ancient indian history

Mandasor Inscription of Yasodharman

Inscription number 32.
Mandasor stone Inscription of Yasodharman alias
Vishnuvardhana Malava (Vikrarma) year 589 (= 532 AD.)
The Mandasor inscription introduces Yasodharman, as saviour of earth. Who rescued the earth from cruel kings. The inscriptions highlights the victory of Aulikara king Yashodharman over the mihirakula. The inscription records the construction of a well by Daksha in Dashapura. The builder of the well, named Daksha, is described as the younger brother of Dharmadosha, who himself is a minister of Yashodharman. Daksha built the well in honor of his deceased uncle Abhaya-datta, a minister of Yashodharman. According to the inscription, Daksha was the grandson of a Brahmin Ravikirtti, whose wife was named Bhanugupta, a Kshatriya.
Provenance: Mandasor, Madhya Pradesh.
Yasodharman’s dominions covered the regions between brahmputra river  (Assam) to the western ocean (Arabian Sea, Sindh) from the Himalayas (Kashmir) to the Mahendra mountains (either Odisha, or someplace in Western Ghats)
Script: Brahmi of the Northern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
1. Fleet treats Yasodhaman and Vishnuvardhana, as two
distinct rulers, with distinct titles, viz. जनेन्द्र tribal ruler and नराधिपति i.e. king of Men of the two, Vishnuvardhana was the feudatory of the former. He is misled by the phrase, पुनश्च in v.6, which he thinks, introduces a new person,
rather than new details. But this militates against the whole tenure of the text. How can we treat
Vishnuvardhana as a subordinate, when v.7 clearly states that he assumed the rare title, राजधिराज परमेश्वर
atter bringing many Eastern and Northern kings under his control.जनेन्द्र and नराधिपति are synonymous and were used to suit the metrical requlrement as also for alliteration. P
in v.6 makes it clear that vishnuvardhana was the same king
as was described in the previous verse, namely Yasodharman,, who is given the title सम्राट, which is equivalent to राजधिराज and परमेश्वर
in his other record from Mandasor. His real name appears to have been Vishnuvardhana, which is akin to
Adityavardhana, who may have been his father or grandfather. Yasodharman may have been his viruda, like vikramaditya. He was a saiva while his
Predecessors were Vaishnavas. Vikrama 589 (=532 AD.) is the only date known of Yasodharman.
1. From the facsimile in C.I.I., III, Pl. XXii, opp- pp.154.
2. तिरयति envelops. स्फुटयति brings into
clear, sharp definition.
3. Note that the saivas assign siva all the func tions of the trinity, namely, creation, maintenance and
destruction of the universe. That explains his epithet, भवसृज in v.3.


1. Fleet takes लाञ्छन – (= mark or a smudge) in the sense of “The Crest, i.e. the principal emblems on royal seals which are impressed on charters in
token of royal authorisation. He likes to interpret ओोलिकर as the hot rayed sun or cool-rayed moon. It may be noted that generally the seal was distinct from the emblems on the royal dhvajas or banners. The Rattas of Saundatti and Belgaum had सिन्धुर-लाञ्छन-
but सुवर्णगरूड़ध्वज the kadambas of Banavasi and Goa had सिंह-लाञ्छन-
but शाखाचरेन्द्र-ध्वज or वानर-ध्वज Even the
गरूड-लाञ्छन and गरूड-ध्वज of the Guptas can not justify Fleet’s view. We find that the word ओोलिकर is unambiguously used as a distinguishing appellation i.e surname
in Bihar-kotra record of Naravarman (Supra III , 29) (नरवम्र्मण: ओोलिकरस्य)
Though = ray. ओोलि is meaningless. ओोलि may have been the name of the village of their origin. ओोलिकर thus is a
sobriquet like Bhandarkar, Mankekar, Paturkar, savarkar etc. still in common use in Maharashtra.
2. It is an oblique reference to his victory over the Guptas of the east and the Hunas of the north, which gave him title to sovereignty.

