: Hasanabad,. near Kosam Prayagraj.UP.
Script Brahmi of the Northern Class of 2nd-3rd century A.D
Language: Defective Sanskrit.
References D.R. Soni, , Ep Ind-. XVIII, pp-158-60, Pl.No.III,
D-C. Sircar. Sel.inss, I, pp-163, Number 57A

According to the Puranas, nine kings of od Magha dynasty ruled in South Kosala. Six of these are known from
their copious coinage and several inscriptions found in Bandhogarh in the heart of Baghelkhand. Bcadramagha’s
inscriptions are found as far north as Kausambi. These inscriptions are dated but there is a great controversy regarding the era used.
Sahni read the year in the present inscription as 88, and assigned it to Gupta Era that commenced in 320 A D This would make Bhadramagha
Contemporary of Chandergupta Vikramaditya (375-413 AD) When an independent king of Kausambi is not plausible.
All the Gupta vassals had to refer to their sovereign in their Inscriptions and they are not permitted to issue their coins. Jayaswal History of India (pp 230-31) it to Kalachuri year of 248 to 249 AD. And A Ghosh, Indian Culture. IP 715, considers it to be a Magha
dynastic era whose use was confined to only Magha dominious. A.S. Altekar “The vakataka Gupta age”
1960. p-41,.accepts it as Saka era sp does D-C. Sircar. Sel.Inss, I. pp163. n-1, who regards Saka and Kanishka as
One and the same era begnning in 78AD.
This is plausible. because it will make Bhadramagha a junior
contemporary of Vasudeva Kushana.
Disintegration of Kushana empire had already started, making it possible for Bhadramagha to annex Kausambi.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XVIII, facing pp.160. No.III-
3. Indistinct May as well be read as सिद्धम
4. Sahni: ma (e) ghasya.
Text of the inscription
1. स्वस्ति महाराजस्य श्री भर्दम यस्य
2. संवत्सरे 80+6 वर्षा पक्ष 3 दिवस 5
3. कस्य श म परस्थ पुत्त्र हेमाड़गन
4. दत्ता अयाया देवदार

English Translation of the inscription

Well being on the day 5, of the luner half-month (paksha) 3, of the rainy season of the year 86 of Maharaja
Sri Bhadramagha, (this) divine door is donated for the Arya by Hemanga son of. – – – ka who was devoted to peace

Inscription number 118
Bandhogarh Cave Inscription of Bhattadeva, (Saka) Year 90.
Provenance: Back & Right walls of Cave No 5, near Bandogarh fort. Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh.
Script Brahmi of the second century A Language Prakrit.
References: NP Chakervarti, Ep.Ind XXXI, pp. 182, No: XI,
1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind facing pp. 182, i Pl.No. III,
2. Bhattadeva closely follows Pothasiri, whose last date known is the year 88.
In a cave (numbered 8 by Chakravarti)
about 2 km. west of Gopalpur, two fragmentary inscriptions give a vague indication to the effect that Bhattadeva
was the son of Pothasiri. In the first of the name of the ruler only Maharaja-Pothasiri-Putasa. Ko.. is legible. In the first 1ine, of the second inscription found on the back wall of this cave, only the portion containing
Maharajasa Kosikiputasa Siri-Bhattadevasa is preserved.
The two records together indicate that Bhattadeva was the son of Proshthasri and (queen) Kausiki.
3. Anusvara is marked in red paint. but was left unengraved through oversight.
4. Chakravarti ajnatakasa. The medial a in jna is engraved above the conjunct.
Text of the inscription
Back wall: महाराजस भट्टदेवस संवछरे नवते (90) हेमन्त परवे पंचमे 1, दिवसे पधमे 1, एताये पुरूवाए नेगमस आझातकस नतिकेन वेसाखस पुतेन ने ग मेनध न मितकेन
Right wall: ल यन कारित धमो वढ़तु

English Translation of the inscription
On the first day of the first fortnight
of the Hemanta (season) in the year ninety (90) in the reign of Maharaja Bhattadeva. On this aforesaid day, was
constructed (this) cave-shelter by the marchant wocst a KKRrke
Dhanamitraka, the son of Vaisakha (and) the grandson of the
merchant (negama) Ajnetaka. May piety prosper.

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