Pitribhaktas of Kalinga

Written by Alok Mohan on December 7, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Pitribhaktas of Kalinga.
The  Pitribhakta dynasty ruled Andhra Pradesh, Southern Odisha and Kalinga region of eastern India in the fifth century CE. Epigraphic evidence suggests that the king Umavarman, of this dynasty, defeated Mathara king Anantashaktivarman, & established his kingdom.

It is evident from the inscriptions that the administrative staff of mathara dynasity remained the same during the reign of Pitribhaktas.
 Matṛvara, a Simhapura-based royal officer held his office of desakṣapataladhikṛta under the Mathara king as well as under Pitrbhakta’s king Umavarman.
Two grants were issued from Simhapura during Umavarman’s reign. Both describe the king as the Kalingadhipati (“Lord of Kalinga”), and both mention Matṛvara as  desakṣapataladhikṛta.

Umavarman’s last known inscription was  issued in regnal year 40.
This Inscription mentions his son Vasushenaraja also else no details of this prince is available anywhere.
Most of the find spots of Umavarman’s inscriptions, and the localities mentioned in them, are all situated in present-day Ganjam and Visakhapatnam.

Inscription number 7.
Tekkali Plates of Maharaja Umavarman – Regnal Year 9.
Provenance: Find-spot not known, Raja of Tikkali found these plates, collected them, from Karnam of Tekkali, in Srikakulam district, AP.
Footnote 1.
A Kalingadhipati Umavarman issued Brihatproshtha and Dhavalapeta plates in the same century as the Umavarman
of these plates. Their identfication with each other is doubted by Vankataramayya, because their seals differ, the fomer’s seal s have four lines ending in his name in genitive case. Again kings of Mathara, Pallava,
salankayana and vishnukundin dnasties, too, are found using epithets like:-
पितृभकत:.   पितृपादानुष्यात: or बप्पभटटारकपादानुप्यात:
without using these on their seals. Venkatramayya is inclined to assign
all the rulers, who use पितृभकत: on their official seals, to one and the same famly. Such rulers in addition to
the present one are Kalingadhipati Achandavarman of the
Bobbili and Komarti plates ( Ep.Ind, XXVII, pp.39 ff and IV, pp.142 ff) respectively and (infra IV,IV, 9 and 10)
Sakalakalingadhipati Nandaprabhanjanavarman of the
chikakole plates (Ind.Ant,.XIII, 48 ff.) If Pitri-bhaktas are one family, Pitri-bhakta Uma varman with or without the epithet of Kalingadhipati must be one and the
same person. For the dynastic name and history of the family. See Sircar, Successors of the satavahanas pp-74-81.
Script:  southern Brahmi assigned on palaeographical grounds to the first half of the 5th century, AD.
by Venkataramayya.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: Raja of Tekkali, J Andhra Historical Research Society, VI, pp.53, M Venkataramayya, Ep.Ind, XXVIII,
First plate.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXVIII, facing pp.302.
2. Vardhamanapura has been identified  with modem Vadama, in the Palakonda taluk of Visakhapatnam district.
Second plate second side.
Footnote 3.
1. Astihavera has been identified with modern Atava in Srungavarapukota taluk of Visakhapatnam district.
Dr. B.Ch. Chhabra suggested that presumably asti here is an indeclinable and Havera is the name of the village.
2. The mark of punctuation is superfluous.
3. The usual phrase is –धम्र्म-क्र्कम – विक्र्कमाणामन्यतम – योगादवाप्य महीमनुशासतां प्रवृत्तकमिमं दान धम्र्ममनुषश्यदिभरेषो ग्रहारो
The wrong phraseology here is either due to the drafter himself or to the engraver, who could not correctly
read the original draft.
Footnote 4.
Tie King seems to have issued the original charter in his own hand and executed it and Kesavadeva prepared it’s copper Plate copy. Pishtapur is the
same as modern Pichapura.
Footnote 5.
1.   सम वेत सम् +अव + इ + कत   = Assembled. Presumably,
the word is used in the sense of aggregate (of the householders), i.e. in the sense of collectivity.
English Translation of the inscription
Seal: Devoted I e loyal to father.
Peace ! From the victorious (city of) Vardahaanapura,  the illustrious Maharaja Umavarman devoted to the feet of his father, commands all the house-holders assembled in the village Astihavera:-
Be it known to you that in order to increase our own religious merit, longevity and fame, (we have) granted
this village) making it an agrahara to last as long as the moon, the stars and the sun and making it a village free from collection of taxes, immunising it with all the immunities in
regard to the taxes and (other) obligations (bhara) (or freezing  it from the burden of all the taxes, to yasahsarman of Kasyapa gotra. Therefore knowing this, you should present yourself, according to the proper custom current from earller
times and offer him (due share) in kind and cash,
And I enjoin on the future kings that on attaining the empire through righteousness, inheritance or prowess, the protection in follow up of the gift, this no doubt is the dharma. Also in this  context are cited the verses sung by Vyasa:-
(Here follow three of the usual benedictory verses).
The seventh day of the dark fortnight of Magha, the year nine.
Executed by self, This charter, written by the king by his own hand, is the destroyer of sin. witten by Kesavadeva,
a resident of Pishtapura.
Seal: Devoted to parent.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.