ancient indian history

Nasik Cave Inscriptions

During Saka period India had not only developed banking system, but had also developed a large network of trade & social sector as well as development of corporate activities, covering almost all human requirements. This fact is evident from the inscriptions being discussed here. In ancient India, the territories of east and west indus came to a single administrative & political control. The existence of Indian influence in Kashgar during this period has been established by the discoveries of Sir A. Stein at Niya and at Leou lan, where several Prakrit inscriptions in Kharoshti characters were discovered besides several indian texts chain of Indian settlements between the Oxus valley and Tun-huang in Kan-su of the north-west of China, all along the route of the Tarim river and the silk route, was formed.
These settlements proved the stages of the Indian Pundits proceeding to China to propagate Buddhism and for the Chinese pilgrims seeking religious treasures in India. We can safely infer that these colonies formed a link in the trade relationship also between India
and China. Dr. Chattopadhyaya is of the opinion that Sakas controlled all important trade routes in northern India.

Inscription number 131
Two Nasik Cave Inscriptions of the time of Nahapana (119 – 124 A D.)
Provenance: Nasik, Nasik district, Maharasntra.
1. In the veranda of Cave No. 10. over the doorway of the left cell
2. Ibid over the doorway of the right cell.
Script: Brahmi
Language Prakrit
References: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, VII, 37 ff,. Bhagawanlal Indraji.
Bombay Gazetteer, XVI, pp544 ff, Buhler. Arch Survey of W India, pp180ff.; E. Senart; EP. Ind.VIII, pp.81f, Number. 11 and pp85, Number. 13.
Text of the inscription
1. सिद्धम् रप्तो क्षहरातसं क्षत्रपस नहपान स दीहि
2. तु दिनिक पुत्रस उषवदातस कुड़ूबिनिय दशमित्राय देय
धम ओवरको

I). From the facsimiles in Ep. Ind. VIII,
1) Plate VII, No.11 and ii) Plate VIII
No-13, The text of the two inscriptions is identical, but in the latter the
text is competed in three lines.
2. in the second inscription
3. Line number in the second inscription, Which has 3 lines.
English Translation of the inscription
Success This cell is the pious gift of Dakshamitra, wife of Rishabhadatta. son of Dinika and daughter of the
king Nahapana, the Khaharata Ksnatrapa.

Inscription number 132.
Karle Cave Inscription of the time of Nahapana (C 119- 24 A D.)
Provenance: Karle. Distt Pune, Maharashtra. On the upper frieze to the right of the central door or tha Chaitya cave.
Script Brahmi.
Language Prakrit
Reference: Burgess and Buhler, Arch.Surv. W.Ind.. 1V. pp-101, Senart. EP.Ind. VII, pp57 ff.. No. 13,
SeI.Inss, pp.171-72.
Text of the inscription
1. सिद्धं रजो बहरावस जतपस नहयानस ज़ा ( म ) तरा (दिनीक)
पुतेन उसभदातेन ( ति )
2. गो सतसहस (दे) ण नदिया दर्णासाया सुवण (ति) धकरेन (देवतान )
ब्रहमण च सोठस गा
3. म दे (न) अ पभासे पुत तिथे ब्राहमणाण अठ भाया प (देन) अ
नुवास पितु सत सहसं (भो )
4. जययित वलूरकेसू त्वेण – वासिनं पव जितानं चातुदिसस सघस
5. यापणथ मामो कर जिको दतो स वा न वा स -वासितानं

1. From the Plates in Ep.Ind, VII, pp.64 Carle Inscription Plate.II, No 13 and Arch Surv,.W Ind. IV, pp 101,For references see Luders List No 1099. This record may have been copied from original coper Plate grant.
2. Compare the phrase * सुवणे दान तीर्थ करेण in his Nasik Cave Inscription. Supra, No.13

