ancient indian history

Rithapur Inscription of Prabhavatigupta

Inscription number 2.
Rithapur copper-plate Inscription of Prabhavatigupta of the time of Pravarasena 2, Regnal Year 19.
Provenance Rithapur, (Riddhapura.) Amraoti District, Maharashtra.
Script: Box-headed variety of Late Brahmi of the Southern class of the 5th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.

Rudrasena 2 (385 – 390 CE) was a ruler of the Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch of the Vakataka dynasty. His reign was very short, he notably married Prabhavatigupta, the daughter of the Gupta emperor Chandragupta 2.
Consequent to death of Rudrasena 2, It appears that the brothers Damodarasena and Pravarasena ruled one after the other.
Pravarasena has often been credited with authoring a Maharashtri Prakrit poem named Setubandha or Ravanavaho which details the exploits of Rama in Lanka against the demon-king Ravana.
At the time
of the death of their father, both were
minors, an eventuality necessitating the regency of Prabhavatigupta for at least 13 years. The Rithpur grant was issued when har younger son, Pravarasena, had completed more than 18 years rule and she had already completed a century of life. Thus she was 82 when
Pravarasena 2, ascended the throne, since the child bearing age of a woman ends before 50, Pravarasen 2,
must be over 32 at the time. Even if Rudrasena 2, died soon after the birth of Pravarasena 2, we have
to account for 32 years rule, of which Prabhavati’s regency accounts for 13 years and we have to assign the
intervening 19 years to Divakarasena’s rule. In reality, however, the gap between Rudrasena’s death and
Pravarasena’s ascent to throne may have been more than 50 years, giving Divakarasena a reign of nearly 40 years.
Hence we cannot accept the suggestion of sircar that it is not al together impossible that the brothers were ruling over different parts of the kingdom at the same time and that as the land granted fell in the kingdom
of Pravarasena, his regnal year was recorded. See also his other arguments (Sel.Inss.. I, pp.440, n.2). See also
V.V. Mirashi suggesion( “Comprehensive history of India, 1981, pp137 and n.53) that Pravarasena was the coronation name of Damodarsena.
The seal inscription of the Miregaon plates, discovered in 1982, describes Prabhavatigupta as the “mother of two kings” (i.e. Damodarasena and Pravarasena 2) and finally establishes that the two persons were indeed distinct
It is noteworthy that even in this Vakataka grant the
Gupta kings are given the higher title of Maharajdhiraja while the Vakataka kings received the lower designation Maharaj, showing that the latter functioned under a subordinate alliance with the Guptas. Extension of
Gupta hegemony to the far south is also indicated by the existence of the dynasty Guttas (= Guptas) of Guttal,
in the Dharwar Districts and the story of the connection of a daughter of chandragupta 2 with srisaila and the
Satara hoard of more than one thousand coins of Kumaragupta 1.

References: Y.R. Gupte, Journal and proceedings of A.S.B.
NS.XX,pp.58 ff. D.C.sircar Sel, Inss.,I,
Note that this record is later in date than the Chammak plates issued by Pravarasena 2 in his 18th
Regnal year. (Infra III,4)
Second plate, first side.

1. From the facsimile in J.P.A.S. B. N.S, XX.
2. Ramagiri is identified with modern Ramtek, near Nagpur The god Ramagiri swamin, at Ramtek, must have
been a form of Vishnu, the ishtadeva of Prabhavati, most probably, Rama, to whom the place continues to be
sacred even today.
Second plate second side.

