ancient indian history


Inscription number 63.
Senakapat Inscription of the time of Sivagupta Balarjuna.
Provenance: Senakapat viilage in the forested right bank of the Mahanadi, about 3 km south of Sirpur, ancient Sripura, the capital of Dakshina Kosala.
Raipur district. Madhya Pradesh.
The inscribed stone is now in Sagar University museun.
Script: Late Northern Brahmi of about the 8th centuries A.D.
The script of the record represents a very late phase of Brahmi, and may even have to be placed later than
the 8th century, some characters have almost reached Devanagari form. If Sivagupta, on other evidence, is
to be placed in the transition period of 6th & 7th centuries, we will have to revise our palaeographical
Dikshit and Sircar, however, assign
Sivagupta Balarjuna to the first half of the 7th century AD. and the characters of the record to 7th or 8th Century AD. Ep.Ind. XXXI, pp, 31 and 32 see also
Sircar, Classical Age, pp.222)
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres: Vv.1, 3-4, 6, 9-11, 13, 19, 24, 29 वसन्ततिलका,
V.2 स्रग्धरा
Vv.5, 8, 12, शार्दूलविक्रीडित
v.7, 18, 21, 27-28, 30 आर्या, V.14 मालिनी.
Vv.15-17, 20, 22-23, 25-26 अनुष्टुब
References: M.G. Dikshit and D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp.31-36.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXXI, facing pp. 34.
2. Expressed by a symbol. The spiral is not fully formed.
3. The vocative form, शृडिन्गन् was required here. With this form the reading should be शृडिन्गन्निति
which, however, will violate the metre.
1. The emendations in parentheses are required to make the sentence grammatically correct.
2. नव्यासी is possibly a Prakritisation of sanskrit नवाशिति (Hindi .नवासी ) eight nine.
Enjoyment of eighty nine vishayas or districts, would justify the claim to garima or greatness. नव्यासी can also be the name of a vishaya.
Footnote 3.

1. It is to be noted that Nanna-raja was the great-grandfather of Sivagupta Balarjuna. Three rulers, namely (1) Tivar and (2) chandragupta, both sons of Nannaraja, and (3) Harsha-gupta,father of Sivagupta, flourished in between the
reigns of Nannaraja and his great-grandson. The latest
known date of Tivara, is his ninth regnal year (Ep.Ind., VII, pp.104 f. ). As a result of the discovery of a grant of Tivara’s son, Nannaraja 2, (ibid., XXI, pp.34, n.2), we have to insert another reign after him. It appears, Devarakshita served this second Nannaraja.
2. The Varada is identical with the modern Vardha river, a
tributary of the Godavari. The present inscription confirms the fact that the dominions of Nannaraja extended as far west as the river Vardha, which rises in and flows through Maharashtra and joins the Godavari on the boundary-line
with Andhra Pradesh. This fact was earlier known from the Bhandak inscription of Bhavadeva (also called
Ranakesarin and Chintadurga) a younger brother of Nannaraja.
Bhandak is in chanda district. The inscription credits Nannaraja with having ‘conquered the earth’. (see JBBRAS, I, pp.151; Arch.S. Rep.,IX, pp.127; and classical age. pp.221)
Mirahis suggestion that the Bhandak inscription was brought there from Arang, neac Sirpur (Ep.Ind. XIII,
pp.116-17, XXVI, pp. 227) is not supported by any evidence.
The meaning of Kashapia is doubtful. But with a luner fortnight (Paksha) the intended meaning appears to be
“the moon”
Footnote 3.
1. विलब्धि seems to have been used in the sense of विलंभ Liberality, ‘generosity.
2. Samya is used in the sense of a flagstaff, which was made of the long stem of a sami tree.