1. Modern Elura according to Bombay Gaz,I,ii,, p.391, But D. C Sirkar rejects this in favour of Karle its self,
see sel.Inss I, P.172, n.1.
2. Karle Cave Inscription of the year 14, EP. Ind. VII, pp.64. No. 19, also records the donation of village Karajaka to the Mahasanghika monks dweling in
the caves of Valuraka, by a king, whose name is lost,
but who is to be identified with either Gautamiputra Satakami or vashishthiputra Pulumavi indicating
wresting Pune regon by Satavahanas from the Kanaharatas.
3. E.Senart. EP.Ind. VII, pp.60-61, explains the addition of this Phrase to the text to indicate that the donation was made for the benefit of monks of all sects and all localities. The intention of the donor was to clarify that the donation meant for all monks,
without any restriction in respect of their Organisational or sectarian and geographical affiliations.
English Translation of the inscription
Success ! Ushavadata Rishabhadatta), Dinika’s son, son-in-law of Kanatrapa Nahapana the Kahaharata king,
who made a gift of three hundred thousand cows, who made
gifts of gold and got bathing ghats constructed on the river Parnasa, who made a gift of sixteen villages to Gods
and Brahmanas, who gave eight wives to Brahmanas at Prabhasa,
the holy tirtha, who causes hundred thousand ( Brahmanas) to be fed every year for the sake of his (late) father
(1.e. by way of a feast for the manes) has donated the village, Karajika, for provisioning of the monks belonging
to the Samgha of all directions, and dislocated during rains.

Inscription number 133.
Junnar Cave Inscription of tne time of Nahapana
(C119-24 A. D.)-Saka year 46 ( 124 A.D.)
Provenance: Junnar (in the 4th excavation on the eastern
side of Manmodi Hill) Pune district. Maharashtra.
Script: Brahmi.
Language: Prakrit.
References J.B. Burgess and Pt. B. Indraji, Ins. from Cave
Temples of western India.1976. pp.51 f.
Burgess and Buhler Arch. Surv. W Ind. IV, pp.103. D.C. Sirkar, Sel.Inss, . pp.172-73.

1. From the Plate in Arch. Surv.W. Ind., IV, PI.LIV, No. 11 ( Junnar no. 32). For other references see Luders ‘List No. 1174.

2. Scholars generally take पोढ़ा in the sense of a or cistern. These water cisterns are found dug out in the rock mostly near the entrance of the
rock-cut caves of thee Deccan. Some of these like those in the elephanta Caves are huge Underground
tanks. But Philologically the word should be derived from Sanskrit.प्रपदा
meaning a flight of steps. such as are found leading to water in
a step well or to a cave in a mountain side. In Punjabi पोड़ी is still used in the sense of a flight of steps or a staircase.
The word originally must have meant a step-well, and later came to be
used in the sense of a water-hole generally.
Text of the inscription
1. (रात्रो ) महखतपस सामि नहपानस
2. (आ) मतस वठ समोतस अयमस
3. (दे)(यथम) च (पो) ढ़ि मटपो च पुत्रथय वस
English Translation of the inscription

In the year 46 were constructed tne cistern and the vault (rest house) for earning merit (i.e. for the purpose of free use) and (they) are the pious gift of Aryaman of vatsa gotra, the minister of the king and Mahakshatrap, Lord Nahapana.

Sakas of westen India
(b Kardamaka Faily (House of Chashtena)
Inscription number 134.
Andhau Stone Inscriptions of the time of Chashtana and Rudradaman, Saka Year 52 ( 130 A D.)
Provenance: Andhau, near Khavda (or Pachchham) Kutch district, Saurashtra
1. D.C. Sircar. Sel.Ins, p.173, n 5, opine. “The Saka era”
Very Probably took its name from its constant use by this Saka family for a long time.
Script Brahmi. Northern variety of lst and 2nd centuries A.D.
Language: Prakrit influenced by Sanskrit.
References: R. D. Banerji. Ep.Ind. XVI, pp.19-25 A to D.
DC Sircar,. select Inss., I, pp.173-75.