जीवत्सुता and जीवत्सुपुत्रा
1. Gupta: दिव and पोत्रा
V.V. Mirashi, (Notes on D.R Bhandarkar’s Inscriptions of the Early Gupta kings,
pp-48-49.) explains साग्र – वर्ष – शत – जीव – पौत्रा
as “she whose sons and grandsons will live for more than a hundred years. ” It does not appear plausible. Why only for more than 100 yrs, why not
thousands of years. The adjectives, जीवसुता and जीवपुत्रा (= जीवत्सुता and जीवत्सुपुत्रा ) occur elsewhere in inscriptions in the sense of “she whose, sons ara alive” see also Ep.Ind., VIII, pp.73, Ep.Ind, XXIX pp.139 and XXXIV, pp.241.
2. Identified with Asatnagar in the Elichpur District, Maharashtra. It was situated along the road leading
to or named after Kasika.
Sircar reads: Kausikamarga,
and suggests that it is the name of a region, and does not mean a road here.
3. बृ was originally engraved instead of
4. Read स -पुत्र -पौत्राणाम्
5 i.e. a house (nivesana) complete with inner ladies appartment. अभ्यन्तपुर = अन्तपुर

Third Plate second side
1. The field that they already enjoy.
2. Same as
forced labour
For other immunities, see notes on Pune PIates of Prabhavatigupta above (Supra,III, I, ll17-18, notes)

English Translation of the inscription
L.1: Om ! Victory to the Lord (Vishnu)
From near the feet of the Divine Lord of Ramagiri.
L1,-13: There was Maharaja Sri Ghatotkacha, the first king
among the Guptas. Hs son was the Maharaja Sri
Chandragupta His son, accepted at his feet by him, wes Maharaja sri Samaudragupta, who was the
daughter’s son of the Lichchhavis, begotten on the chief Queen, Kumaradevi. His son, accepted at his
feet, was Maharajadhiraja Sri chandragupta, who was
the giver of many thousands of crores of cows and gold acquired by lawful means who was the exterminator
of all kings, who was the matchless warrior on the earth, who was a devout worshipper of the divine Vishnu (and) who was begotten on the Chief Queen
Dattadevi. His daughter, the chief queen Prabhavati- gupta, who is of Dharana gotra, who was begotten on
Kuberanagadevi born in the Naga Family, who is an ornament to both the dynasties who has been leading
queen of Rudrasena 2, of the Vakataka family, who is the mother of Maharaja sri Damodarasena and Pravarasena 2; who is devoted to the feet of the
(Divine) Bhagavat, who is above a hundred years (in age) and has living sons and grandson s,– after
mentioning her well-being, commands the villagers led by the Brahmanas and the village Mahattaras in
Asvatthanagara located on the road to Kasika.
16: For the purpo se of increasing our religious merit for this world and the next, We have bound down
(i.e, granted) by (this) copper plate charter, with libation of water, the field that was already being enjoyed by him, and four homesteads for cultivators, together with a house with ladies inner
apartments to the Brahmanas of Parasara gotra and of Taittiriya sakha (of the Yajurveda), along with
their sons and grandsons also.
L1.16-21 And we grant for this (gifted field) appropriate exemptions and restrictions assigned to the villages
of the community of chaturvedins as were approved by former kings. These are (as follows): free from
taxes Out of bounds for regular and irregular soldiers, free from the obligation of supplying flowers and milk
Free from the obligation of supplying fodder (chara) seats, hides and charcoal (to passing troops), free
from) obligation to supply salt, moist and purchasable commodities and mineral s exempt from all types of
forced labour with the right to hidden treasures and deposits together the right to fixed and other miscellaneous taxes to be enjoyed for as long as the
moon and the sun endure and inheritable by sons and grandsons.
L1. 21-24: Obstruction ( during the enjoyment of field) should
not be caused by anyone (rather) it should be protected and increased. And he, who, ignoring our
charter, puts even a small obstruction, or causes one
to be put him, on being reported by the Brahmanas, we shall arrest and punish
L1.24-29. In this honouring of religious persons, we are not mentioning the gifts, care and nursing by many past kings, to avoid repetition of meritorious
deeds. We are commanding present people, who have been made to submit by persistent determination and
valour. And in this context a verse sung by Vyasa is the authority.
(Here an imprecatory verse is quoted)
L1.29-31 In the nineteenth year of the reign of Maharaja Sri Pravarasena 2, of the Vakatakas family on the
twelfth day of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of Karttika.
L.31: The Dutaka is Devanandasvamin, written by Prabhusimha.

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