Terasingha Grant of Tushtikara

Written by Alok Mohan on January 10, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Most of  Bhaumakara inscriptions are dated in samvat years & this era began from year 736 CE, and marks the beginning of the Bhauma-Kara, However, some historians suggest beginning of Bhaumakara era to 831 CE. Earlier Bhauma-Kara kings ruled the northern Toshali area. They probably ruled most of the coastal region of Odisha. The Bhauma-Kara family suffered from internal strifes starting around CE. 880, which gradually led to its downfall & subsequently the Bhauma-Kara throne was divided into very small kingdoms. The Bhauma-Kara kings were tolerant towards Buddhism as well as Shaivism. Ancient sites in Kalahandi district like, Budhigarh, Urlukupagarh, Terasingha, Jamugudapadar or  Jamgudapadarand Chandrsagarnala (Medinipur) brought to light stone–metal  age characteristics, usage of stone tools and limited application of copper were a few hallmark of this phase of the evolution of civilisation and culture.  Artistic achievement of the stone-metal age people of Kalahandi is, therefore  unique. The neck portion of a vessel found from this site along with, a red ware, black paintings & discovery of, spiral design copper hair pins recovered from Budhigarh  shows similarity with Indus valley culture. Most of the inscriptions found from Kalahandi are in  Sanskrit language.  The history of Kalinga region underwent great change about the middle of the fourth  century AD. after the South India campaign of Samudragupta. The political situation of the  period contributed to the rise of a new ruling dynasty named Mathara. In ancient time the  Mathara family as well as bhamikaras, had enjoyed very  high political and social status.  Ancient  Terasingha settlement is located on a piece of land close to the right bank of the river Tel. This site has already revealed four sets of copper plates. An early historic settlement has been spotted near the village Talbhamra, a sector of  Rajpadar–Belkhandi. The revenue land called Pandkipadia has revealed  early historic antiquities.

40. Terasingha Grant of Tushtikara.

Provenance: Village Terasingha (also called Tersinga), on the southem bank of the river Tel, Kalahandi district, Orissa.

Script: Kalinga variety of the southern class of Brahmi of the first half of the 6th century A.D.

Language: Sanskrit.

Footnote 1.

1. Tushtikara and sobhonna or Sobhinna, who figures in the endorsement on the outer side of the first plate, are not known from any other source. Their dominions were so small that no specifications of the district was needed regarding the location of the donated land. It apparently comprised Trarabhramaraka and Parvatadvaraka in the present Kalahandi region of Orissa.

2. The main, (original) charter begins with svasti Tarabhramarakat on the inner side of the first plate and was issued by Maharaja Tushtikara. It ends/pramukham on the inner side of Third Plate. The language of the main charter is fairly accurate. A later endorsement, first begun on the outer side of third plate, then beaten out and engraved in entirety on the outer side of the first, was made by Kasthubhasayya (= Kaustubhesvari ) the mother of Sobhonna-raja and was issued from Parvata-dvaraka. Earlier type of lettering, defective language and recording it before the main document, as if it was written earlier, suggest that it is a forgery.


Satyanarayana Rajaguru, Journal of the Kalinga. Historical Research society, II, Nos. 2-3, 1947, pp.107 ff, and Plates; D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind,, XXX, pp.274-78.

Footnote 2.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXX, between pp.276 and 277.

2. The names of both the mother and son are carelessly engraved.

3. भोगक क्षेत्र = भोग क्षेत्र  Possibly the piece of land in

question was being an enjoyed by the persons named Daya, Jvara and Ulaka.

4. The head of the first danda is turned into a loop, as found in other records also. The double danda is

followed by the representation of a conch-shell.

Footnote 3.

1. May be identical with the present village of Tala-Bhamara, three km. south of Belkhandi-Rajapadar, on the

bank of, the Utei, a tributory of the Tel river.

2. The aborigines of Orissa worship wooden pillars posted at the corner of their villages. This aboriginal deity was gradually adopted by the orthodox Hindus and was named as stambhesvari (now called Khambesvari). A few temples are now dedicated to her in orissa (see Mazumdar, “Orissa in the Making”, pp.107)

3. Two Small horizontal strokes represent the punctuation mark.

4. This sentence should have been engraved before api chatra in the previous sentence.


Footnote 4.

1. This half verse is engraved here by mistake. It is repeated in 11.11-12 as part of the full verse

यस्य and तस्य both should occur only twice.

2. Two visarga-like dots after फलं

are presumably meant

to be a double danda punctuation mark.

Footnote 5.

1. This type of a double set of punctuation marks is engraved here.

2. The entire line was first engraved here and was beaten out and the complete endorsement carried to the outer first side of the first plate.

English Translation of the inscription.

Hail from Parvatadvaraka, the farm enjoyed by Daya, Jvara, Ulaka and others has been granted, to last as long as the moon and the son, to the Brahmana Dronasvamin of Kasyapa gotra by Kaustubhesvari the mother of the illustrious Sobhonna-raja who is a devotee of the feet of stambhesvari.

Main charter:

Hail From Tarabhramaraka, the illustrious Maharaja Tushtikara, a devotee of the feet of Stambhesvari and contemplating on the feet of his mother and father, commands all the assembled cultivators, resident in Prastaravataka:- We have granted this vataka making it an agrahara to last as long as the moon, the stars and the sun do to venerable Dronasarman of Kasyapa gotra for the increase of our religious

merit, longevity, strength and fame. Therefore, knowing thus, You should attend upon him according to the proper previously established custom. And there are also verses sung by Vyasa, (which) he commends to the future kings:-

Here follow six customary verses, of which the fifth and the sixth being new, are tran slated as under)-

5. A king who grants land becomes a supreme ruler, as also the one who performs Agnistoma and many other sacrifices accompanied with ample gifts to Brahmanas.

6. The Adityas, the vasus, the Rudras led by the fire-god and also Lord Siva applaud the giver of land.

Intimated to the confidential secretary Subhandhu.

Written by Sadgamaka.

The farmland is follow and mainly Rocky.

Seal: the illustrious Tushtikara.



Literally, an enclosure or a garden or a plantation. But here, it seems to have been used as an abbreviation of Prastaravataka or Prastara hamlet.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.