1. द्विहली is a measure of land which could be cultivated by two ploughs or halas. The village Gudasarkaraka
seems to be represented by one of the several villages, in the neighbourhood, all named Sankra, the nearest of
these is situated about 20 km. west of senakapat, the findspot of this inscription.
2. Amardaka is the name of Kala-Bhairava, a form of siva.
Amardaka hermitage must have been located around some Siva temple A sect of Saiva ascetics, associated
with the same locality is known from Haddala (Saurashtra) plates of Saka 836 (Ind.Ant, XI, pp.190.) The same
place is apparently mentioned as Amardaka- tirtha in the
Rajorgarh (Alwar Rajasthan) inscription
(Ep.Ind. III, pp. 266). Another record from Gwalior of (ibid, I, pp.352) refers to an ascetic named Amardaka- tirthanatha. But place remains unidentified.

Footnote 5.

1. There is a pun on the word, दोषोदये while
construing with the sun, it means,on nightfall दोष + उदये and while construing with
Sadasivacharya, it means, on the rise of evil.दोष + उदये
2. Kodasima may be the same as the modern village Korasi, situated about 25 km west of senaka. pät and about 4 km. South-west of the nearest of the villages named Sankra.
3. Viyanaka and Sriparnika and the Lata country referred to here cannot be identified, lata elsewhere signifies Gujarat region.
Footnote 6.
1. Tala-pataka is possibly the land attached to a temple for its maintenance at the time of its consecration.
It seems to be the same as tala-vataka of some records (see Ep.Ind., XX, pp.83 C.I.I., III, pp. 216-17; Select.Inss. I, pp. 343-44) and tala-vritti of Kannada
inscriptions (S.I.I., XI, pt.1, No.116,I,29).
The meaning of the word churumva in v.25, above is uncertain. It is possible that the garta or pit was called churuvamayi.
English Translation of the inscription.

Om Obeisance to Siva.
V.1. May Bhava (God Siva) who shines splendid while engaged in the incomparable sport of beating time
during (tandava) dance with volleys of mountains shooting up, like balls, with momentum generated by fierce hits from the cluster of (his) hands that are
excessively heavy with the great force of tossing up; be the breaker of the (cycle of) your births.
V.2. May you be saved by Parvati, who pacified the enemy by shouts of, O Sambhu! O Siva.!
Aren’ t you ashamed that
you are abandoning me, drowning (lit.lying) in the sea of battle, because you are rendered indifferent by anger at
cupid having again been sent to the following birth, although completely burnt down here by the rolling
flames of fire from your eye.*
VV.3-4. There was a king named Sivagupta, who was a full moon in the clear firmament of the luner dynasty,
whose boisterous laughter was manifest in his fame, which is as bright as moon lights, who deeply meditates
on Siva with thoughts loaded with strong acquired faith, whose exalted title of Balarjuna was thoroughly proclaimed and the great pride of vishnu (in his battle-discus) melted away along with Lakshmi,
when the circle of his (Sivagupta’s) lofty heroes, themselves brought to submission by his prowess, destroyed the army of his enemies with the blows of their battle-discs (chakras.
V.5. A leading Brahmana, a king enjoying a high status as the Lord of eighty nine districts, named Sri-Sivarakshita was the veritable sun, who lighted up the surface of the earth who had a wonderfully strong
passion for illuminating Lakshmi
( Padma (पदमा) the goddess of wealth) (as the sun did the padmas or lotuses) who was ever free from doshas or evils
(as the sun is from dosha i.e, night); (and) whose figure remained busy (like the sun) in doing all manner of good to others.