1. From the facsimiles in Ep.ind. XVI, Pls. facing pp.24 and 25. The first three yashtis were raised by Madana
in memory of his sister, brother and wife, the fourth by Teshtadatta in memory of his son. The persons thus honoured, were apparently dead.
2. The pillars evidently were erected in the joint reign of Chashtana as Manakshatrapa and his Grandson
Rudradaman as Kshatrapa. The coins of this family, proves the existence of such joint rule.
There is no justification for Banerjee’s translation of the first line as during the reign of King Rudradaman, the son of Jayadaman, the grand son of king Chashtana, son of Ysamotika, Chastana and Radharaman recovered mucn of the territory that Nahapana lost to Gautamiputra satakarni, even during
the latter’s life time.
3. Banerji read व and explained व =बहुत
Luders read here a symbol for 15.

1. A Person, who has already been admitted into priesthood
of the Buddhist Church, after going through the ceremony called Pabbajja, but has not yet received the
Upasampada is called Samanera (fem. Samaneri), i.e. novice’ deacon’.He becomes fully Privileged monk,
after receiving upasampada. The interval may be very short or very long.
Note that the wifes gotra is different from that of the husband. CF Poona Plates of Prabhavatigupta, where, too, she retains father’s gotra.
Text of the inscription
Number 1
1. राज्ञो चाष्ठ नस य्सामोलिक पुत्रस राझो रुद्रदामस जयदाम पुत्रस
2. व र्षे द्वि प च शि 50 +2 फगुण बहुतत द्वि तिय वारे मदनेन सीहिल – पुत्रेंन भ गिनिये जेष्ठ वीराये
3. सो हि नपि त वे ओपशात सगोत्राय लष्टि उथापित
Number 2
1. राज्ञो चाष्ठ नस य्सामोतिक
2. पु त्र स राझो र् र्ददामस
3. जयदाम पुत्रस वर्षे द्विप
4. चा शे 50 +2 पगुण बहुलस
5. द्वितिय वारे पगुण ऋषभदेवस
6. सीहिल पुत्रस ओपशति सगोत्रस
7. भ्रात्रा मदने न सी हि ल पूत्रेंन
8. लष्टि उथापित
Number 3
1. राज्ञो चाष्ठनस य्स मोतिक पुत्रस पौत्रस राझो रुद्रदामस जयदाम पुत्रस वर्षे द्विपचाशे
2. फगुण बहुलस द्वितिय वा 2 यश दताये सीहमित धीता ये
शेनिक सगोत्राये शा lमिणेरिये
3. मदनेन सीहिल पुत्रेंन कुटुबिनिये लष्टि उथा पिता
Number 4
1. रा ज्ञो चाष्ठनस यूसामोतिक पु त्र स रा झो रू र्ददामस जय दाम
2. पुत्र स वर्षे 50+2 फगु न बहुलस द्वितिय वारे
3. ऋषभदेवस त्रेष्टदत पुत्र स ओपश ति गो( त्र )स
4. पि त्रा त्रेष्टदतेन श्राम णे रेन लष्टि उथापित

English Translation of the inscription

In the year fifty two (52) on the second day, 2, of the dark half of Phalguna in the reign of the king Radharaman, son
of Jayadaman. and the grandson of the king Chashtana, son of Ysamotika, (this staff ( pillar) was erected by Madana,
son of Sihila (Simhila) in memory of his sister Jyeshthavira, daughter of simhila, and of the Aupasatika gotra
No. II
In the year fifty two 52 on the second, 2, day of the dark half of Phalguna, in the rein of the king Rudradaman
son of Jayadaman and the grandson of the king Chashtana, son of Ysamotika, (this) staff Pillarwas erected in memory of Rishabhadeva, son of Simhila. (and) of the aupasatika gotra,
by (his) brother Madana, son of Simnila.
Number III
In the year Fifty two (52). on the second, 2, day of the dark half of Phalguna, in the reign of the king Rudradaman, son of Jayadaman, and the grandson) of the king Chashtana, son of Ysamolika, this pillar was erected by Madana son of simhila,
in memory of his wife Yasodatta, a novice nun, daughter of
simhamitra, (and) of the Srenika gotra.
Number IV
In the year 52, on the second 2. day of the dark half of Phalguna, in the reign of king Rudradaman son of
Jayadaman. and the grandson of king Chashtana, son of
Ysamotika, this, pillar was erected (in memory of Rishabhadeva
of the Aupasatika gotra, son of Treshtadatta, by his father
Treshntadatta, a novice monk.

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