ancient indian history


Inscription number 59.
Bonda Plates of Mahasiva Tivara.
(Regnal) year 5.
Provenance: Bonda, Sarangarh tehsil, Raigarh district. Chhattisgarh Division, Madhya Pradesh.
Script: Box-headed variety of central Indian Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres: V.1: आर्या, V.2: वसन्ततिलका Vv.3, 5, 6, 7, 8 अनुष्टुब V.4 इन्द्रवज्रा.
References: D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind., XXXIV, pp.111-16.
Panduvamshi kings like Tivaradeva and Balarjuna, bore the titles “Maha-siva.
Pandavas followed sanatna dharma traditions, though they were broad minded and accepted all religious beliefs. The pandva king Bhavadeva had patronized Buddhism, and renovated a few Buddhist shrines.
originally built by Suryaghosha.

Mahasiva Tivara followed Vaishnavism, and seals used by him, featured Vaishnavite emblems. His son Nannaraja 2, bore the title parama vaishnva. His Adbhar inscription records a grant to Bhagavata compares Mahasiva-Tivara to Vishnu’s incarnation, lord Krishna.
Mahasiva Tivara was a powerful ruler. He founded Trivaranagara and made it his kingdom.

1. A. Ghosha assigns him to the 7th century AD. (EP.Ind. XXV. pp.269). While V. V. Mirashi, to the seventh
decade of the 6th. ( ibid., XXXVI. pp.229), and D.C.Sircar (The Classical Age. pp. 220) to the third quarter of the 6th century A.D. on palaeographical grounds. Epigraphic evidence points to the existence of two kings named Tivara. The first was a contemporary
of the Vishnukundin king Madhavavarman (535-85 AD.).
The second ruler over a territory near the Vindhyas, in the last quarter of the 7th century A.D. A king named Tivara was defeated at the fort of the Vindhyas, along with his protege Madhava of the sailodbhava
dynasty of Orissa, by the Sailodbhava king Manabhita Dharmaraja (695-730 AD.) about the beginning of the
latters reign.
Tivara of the present record has tentatively been identified with the first of the two rulers, pending discovery of further evidence.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXIV
2. Represented by the spiral symbol.

A medial o incised over j originally was later partially erased, उद्धार has double meaning, to carry off and to emancipate, applicable respectively
to eagle (who eats snakes) and favourites, to be interpreted with the two meanings of भुजंग namely snakes and favourites.
This and the following double dandas upto line 29, are unnecessary. So is एवं in 1.29. The entire list of the donees forms a Dvandva compound governed
by the termination bhyas in Unnatameghasvamibhyah in
English Translation of the inscription.

