ancient indian history

Pabhosa Cave Inscription


Inscription number 9.
Pabhosa Cave Inscription of the Time of Udaka – Regnal Year 10.
Provenance: Pabosa (ancient Prabhasa Tirtha), near Kosam (ancient Kausambi), Allahabad district, U.P.
Script: Brahmi of the closing years of the 1st century B.C.
Language: Prakrit influenced by Sanskrit.
References: Hoernle, J.P.A.S.B., 1887, p. 104, A. Führer, Ep.Ind, II, pp.242 ff.; Luders, List of Brahmi Inscriptions, Nos. 904-05; D.C. Sircar, Sel.Inss, I,
pp.95 ff.
No. I
(0n a rock outside the cave)

1. राज्ञो गोपालीपुत्रस
2. बहततिमित्रस
3. मातुलेन गोपालीया
4. वैहिदरी-पुत्रेन (आसा)
5. आसाधसेनेन लेन
6. कारितं उदाक (स) दस
7. म–सवछरे कश्शपीयातं ( = नं ) अर हं
8. तानं
संस्कृत छाया
राज्ञः गोपाली-पुत्रस्य बृहस्पति मित्रस्य (यदा बृहत्स्वातिमित्रस्य) मातुलेन गोपालिका – वैहिंदरी -पुत्रेण आषादसेनेन लयनं ( = गुहावास: ) कारितम उदाकस्य दशम संवत्सरे काश्यपीयानाम् अर्हतां (सुपरिग्रहे * ) ( = सुपरिग्रहाय) ।।
हिन्दी अनुवाद
गोपाती-पुत्र राजा बृहस्पतिमित्र के मामा, गोपाली-वैहिदरी के पुत्र आषाढसेन ने उदाक के (दसवें राज्य ) संवत्सर में काश्ययीय अर्हतों के (वासार्थ) अङ्गीकार के लिए निर्माण कराया |
English Translation
By Ashādhasena, the son of Gopalikā=Vaihidari, and maternal uncle of the king Brihaspatimitra (or Brihatsvătimitra) who is the son of Gopali, (this) (cave)- dwelling has been got constructed, in the tenth (regnal) year of udāka for the acceptance of the Kasyapiya Arhats.

Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXII, Pl. facing p. 203. The first six letters in 1.1 have been tentatively restored, while the first nine letters in 1.2 have been restored with the help of Ghosundi-well inscription.
Footnote 2.
Fuhrer assigns the two records to 2nd or 1st century B.C., Bühler to 150 B.C. But D.C. Sircar assigns it to late
1st century B.C. because of similarity of certain letters, e.g., त्र न etc., to those in the inscriptions of the Sakas of Mathura.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., II, Pl. facing p. 242.
3. Presumably identical with the king Bahasatimita of Magadha mentioned in the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela, the Kalinga ruler, and of the coins discovered at Ramnagar (Ancient Ahichchhatra, capital of Panchala), Bareilli district, and Kosam (Ancient Kansambi, the capital of Vatsa), Prayagraj district, U.P. (see Smith, Catalogue, pp. 146, 155 and 185). The line is carried by the Mora inscription, mentioning the daughter of Bahasatimita as the wife of the king (possibly of Mathura) and as the mother of living sons (see J.R.A.S. 1912, p.120: C.H.I., I, p. 525.
4. Erased later as redundant.
Footnote 3.

1. Identified with the Sunga successor of Vasumitra. But D.C. Sircar does not accept this identification, because, according to him, the script cannot be assigned to second century B.C.
2. Sircart —हि – त्र
But the writing is clear.
तं seems to be a mistake for नं
1. अचधिछत्राया: ‘: राझो शौनकावन -पुत्रस्य बंगपालस्य 2. पुत्रस्य राझो: तेवणी – पुत्रस्य भ्रा = bha= भागवतस्य पुत्रेण
3. वैहिदरी -पुत्रेण आषाढतेनेन कारितं
संस्कृत छाया
1. अधिछत्राया राझो शोनकाबन–पुत्रस्य वंगपालस्य
2. पुत्रस्य राझो [+] तेवणी पुत्रस्य भ्रा ( =भा) गवतस्य पुत्रेण 3. वैहिदरी-पुत्रेण अ षाढतेनेन कारितं (लवनम्)
Footnote 3.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., II, Pl. facing p. 243.
2. Sircar (Sel.Inss. i.e p.97, n: 2) finds faint traces of medial i over n and prefers to accept the name as Sanakayani, and argues that in polygamous society matronymics had to be used to indicate distinction among step-brothers. But the traces, he refers to are visible all over the unpolished surface of the rock, while the writing is inscribed in clear deep grooves, leaving no room for speculation.
3. The Prakritised form, Ahichhatra, became more popular in Sanskrit literature.
4. The above two Pabhosa inscriptions provide us the pedigree of the early kings of Ahichhatra, the capital of once a mighty kingdom in Northern Pañchala:-
▶Vangapāla (king of Adhichhatra) m. Tevani (= Traivarni, i.e. a princess of Trivarna)
▶ King Bhagwata m. Gopalika – Vaihidari (Possibly a princess of Vaihidara)

1. Ashadasena
2. Gopali
▶ Bahasatimita ( = Brihastpatimitra or Brihtavatimitra)
King of Koshumbi where many of its coins are found.
English Translation
(This cave-dwelling) was caused to be made by Ashadhasena, the son of Vaihidari and of Bhagavata, who was the son of Tevani (= Traivarni) and of Vangapala, the son of Saunakāyana and king of Adhichhatrā.
हिन्दी अनुवाद
अभिछत्रा के राजा शौनकायन-पुत्र वंगपाल व त्रेवणी के पुत्र राजा भागवत तथा वैहिदरी के पुत्र आषाढतेन ने [ बह ] गुहावास बनवाया ।


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