ancient indian history

Nanaghat Cave Inscription

Inscription number 158.
Nanaghat Cave Inscription of Nagananika
Provenance: Nanaghat Pass leading from Konkan to Junnar, in Pune district. Maharashtra.
Script: Brahmi of the second half of the first century B.C.
Language: Prakrít
References : G Buhler, Archeological survey of West India, V, pp. 60 f.
and 86 f, Luders list, number. 1112 (for other references) Also cf. Rapson, B.M.C., pp.xlv-vi; Sel.Inss, pp-19 2-97.
Footnote 1.
The authorship of the inscription can not be assigned with certainty. The name of the queen, who set up the inscription is given as Bala, in line but the reading is not beyond doubt. Her husband’s name too, is lost, however in L4, she claims to be the mother of the princes Veasri and Saktisri. In the Nanaghat Cave Inscription of Satkarni 1,( Supra I, No 157) Nayanika appears as the queen of Satakarni and, Saktisri is one of the princes named, the name of senior prince, is lost. Hence we conclude that Bala Nagamnika, are the aliases of the mother Saktisri.
Nayanika (1st century BC) was the queen regent of the Satavahana dynasty during the minority of her son. She was the first woman confirmed to have ruled over an Indian kingdom. She was married to king Satakarni. She was the mother of king Satakarni II.
Gautamiputra Satakarni 1,  was a ruler of the Satavahana empire in present-day Deccan region of India. He was mentioned as the important and greatest ruler of Satavahana Dynasty.

Available information about Gautamiputra Satakarni, come from his coins, these inscriptions, and the royal genealogies in the various Puranas.. The available information suggests that he had several military conquests, to his credit. Available evidences also suggest that Gautamiputra had revived his empire, after a decline caused by saka invasions.

Footnote 2
From the Plate in Architectural Survey of western India v..
The i sign and characters like व य द and च
exhibit some development though without serif is changing to triangular form
. is almost of the Kasnana type.
Palaeographioally the inscription may be placed between the Besnagar pillar inscription of Heliodorus, about the
end of Second century B.C.
Note also the conjuncts br and vr in 1.5 and rg in1.14.
2. Buhler restores ओं ( or सिधं) नमो प्रजापतिनो धंमस Sircar prefers सिधं which is found at the beginning
of numerous early Inscriptions without नमो

3. Note that Dharma and indra are not identified, respectively with the Lokapalas,. Yama and Vesava,
who are separately mentioned. The identifications belong Probably to a later date.

4. The absence of Pradyumna and Aniruddha in connection
With Sanka rahana and vasudeva may suggest that the Vyuha doctrine was not popular before the time of
this record, at least in this Locality. It should be remembered that even a law book like the Vishnu-Samhita refers to the four. वासुदेवाय संकषणाय प्रधुम्नायानिरुद्राय
5. Buhler – (=sons of the moon) But D.C. Sircar,
I. H.Q. . pp.412. in his brief note justifies his reading
as -चंद – सुरानं महिमावतां
and connects it with महिमावतां

Footnote 3
1. The probable restoration is रजो सिमु कसा तवा हनस सुन्हाय
The rest of the line is lost.
,2. Some scholars suggest
Kala laya on the evidence of
certain coins cf.Rapson. B.M.C., p.xlv. 3. CF the Buddhist cosmographic theory that the earth is encircled by sea and also by mountains, called the
4. Probable restoration is (सातकंणि) सिरिस CF, सिरि-सा (तकणिस)
5. Sircar suggests Raya-sa (takanina saha) Buhler
6. Seems to have been originally engraved.
7. There are traces of two numerical symbols after

Footnote 4.

1. The first two aksharas may be read as
2. Buhler takes the signs to indicate the numeral 1.
D. C. Sircar takes it here, as elsewhere, as a mark of punctuation as it is not close to the symbol for
6000. Since no punctuation mark of this type appears in numerous similar contents elsewhere in the inscription.
it is clear that it is not intended as such.
Wherever this horizontal stroke occurs it is at the end of numerical figures, but not after everyone of them. So
clearly it is intended to be the numerical figure 1.
3. Omitted in Buhler’s transcript.
Footnote 5.
1. Indra ji read the figure after गावो
as 6000
The symbol is clearly engraved. But we have nothing to confirm the interpretation.
2. Buhler तोवय
3. Buhler 17 acha na la ya
Sircar agrees with Buhler’s reading.
4. Bulhler-तेस.
Footnote 6
It is not certain that this was the last line. Early Satavahana rulers. evidently, had a deep faith in the
Vedic Sacrifices. They commanded a rich treasury to be able to lavish such gifts to the brahmanas. For
Information on Sacrifices, refer to Buhler Archeological survey of western India and Macdonell and Keith Vedic Index.
Footnote 6
1. CF. C.H.I 549 n.
2. Buhler The Presents to the spectators and menials cf. Saropa Presented to honoured guests at, gurudwaras.
Footnote 7
1. Buhler: the cart for conveying a mountain of grains. संस
from संसू to convey transport.
2 Two Asvamedhas were performed but the account of the first is lost.