1. अम्भो मेध्यं = मेघ सम्बन्धी जलम् or प्रचुर सजल मेघान्
2. वाणीनी = wanten woman.
3. बालेयच्छवि धूमर = Smoke coloured, like an ass.
4. Like the back-side of a peacock’s feather
(lit. with the feather eye turned away from view).
लोर्ध = the tree Symplocos Racemosa.

1. नैभ्रित्य = resolutaness अरिषट्क = काम, क्रोध, मद, लोभ, मोह, मत्सर ( or अहंकार) I.e. desire, wrath, intoxication, greed, infatuation and envy (or alternately, Pride).
2. वसीयान = excellent.
3. नैगम = Member of a city corporation from निगम = a city corporation.
4. Sircar suggests amendment विष्यि and translates the phrase: “high like the abode of those who have
performed good actions as an adjective of mountains and alternately “eminent in containing men, who perfom
good actions” as an adjective of the family.
1. From similarity of names and nearness of dates, Fleet suspects some relationship
between Bhanugupta and king Bhanugupta, the patron
of Goparaja, mentioned in the Eran pillar inscription of Gupta year 191 (= 510-11 A.D.)(Supra, II, 48).
3. Fleet चि (न्व) नप्र, Sircar: वि (घ्न) नप्र:

1. पारियात्र = the Aravali and western vindhyas.
2. राजस्थानीय = viceroy or a feudatory ruler. cf. तलवर = तुष्ट – भूपाल प्रदत्त पट्ट बन्ध विभूषित राजस्थानीय
sircar Successors of the satavahanas.
pp.12) and पालनार्धमुद्धहति रक्षयति च स राजस्थानीय in the
Lokaprakasha (C.I.I, III, pp.157 n.).
3. डिम्ब = affray, riot or hostility.
4. Obviously the third son of Ravikirti and Bhanugupta, and the younger brother of Abhayadatta
5. असड़नगांधूरं = independent charge of administration.
6. Sircar: यो (s) दधद्
7. Bull from बहुला = Cow Wrinkled or puckered.

1. Sircar amends the text into ज्ञाति रत्नै ,
and translates the pada, invested, as with a decoration, with the protection of friends, by excellent relatives and alternatively, with a beneficial
protective ornament fastened by excellent relatives.
This emendation does improve the quality of the verse, But the reading is quite clear, and the original
author, no doubt, meant जाति रत्नै:
i.e jewels of super quality’.
2. = settled rule, or established custom. एकान्न – नवति = एकोन – नवति
This is the only dated record available of Yasodharman.
Footnote – 9.
1. Fleet: रामयन्बद्ध .
2. Fleet takes the name to be Daksha, while sircar regards both Daksha and Nirdosha as aliases ‘Daksha
inserted anong adjectives in v.28 should also be treated as such. In v.22 dakshah is an adjective of bhujah.
The quatrain means, “his younger brother, named Nirdosha (q.4), who was like his broad-shouldered right arm,”
Kielhorn was, therefore, right in
accepting Nirdosha as the name.
English Translation of the inscription.