Om !
Victory to the illustrious Tivaradeva, the
ornament of the three worlds, the auspicious pillar of the hall of assemblage of kings, (and) the foremost among the virtuous people
Peace from sripura. (Modern Sirpur in Raipur district.)
Sri Maha-siva Tivaradeva whose mirror-like toe-nails,
rubbed by crores of crowns of many bowing kings, who had
received five high titles (maha-sabdas) illumine the surrounding
quarters, whose leaf-bud-like hands are visibly weary of pulling
the netted hair of the Royal Fortune of his enemies, who adorned the battlefields with pearls washed in the flood of excessive blood flowing out of the circle of temples of the enemys’ elephants, falling at the heavy blows of his sharp sword, who is the marine fire to cause drying up of the growing salt water (of the seal of his enemies, in the form of greed for gaining heaps of various types of jewels, who,
like the moon, does not cause annoyance with his rays or taxes
who, like the milky ocean, has manifested the wealth of
excellent jewels, who, like an eagle, is adept at the emancipation of snakes or intimate friends, who has rubbed out the sandal-paste ornamentation from the soft cheeks and collyrium from the eyes of the wives of his enemies, whose mind is devoted only to protecting the statutes of good behaviour; because of unaffected behaviour (aklishtataya) highly
worshipped by people, in respect of his body, his eyes, his mind, his confidences, his fame and is past penances, unsatisfied, deep, very clean, cheerful and adorned with youth, even though a lord he is brief in talk, even though he has discarded evil avidity, he is excessively liberal, though fierce towards the enemy folk, he has a pleasant appearance though adorned with wealth, he has a soft nature.
Moreover, he is unsatisfied, not in acquiring wealth, but in earning religious merit, small in anger not in majesty, greedy in earning fame, not in confistcation of others wealth, addicted to witty sayings (subhashita, not in dalliance with women, who has burnt down the entire pile of cotton,
that is the cluster of his enemies with the fire of his prowess, who has illuminated the end of the horizon with the pile of his fame as bright as the mountain of icy rocks,
attractive by nature, the son of Nannadeva, the adorner of
the Pandu lineage, who himself was son of the illustrious Indrabala (Tivaradeva) who has achieved the overlordship of entire Kosala, who has pacified with the wealth of his
merits, the entire disturbance in the world who has pulled out all the thorns (i.e enemies of state with the needle
i.e sharpness of his wisdom, a devotee of Vishnu, who is always in the thoughts of his parents, commands the
residents of Bondaka along with those of Avadika, situated in the Piharaja bhukti-
Be it known to you that we have granted this village with libation of water for being enjoyed as long as the world lasts, with its terrific darkness
dispelled by the rays of the sun, the moon and the stars, together with hidden treasure (nidhi) and minor deposits. (upanidhi) out of bounds for the chatas/and bhatas, together
with (i.e. exempt from) all the taxes, together with ( the right to the fines for) the ten offences, to be enjoyed by indirect successors of persons without male off-spring, for
the increase of religious merit of my parents and myself, to the following twenty five:- 1. Bhatta Madhu-sudan-upadhyaya
2. Avanti-vikram-upadhyaya, 3. Deva-som-upadhyaya, 4. Svami-datta-
Upadhyaya, 5. Vishnu-ghosh-upadhyaya, 6. Sthavar-Upadhyaya,
7. Bhatta Kamala-paksha-svamin, 8. Bhatta Ravi-naga-svamin,
9. Sambu-bhuva-svamin, 10. Bandhu-deva, 11. Anga-vishnu-bhava-svamin,
12. Lata-phaliha-svamin 13. Asoka-svamin, 14. Sri-dhara-bhuti-
svamin, 15. Silapaksha-svamin, 16. Sappu-paksha-svamin,
17. Vamana-svamin, 18. Naga-sarma-svamin, 19. Gola-chandra-
Svamin, 20. Bhadra-svanin, students of the Yajurveda, the
Samaveda the Charaka, the Addhvaryu kanda and the Maitrayaniya
sakha, and to 21.) Gopendra-svamin, 22. Vamana-svamin, 23. Soma-svamin 24. Yajna-svamin and 25. Unnata-megha-svamin,
of the chandoga charana. of the samaveda.
Having leant thus, you should live on happily offering them proper share of the produce and taxes. And this following is being addressed
to the future kings.
The land givers frolic in heaven and alas on confiscation of land, the cruel rulers fall into hell.
Considering these two options and the instability of wealth and life, do what pleases you. And further the Fruits of protection and non-protection are
passage to bliss and condemnation (respectively,) Who, pray will resign heaven and resort to hell.
And in this context are cited the verses sung by Vyasa.
(Here follow four of the usual benedictory and imprecatory verses)
In the increasingly victorious reign, the year 5, the 1st day of Marga-sirsha. Incised by Boppa-naga, son of
the aksha-salika Yotra-naga.
This charter, for the sake of the growth of dharma of the illustrious Tivara – Deva, the lord of Kosala, endures
as long as the moon and the stars last.
(Kosala here covers Raipur, Bilaspur and Sambalpur.)

1. The Lodhia plates of siva-gupta of Kosala (Ep.Ind, XXVII, pp.325), who was a later member of Tivara’s family, represent the full moon day of Karttika as the 30th day of that month.
Panduvansi records are Purnimanta.
Margasirsha here would be Margasirsha-badi 1.
This shows that months in
Ths the 1st of
2. अक्षशालिक = Officer-in-charge of a gambling house

1. Bondaka is represented by modern Bonda, where the plates were discovered. It lies 3 km. from the
bank of the Mahanadi, near Balpur in Raipur district. Piharaja is modern Pihara, about 2 km. south-east of
2. aputrika, means ‘the father of a daughter not fit to be adopted as a son because of her, not having any male
offspring. Veni is explained by Monier-Williams on the
authority of the Vasishtha S.
as the property reunited, after it has been before divided. *
In my view, the phrase, सापुत्रिक वेणी भोज्य : here confers the right of inheritance to the daughter’s descendants, when she has no brothers.

1 Phaliha ia the Prakrit form of Sanskrit sphatika, Avanti and Lata, in the names of two brahmanas, were countries. Avanti was the country around the Uijayini and Lata embraced the Nausari-Broach area of Gujrat.
2. It appears that the Brahman as listed above were engaged in the study of one or the other of the enumerated texts. In fact the charaka and the
Maitrayani are the yajurvedic sakhas, while adhvaryu stands for a Yajurvedic priest, and also for the
Yajurveda and Adhvaryu Kada containing yajurvedic mantras
to be chanted by the Adhwaryu while performing his sacrificial duties.
Sircar, explains akshaslika as a goldsmith. The incisor, of course, must be a smith by profession.
But the word suggests an official designation, signifying, the oficial incharge of the gambling house.

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