Footnote 8
1. Since tne Vedic literature does not permit women to perfom sacrifices as independent agents we may
presume that the sacrifices refered to above had been performed by Nagarnika is the sahadharmini
of Satakarni, who as the raya in 1.6. ,indicates, was the chief sacrificer or yajamana. That rules out the
possibility of performing these as the regant of her minor son, Vedisri. In fact, all these Sacrifices could
have been performed over a very long period, not avaiiableto a regent. Nor do we expect a woman, to perfom, not
one, but two Asvamedhas, with essental con-commitment of
warfare. Saktisri has been identifed with Saktikumara, mentioned as the son of Salivanana in jain literature.
The identification of this prince with hakusir of nanaghat
Cave Figure-Label Inscription number. 5 of the time of Satakarni i (see supra no 157-5 ) suggests that, the
queen referred to here is Nagamnika, wife of Satakarni 1.
As regards हकु – शक्ती note हिरू-य हातकणि श्री – यझ शांतकणि
0n some coins (Rapson B.MC, p-45) cf also अयिर -हघान (आर्य -संघानाम )
In the Nagarjunikonda Inscription. of
Vrapurushadatta Regnal year- 6 (No4, 1.10) : see infra no 78-4, Ep.Ind, XX)
According to Puranas Simuka who defeated the kanvas and sungas was succeeded by his brother Krishna and the latter by his son Satkarni. The order of succession seems correct, but the relationship of last two was most probably, of brothers not of father and son. Both were sons of Simuka.

English Translation of the inscription

Success ! Adoration to Dharma, the (Lord of created beings) adoration to indra, adoration to Samkarshana
and Vasudeva, to the moon and to the sun, either of whom
are endowed with majesty and to Yama Varuna, kubera, the four guardians of the world. Of the excellent price the king Vediari.
2. By the daughter-in-law of king Simuka Satavahana, the heroic and brave Lord of the Deccan. whose
sovereignty is unobstructed.
3. By Bala, the daughter of the Maharathi, the increaser of the Angiya race and of this first hero of the earth that is girdled by the ocean and the
best of mountains– of the great —
4. The wife of Satakarni, Sri the
giver of sons, the giver of boons, the giver of, pleasures. the giver of wealtn, the mother of Vedisri, and also the mother of Saktisri.

5. By Bala, the giver of excellent elephants, who fasted during a whole month, who is a householder as
well as an ascetic. Who retained chaste, who is fond of
long vows and sacrifices, offered sacrifices. Becoming
fragrant with in sense, having undertaken strict vows.
6. offered sacrifices in (the company of king Satakarni, — Description (of these is as follows)
i) Agnyadheya Sacrifice – A sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) cows twelve 12 and horse one-1..
(ii) Analambhaniya Yajna-the sacrificial fee consisted of) a milch cow.
7. sacrificial fees were given
consisting of Cows 1700, elephants 10 ——
8. Bamboo stick 289 Silver patchers 17.

9. Rika sacrifice Sacrificial fees were given (consisting of cows -11000, horses – 1000,Presents to the participants.
10-12, excellent village 1, other sacrificial fee conssting of Karshapanas 24400.
presents to participants (consisted of) Karshapanas 6001,
Rajasuya sacrifice a cart.

Part 2, (On the Right wall)
11. used for transporting a mountain of grain, excellent sheet of cloth-1, horse -1, horse chariot – 1, kine – 100,
A second horse sacrifice, as Offered (and sacrificial fees given (were) horse with silver trappings-1. Gold ornaments Another sacrificial fee was given.
12. Cows 6000, the cart used in conveying a mountain of grain 1, oxen, saptadasa.

13. tiratra Yajna Sacrificial gift given consisted of Gold bangles.
13. Gifts given to Participants were —
sacrificial fees given were – 17, Cow-1,
Oxen, Sapatadasa.
13. Tiratra Yajna – Sacrificial gift given, consisted of — 17, Sheep—, Gold bangles —
Gifts given to participants were —-
Sacrificial fees given was —–12. Horse decked in silver-1, other sacrificial fees was Karshapanas – 10000.,
14. Cows – 20000, A Bhagala Dasaratra
sacrifice was offered – sacrificial gifts given were cows – 10001, Gargatiratra Yajna as perfomed.
The sacrificial gifts —-
and gifts to participants were 301 pieces of cloth. The Gavamayana sacrifice was Performed – Sacrificial fee was given (consisting cows 1101,
Cows 1100, gifts to Participants (consisted of) Karashapanas,
pieces of cloth 100, Aptoryama
sacrifice was perfomed.

15. a gavamayana sacrifice (was offered)
a sacrificial fee was given (consisting of) cows 1101, an angirasamayana sacrifice was offered, the
sacrificial fee was cows 1101.A sacrificial fee was given consisted of)
100. sacrifice (was offered The sacrificial fee (given was) cows 1100.

An Angirasatiratra sacrifice (was offered). the sacriticial fee (was) cows.

16. cows 1002, Chhandoma-pavananatiratra
sacrifice (was offered) the sacrificial fee (was) cows 1001. An Angirasatiratra sacrifice was offered
The sacrificial fee (was)
An atiratra sacrifice was offered. Dakshina was given
consisting of —

An atiratra sacrifice was perfomed, the dakanina —
Sacrifice was Performed, the sacrificial
fee was given (consisting of cows 1001..
17. —- dakshina was given (consisting of) cows.
An Angirasamayana sacrifice of six year . duration was offered
The sacriificial fee was given (consisting of) cows 1000.
sacrificial fee was given (of) cows 1001. A Thirteen

18. A Tayodasa-ratra (sacrifice) was
Performed the foremost sacrificial fee given (was) cows.
A Dasaratra (sacrifice was performed
the dakshina was given (consisting of} cows 10001.-(dakshina) —Oxen
19. Sacrifice (was offered) sacrificial fee given (consisting of——-)
20. Dakshina was given.

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