L.1: Success !
Vv.1-3) 11.1-3: Victorious is the (god siva) equipped with the Pinaka bow the lord of (all) the worlds in whose songs, hummed with smiles, the lustre of
(his) teeth, like the lustre of lightening sparkling in the night, covers up and at the, same, time) reveals all this universe. May he, (the god) siva, confer many blessings upon you, appointed by whom to the tasks of maintenance, dissolution and creation, the self-born (god) Brahma carries out his orders for
the preservation of (all) the worlds and by whom, having been raised to dignity in the world, he has been made the father (of the, universe) May the
serpent of the creator of existence effect the allayment of distress, – (that serpent the multitude of whose heads, bowed down far by the
pressure of the heavy weight of the jewels in its hoods, obscures the radiance of the moon (on his
masters forehead) (and) who (with the folds of his body) binds securely on his master’s head the chaplet of bones with string-holes
May the creator of waters (i.e. the ocean), dug out by the sixty thousand sons of Sagara, and bearing sky
like lustre, preserve for a long time the glories of this best of the wells.
(V.5)1.4-5 Now. victorious is the lord of men, named illustrious Yasodharman, who, having plunged into the armies of his enemies, as if into a pleasure
garden, (and) having bent down the reputations of heroes, like tender creepers and trees, effects the
adornment of his body with the fragments of young sprouts which are the wounds (on his body).
(v.6)1.5: And, again victorious over the earth is this same Lord of men the illlustrious Vishnuvardhana, the
conqueror in war by whom his own great and famous lineage, dubbed as Aulikara, has been brought to a
state of dignity that is ever higher and higher.
(v.7) l.6: Having brought under subjugation very mighty
eastern kings as also many northern ones, by peaceful means and by war, who assumed this other pleasant name
King of Kings and supreme lord”, which is difficult to attain.
(V.8)1.7-8: Through him, having conquered the earth with his own arms, many countries, in which the sun
is obscured by the smoke, resembling dense dark clouds, rising from the oblations of the sacrificers (and) which
abound in thick and rich crops, through (the god) Indra pouring cloudfuls of rain upon (their) boundaries. and in which the ends of the fresh sprouts of the mango trees in the orchards are impetuously plucked in joy by the hands of intoxicated women,
enjoy the blessings of good government (lit. of having a good king)
(v.9) 1.8-9: Through the dust, gray like the colour of an ass stirred up by his armies with raised banners
and which have the lodhra trees tossed about in all directions by the tusks of their rutted elephants;

(and) which have the cavities of the Vindhya mountains made resonant with the noise of their journeying through the forests, the orb of the
Sun appears dark (and) dull-rayed, as if it were an eye of a peacock’s feathers reversed.
(V.10) 1.9-10: An excellent servant of that lord was shashthi-datta, who had by his resoluteness conquered the
six enemies (of good conduct) and the fame of whose religious merit was known far and wide in consequence
of the protection of the feet of the kings, who founded the family (of that lord).
(v.11) 1.10: As the high and low torrent of the (river) Ganga (spreads out) from the Himalaya (mountain), (and)
as vast mass of water of the (river) Rewa from the moon,– (so) from him, who se dignity is manifest,
there spreads a pure race of Naigamas, most worthy of being sought after.
(v.12) 1.11 From a wife of good family, was born to him, a son, of favourable disposition and a source of fame;
(the son) the worthy Varahadasa of disciplined conduct, who was cited by people as it were a part incarnation
of Vishņu.
(vv.13-14) 1.11-13: With the wealth of his qualities, Ravikirti, like the sun, illuminated that family, which was like the high peak of a mountain, lofty because of holding.
regions which were homes of good deeds wth foundations
sunk deep in the earth and enjoying a stable position, immune from break up (Ravikirti)who keeping to
the pure and infalllable path of the traditional, i.a.w law laid down in smritis, which is worthy of
righteous People, did not deviate from the conduct of highly cultured families.
(v15)1 .13: From him his chaste wife, Bhanugupta, produced
three sons, who dispelled the darkness (ignorance) with the leaping rays (i.e. flames) of their intellects,
as if she had produced three sacrifices from fire.
(vv.16-17)11.14-15: (Among them) was Bhagavaddosha, who was the first in the path of worthy deeds and was a
support to his relatives as uddhava was to the Andhakas, who far seeing like vidura was the very creator of many prudent laws in the incomprehensible system of finance and being well-versed in speech, hs fine diction is sung in rising crescendo by Poets in Sanskrit and Prakrit Composions.
(Vv.18-19) 11.15-17: And after him, occupying ever rising positions. there came the one named Abhayadatta, who
dispelled the fear of his subjects
by whose eye of wisdom which followed the eyes of his spies,

there was nothing on the earth unseen even at night, whether too minute or too distant- (Abhayadatta) of Fruitful actions, who like Brihaspati, the preceptor of gods, for the well
being of all the castes, with the functions of a Rajasthaniya, protected the region, containing
many countries presided over by his own upright counsellors, which
lie between the Vindhya (mountains), from the slopes of whose peaks cascade down the clear mass of waters
of (the river) Reva and the mountain Pariyatra on which the trees are bent down by frolicsome leaps of
the long-tailed monkeys and which stretches up to the western ocean.

