Manendra King of Sauvira

Written by Alok Mohan on May 1, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

#Manendra King of #Sauvira West #Punjab and #Afghanistan 158 to 138 BC Manendra ruled a large territory in the #Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala. Menander is noted for having become a patron and convert to £Greco-Buddhism and is among great Indo-Greek kings of Sauvira West Punjab and Afghanistan. Menander was a king of Bactria. He established his empire in North West Part of the Indian Subcontinent. He founded his territory from the #Ravi River in the east to #Kabul river valley in the west and from #Swat valley to Helmand. Menander’s empire under the care of his wife and child had considerably weakened. That explains Heliocles success even in comparative old age. The Saka menace from the north may have compelled him to look for a safer place across the Hindu Koh.And it is well that he did so: for a few years later, i.e. about 135 BC.., the Sakas overran Bactria. That may be the probable date of #Heliocles’ death. Chinese sources throw light on the conditions in which the Greeks were expelled by the Sakas from Bactria. Suma-Chien and Chang Chien did not have a high opinion about the fighting qualities of the Greeks. Menander began to issue his coinage at a fairly tender age. It is, therefore, certain that his father, Apollodotus, soon after accession in 175 B. C associated him in Government as sub-king. Born about 190 B.C Menander was about fifteen at this time. That is just the age at which he is portrayed on his earliest coins Later, about 158 B.C., he succeeded to Euthydemid SOvereignty at the death of Apollodotus. Late in his reign Menander got an opportunity to extend his dominions to the east. The powerful #Sunga king #Agnimitra died about 140 B.C. Menander took advantage by attacking his successor before he was firmly established, After a bloody battle Menander seems to have occupied the West Panjab. It is perhaps this battle that finds mention in the #GargaSamhita. The Milindapanho speaks of his visit to #Sakala (Sialkot) where he was converted to Buddhism by the Sage Nagasena. Menander did not survive long after the occupation of Sakala. None of his coins have been found from this city, though it is claimed to have been his capital. Had his rule lasted for any appreciable period, after he had occupied Sakala, we should have come across large hoards of his coins in this city. 140 B.C. being the date of occupation of Sakala, his death may have occurred about 138 B.C. A period of two years is long enough for what are suspected to be his Buddhist types. Besides the “wheel” type these latter include those on which Menander assumes the title Dikaios or #Dhramika (Skt. Dharmika). Whitehead refers to only three silver and one or two copper ones. Two of the silver types are almost identical, the only difference between them being that in one Nike is depicted in her conventional form and in the other in an unconventional one. Since these types do not represent one denomination, it need not be assumed that they were issued one after the other. Coins of all denominations are to be issued each year to meet the community’s needs. It is significant that the bust of the king on all the Dikaios types “is that of an aged man, so it would appear that towards the end of his long reign the title of Menander on the coinage was altered from €OTHP to DIKAIOS”. On the basis of his aged bust alone, Menander’s #Buddhist #coinage has to be confined to a short span of two to three years. Hence there can be little doubt that his death occurred less than three years after the occupation of Sakala. The date of this event can thus be fixed about 138 B.C. This will give him a span of about twenty years of independent rule, besides another decade and a half for his rule as a sub-king. issued coins, as sub king before 158 BC BM.

23. MENANDER. King of Sauvira, west Panjab and Afghanistan
158 to 138 B.C.
1. AR. Issued as sub-king before 158 B.C. B.M.
References: J. Marshall, Taxila, pl. 236, no. 55. P. Gardner, B.M.C., PL. XI. 9; M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p. 187, PL. III, 6.
Obv. Draped and helmeted bust of baby king r. Above ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, below ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ.
Rev. Pallas striding 1., holding shield in 1. hand and hurling thunderbolt with r. To r mon 17. Kh. legend indistinct, but appears to be as on no. 8 below.
2. A.R. Attia tetradrachm. Aziz-beglou.
References: A.K. Narain Indo-Greeks, Pl.II.7, M.V. D. Mohan. Indo Greek Coins, p. 187, pl.III, 7.
Obv: within bead-and-reel border draped bust of teen-aged. Menander r., Died- both ends hanging stiffy down.
Rev. Pallas as on no. 6 above. To 1 mon. 103. R. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANA∆POY.
3. AR.
References: E.J. Rapson, C.H.I. PL.VII-18 and Pl.XXX.e, where erroneously assigned to Apollodotus. Also Comprehensive History of India, Vol. II. PL-II.7; M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, pp. 187-88. Pl.III. 8.
Obv: Draped bust of Menander r.. died. both ends stiffy suspanded. Above ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ, below MENAN∆POY.
Rev: Pallas (Athene Promachos) 1. as on no.6 above. mon. 111 with P (rho) appended, Kh. legend, above Maharajasa tratarasa, below Menamdrasa.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.