ancient indian history


Inscription number 45.

Gwalior stone Inscription of Mihirakula (515-45 A.D.) -Regnal Year 15.

This Inscription was found on the wall in the porch of a Sun temple in the Gwalior fort. It was delivered to the Imperial Museum at Calcutta, subsequently. This Inscription records construction of a sun temple, by Huna king Mihirakula. The shrine stood on the edge of the tank known as Suraj Kuṇḍ on Gwalior Fort.
The temple was built on the hill, in the month of Karttika in the 15th year of Mihirakula. Matṛcheṭa, the son of Matṛdasa, was the patron.
Mihirakula, son of Toramana, was the last Huna king, who flourished in 6th century CE. Inscriptions belonging to Mihirakula and Toramana were found in Eran, near present-day Sagar, Madhya Pradesh state, also. He was a patron of Shaivism. Mihirakula is recorded in Buddhist tradition as having been uncouth and extremely cruel. Together with Yashodharman of Malwa, the Gupta rulers confronted Mihirakula and forced him back northward. Ultimately, his kingdom was limited to the Kashmir and Punjab regions, with its capital at Shakala. (present-day Sialkot, Pakistan).
Yashodharman and Gupta emperor, Narasimhagupta, defeated Huna army and their ruler Mihirakula in 528 AD and drove them out of India.
Huna power declined after his reign.

Provenance: Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. Now in National Museum, Calcutta.
Script: Late Brahmi of the Northern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
Verses 1-2: मालिनी
Verses 3-12: आर्या
Verse.13: शार्दूलविक्रीडित
References: R.D. Mitra, J.A.S.B., XXXI, pp.391 ff. ? J.F Fleet, C.I.I., III, No. 37, pp.161 ff. Bhandarkar’s List, No, 2109; Sircar, Sel,Inss, I, pp.424-26.
L1,1-6 From the facsimile in C.I.I., III,
Pl,xxiiiB opp pp160 and 11,7-9 from the facsimile in J.A.S.B, XXXI (1962), p.i.No,2. Conjecturally restored.
3. Upper part of the aksharas is lost. Fleet reads वाल and translates “banks of clouds. Sircar thinks, जलद – बेला
(= rainy day) was intended, The metre
requires a long vowel with व्
1. न engraved below the line.
1a. Fleet खेद – भ्रान्त
2. Sircar Conjectures the missing word as वनान्त. Fleet & Sircar both read- ग्रस्त But the initial letter is too dim to be read. And a ग्रस्त i.e eclipsed, sun cannot be an object of worship.
3. = तप्त
4. Better मिहिरकुल इति
5. Slrcar suggests – चर्यति. Fleet and Kielhorn read the phrase as भड्न्गो य: पशु पतिम् and concluded
that he broke the power of Pasupati. Sircar’s suggestion gives a more plausible sense, viz. who
worships Pasupati without break.


1. गोपाहवय = गोपागीरि or गोपार्दि = modern Gwalior. The present name Gwalior is derived from Gopalikera,
occurring in some records. For references, see Fleet, C.I.I. III, pp.162,
2. Read केशव इति The last word of the verse was evidently आदित्येन
3. The punctuation mark is not required.
English Translation of the inscription.

Om ! Hail !
Victorious is (the Sun) the illuminator of the mansion that is the world, the destroyer of night, the
dispeller of distress who having his wheels suspended on the Sylvan (edge of the) mountain of sun-rise;
who, adorning the sloping edge of the mountain of dawn with (his) horses which have the tossing ends
of (their manes dishevelled with fatigue caused by (their) startled gaits, who dispelling the darkness of the season of clouds (i.e. of the rainy season) with the multitude of his rays that illuminate
the sky; and who creates fresh beauty of the lotus-beds with (his rays of the colour of heated gold; may he protect you.
L.-2-3 There was a ruler of the disc of the earth of great merit, who was renowned as the illustrious
Toramana, who governed the earth with justice by his qualities of truthfulness, liberality, heroism & Courage.
L.3. Of him, the fame of whose family has risen high, the lord of the earth of incomparable might, is the son
renowned by the name Mihirakula, who worships siva without intermission.
L4. While this king, the remover of distress, possessed of large and clear eyes, is governing the earth in the
fifteenth year of the augmenting reign of this mighty king; when the month of Karttika, cool and fragrant with the perfume of red and blue water-lilies
that are caused to blossom by the smiles of the rays of the moon, had arrived; while the moon is shining clear
(i.e. during the bright fortnight) when a very auspicious day, according to the tithi, nakshatra and muhurta, had come, heralded by loud proclamation of a
holy day by the prominent members of the Brahmana Community.

L.5-6: The grandson of Matritula, and the son of Matridasa, by name Matricheta residing in mountain fortress it self has caused to be made of stone for the increase of religious merit of (his) mother and father and also of himself and of those who live on
this nice mountain by the graciousness of the king, this excellent chief temple of the Sun on the pleasant mountain, called Gopa which is variegated
with numerous metals.
L.7. Those, who cause to be made an excellent Sun-temple
lustrous like tho rays of the moon, they live in heaven till dissolution of the world.
L.7-8 This praiseworthy proclamation of the true religion (i.e. this inscription) has been composed, out of devotion to the sun by him, who is known by
the name Kesava and ditya.
LI.8-9: As long as the moon shines in the thicket of the matted hair of siva as long as the mountain Meru
has its slopes adorned by the feet of the nymphs of heaven as long as (the god) vishnu bears the radiant
(goddess) Lakshmi on (his) breast resembling a dark blue cloud, so long shall (this) prominent, rock-temple stand upon the delightful sumit of
the hill.

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