(Vv.20-21) 11.17-18: Now he Dharmadosha the son of
Doshakumbha, by whom this kingdom has been made free from riots and tension and (also) intermixture
of all castes, as if it were krita-age (= era righteousness) bears with justice that heavy yoke (of administration) Previously borne by him
(i.e. by Doshakumbha, Dharmadosha, who not eager for his own comfort, bearing, for the sake of his lord in the difficult path (of administration)
the extremely heavy yoke (= responsibility of Government) not shared by another (.i.e. independently)
wears royal apparel only as a mark (of distinction, just as a bull carries a suspended Wrinkled dew lap.

(Vv.22-23) 11.19-21: His efficient and broad-shouldered younger brother bearing the name Nirdosha (i.e.
Faultless). which (name) oozes out intense joy to the ear and the heart (Nirdosha) who was like a
protective ornament made of quality jewels, attached to his (i.e. Dharmadosha’s) arm caused to be excavated this great well This great and skillful work was wrought here by him of great intellect, for the sake of
i.e in the memory of his beloved paternal uncle Abhaya-datta, who was cut off (before his time by mighty god Yamaraja, as if he were a tree, the shade of which, is pleasant to resort to, and) which yields fruit, salutary and sweet on ripening. ( wantonly)
destroyed by a lordly elephant.

vv.24-26) 11.21-23: when Five hundred and eight nine years, had been marked out (or written down) as past,
according to the established practice of the Malava republic or determining time in the season, in which the songs, resembling the arrows of Cupid, of
the melodious and soft sounding cuckoos, pierce the hearts of lovers, who are living abroad and
in which the humming of the lights of bees, sounding low because of the burden of honey they
Carry, is heard through the woods, like the twanging string of the bow of (Kamadeva), the god with flower-pennant (and) in the month of blooming Flowers, when the breeze, shaking the hearts, as
charmingly innocent and as dyed red (with love) as fresh sprouts, of sulky women, who are angry with
their sweet-hearts, presents itself for breaking down (their) arrogance, in that (season) this (well)
was caused to be constructed.
(v.27) L1.24-25: As long as the ocean, embracing with (its)
Lofty waves, as if with long arms, the orbit of the moon risen in its fullness of rays and made lovely from contact (with water), maintains friend ship
with the ocean), -so long let this excellent well endure, wearing the circular line of the surrounding
white-washed houses as if it were a garland of skulls, and discharging pure waters the flavour of which is equal to nectar!
(V.28) 1.25: May this aforesaid, Nirdosha protect dharma
( = moral law) for a long time, he who is, wise, efficient, generous, truthful, modest, brave, attentive of old people, grateful, full of enthusiasm, and untired in serving his lord..
L.25: This has been engraved by Govinda.
The allusion is to the Pauranika legend that the ocean was dug up by the 60,000 sons of sagara in
their search for their fathers (sagaras) asvamedha horse, which was stolen by Indra and carried to Patala,
the nether region, and left tied near the hermitage of Kapila. They incurred his anger when they treated
him as the horse-lifter and were reduced to ashes by the latter by his spiritual powers.Subsequently
Bhagiratha, a descendant of sagara brought the Ganga to the earth, and thence to Patala. The sacred river
washed the bones of the sons of sagara leading them to heaven, and filled the chasm created by them.
waters came to be called sagara (=ocean) after sagara, whose sacrificial horse, was the prime cause of the excavation of the vast pit.

Literally, a ruler functioning in place of a king, i.e. a regent is technically an official title.
It seems to have been used in the sense of a Governor or a viceroy. considering the vast dominions under his charge, although in a number of contemporary inscriptions
Rajasthaniya is enumerated rather low down in the list of officials (see, Supra II, 71-74 of Maitraka Maharaja
Dharasena 2, 1.9 of Deo
Barnarak inscription of Jivitagupta 2, and 1.33 of Bhagalpur grant of Narayanapala (Ind,Ant., XV, pp.306)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top