VV.6-7. From him, (i.e Sivarakshita) was born an ornament of the terrestrial sphere renowned on the earth, as
the illustrious Devarakahita who enjoyed the trust of the king, famed as Sri Nannaraja, and was like the
latter’s very heart, who having obtained the Governorship of the Vindhyas, as far as the bank of the Varada, earned renown as the store-house of fame.
V.8. And he did not suffer even a slight change for the worse on receiving (many) districts, by way of
promotions resulting from abundant favours from the same excellent king-of-kings, who was famous
by the illustrious name, Nannaraja and whose fame was as bright as the moon. Petty People, no doubt,
falter on rising to afluence, not those made of great magnanimity and fortitude.
VV.9-13. He, who was seen by the entire world as shining
with a row of jewels, in the form of praiseworthy qualities, had an excellent son, having greater lustre of spotless character and wealth, with the
famous name, Sri Durgarakshita, who although, a bee, on the beautiful lotus-like feet of the virtuous
supreme ruler named Balarjuna, moves with auspiciously named handsome and noble white (I.e. spotless) partisans discarding dark (i.e. evil) partisans, even as the moon moves in the bright fortnight, forsaking
the dark one who, the worthy one, having paid obeisance with devotion in the temple (vesmani) of Siva, does not seek with his eyes his highest, i.e,
subtle form, but sees with contemplative and firmly steady eyes. The three worlds as pervading with
Siva, who the blessed one, ought a great increase of dharma by bestowing to the supplicants large amounts of wealth, out off compassion, generosity and with growing pleasure; (and) who filled the earth by his own numerous highly steady and repeatedly eulogised
virtues, which have spread (i.e. sprouted) all over, although not thrown out (like seeds)
VV.13-14. By him, bearing thoughts heavily loaded and over flowing with a flood of deep devotion, was
constructed, in his own image, containing a matchless and charming idol of Mahesvara, this Siva temple,
whose row of banners, decorated with flagstaffs of sami wood, swung by gusts of winds flutters restlessly,
as if to loudlY proclaim, “O Kings, everything (in this world)is unsteady like us. Auspicious work alone,
which destroys evil is stable. Do that.
V.15. Two hala measures of black-soil land in the village of Gudasarkaraka, are granted in favour of Siva through
a charter.
V.16. There was the best of hermits, illustrious Sadyahsiva-charya hailing from the hermitage known as glorious
V.17-18. The celebrated grand pupil of his (Sadyah-sivacharya’ s). brother, (and) an ornament of saintly
recluses, is Sri-Sadasivacharya, who the venerable one, having cast off heat (i.e. sufferings) shines brightly on this earth like another sun completely dispelling
the darkness of ignorance, even at the nightfall of rising evil.
V.19.To him (i.e. to Sadasivacharya) this temple was respectfully handed over by that well-known illustrious
Durgarakshita, to be enjoyed and nursed for as long as the moon lasts by the succession of his desciples
and grand-desciples etc.
VV.20-21 Two double-hala (i.e. four hala) measures of black-soil land in the village named Kodasima have also been executed in his favour by a (copper-plate) charter. Two hala measure of land in the village named
Viyana and two halas of black-soil land in the village Sriparnika in the Lata region, have also been assigned
to him by the due process of (copper-plate) charter.
VV, 22-24. (The terms of the grant are) Every year on the full-moon day of the months of Ashadha, Karttika and
Magha, the ascetics (incharge of the temple) should assiduously arrange here a sacrificial ceremony, as
also a session of initiation (diksha) into what leads to emancipation (i.e saiva faith), of exposition of Saiva doctrine (samaya) and of (free) service of
food. Ascetlcs who are proficient in teaching the doctrines of Saivism, who are proficient in (other) auspicious lores, who are enlightened with the
glow of tranquility, and who have a pleasant appearance with minds saturated with deep compassion
should live here.
VV.25-26. The temple land extends, to Churumvamayi pit, located in the northern direction, to siva-samudra
located in the southern direction. It is bounded by the two roads running on its eastern and western flanks. This boundary has been fixed for the same.
V.27. Realising that life is as fickle as the winds and mental peace is wealth, these people, should protect
such meritorious work done by others, (as) it eliminates misfortune.
V.28. May this temple of Siva (Bhava-bhavanam) endure as long as
the world does not sink in deluge (i.e. does not suffer dissolution) on being flooded with sea-water roaring
under the action of stormy winds.
V.29. Sri Tarađatta’s son, Sri Sumangala, famous for his
wealth of learning, composed this eulogy in a mental state overflowing with an instantly rising flood of
joy at the sight of the virtues of Sri Durgarakshita.
V.30. This eulogy, was engraved by Vasugana, who possesses
many virtues and a high status, (and) who is the son of the architect, named Rishigana, expert in all types of
construction work.

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