ancient

Vasishthiputra Pulumavi

Inscription number 166.

Nasik Cave inscription of Vasishthiputra Pulumavi –
Regnal year-22 ( = c 152 A.D)
Provenance: Nasik. Nasik district, Maharastra, on the back
wall of the veranda in Cave number – 3, above the entrance in Continuation of the one of Year-19.
Script: Brahmi.
Language: Prakrit.
References 1 Bhagwan lal Indra ji, Mumbai Gazette- XVI, pp-554.
Number-3, Buhler Archeological survey of western India, IV, pp.110, Number -19, Senart Ep.Ind, VIII, pp.65 ff,.
Number-.3; Luders list No. 1124 (for other references). Sircar Sel.Inss, I, pp207-9.

Vasishthiputra Pulumayi was the son of Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni. He expanded the Satavahana Empire’s borders. His coins can be found throughout south India.
Some of the lead coins of Pulumavi depict two-masted Indian ships, a testimony to the seafaring and trading capabilities of the Satavahanas during the 1st-2nd century CE. During his rule, his mother Gautami Balasri, laid an inscription at Nashik.. Pulumavi was succeeded by his younger brother vashishthiputra Satkarni.
This Inscription may be identified with vasishthniputra Satakarni,
who succeeded as elder bother, of sri Pulumavi.
Vashishtiputra Satakarni had to fight several battles with western Kshatrapas, in the west. But eventually he married the daughter of Rudraman 1, of the Western Kshatrapas dynasty, in order to forge an alliance. An inscription found in a cave at Kanheri provides necessary evidence of the marriage between Rudradaman’s daughter and Vashishtiputra Satakarni.
She descende from the race of Karddamaka kings. Satkarni was later on defeated by his father-in-law, Rudradaman, in a battle. This defeat caused serious effect on Satavahana’s power and prestige.

Footnote 1
1. From the Facsimile in Ep.Ind. VIII, Pl.II.3. The Inscription is not well preserved. The readings are also doubtful and controversial as are its translations.
2. This line is a continuation of line-11, of his Preceding grant of the year 19, with only a swastika and another
symbol to separate them.
3. Navanagara; cf. Kusinara= Kusinegara. It may have been
a new clty, in the suburbs of the old capital, Pratisthana. The engraver seems to have inadvertently, missed the letter ग between न and र,
in his 22nd year Vasishthiputra,
was certainly not a new ruler of men”.

4. Senart: य Dhanyakata was the old name of Amaravati.
5. Senart: सधरणे After this Sircar reads दत but there is neither any trace of nor space for this word. Nor does the context require it.

Footnote 2

1. Others read -वासेहि
Note that here Prakrit termination
represents Sanskrit भ्य
similar dative suffix. Similar dative case ending, appearing like instrumental
ending, occurs in the Barabar Hill Cave Inscriptions of Dasaratha
2. Buhler translates; repairs, and Senart ‘care’, cf. Pali पटिसंथारा
3. Upper Portion of these letters is lost.
4. Buhler पटिखय ‘to be administered’ ( =पटिखेयं)
from क्षि to govern or पटिखाय from प्रति इक्ष Senart:प्रतिगृहय or प्रतिगृहयं
.’to be owned’. These interpretations suit भदायनेहि in 3rd case
ending.

5. हल means land that can be ploughed by one plaughman, and secondarily, ploughable rent-free land dedicated to
monks, gods etc. Here भीक्षुहल means the property of the monks.
The word also occurs in a Karle Cave Inscription.
CF also देवहल and देवभोगहल in later inscription. Successors of the Satavahanas, (pp.94-95)
Footnote 3
1 The sentence was left in the middle of 1.3 and brought to the next 1., ie. 4, while the rest of the line 3, carries
forward the matter begun in l.4. Others read सुदि सनान
The Plural member in-that case
may refer to the fact that the village had divisions like East and West Sudisana.

2. Senart suggests : निबधापेहि सुदिसने गामस च सुदसनानं विनि
3. Some read or छतो बिनिकटवासकहि or छतोपटिका वासकेहि
Sircar Sel.Inss I, pp 208, n.7., suggests the reading, –
But there is not enough space for so many letters.
4. Some read हथछता or हथिछता
Sircar ibid, n8, suggests उपरखितो
5. The number 7 is repeated
6. Some read फासुकायं
According to Senart “Phasu from
which the abstract Phasuka is derived, means, in Buddhist parlance
health’ and hence well-being’
7. Buhler amends भग (व ) तस पति
Footnote 4
Sircar. Sel.Inss I, pp.209, n.1, suggests that Sudisana appears to have been granted to the Sramanas of Dhanyakata during the temporary absence of the Bhadrayanyas, but the
transfer was not recorded in a fomal charter. The difficulty was felt only, when Bhdrayaniyas returned.
Some take ओयपपेहि निबधापेहि and परिहरेपेहि etc. as first person singular aorist of causatives with
the Prakrit suffix आपयामि eg परिहारापयामि = परिहारयामि

Footnote 4

1. Sircar पटिटका – चालकै ( = पुत्तपाल – राज पुरू वै : ) उपलक्षित:
(परी क्षित यद्धा ला न्छित:
i.e. examined or marked). But the
reading definitely is तछकेहि & not पालकेहि , and the word as certainly is विहितो not उपलिखितो
But tie
2. Senart सम्प्राप्ति – प्रताप
The latter translates the passage: with a view for the well-being of the inhabitants of Govardhana, Vishnupala proclaims the praise of the Lord: Obeisance to the being
exalted in perfection and majesty the excellent Jina, the Buddha, A number of Kadamba charters end in similar
adorations. See D. C. Sircar “Successors of the Satavahanas,
Calcutta, 1939.
English Translation of the inscription
Success ! The lord of (i.e ruling at Nava- Nagara (New city) Sri Pulumavi, son of Vasishthi, commands siva-skandila, the officer at Govardhana that the village of
Sudarsana, here in the Govardhana district (आहार) on the Southern road, which by us in the year 19, in the 2nd
fortnight of the summer season, on the 13th day. was given as a gift in perpetual endowment to the, Dhanyakata monks, i.e the mendicants of the order of the Bhadrayaniyas living
in the queen cave, for the purpose of expansion of the cave dwelling – bridge of piety (to heavan) for the mendicants,
living here on the mount Trirasmi; in exchange of this gift, village Sudarsana, we grant the village salmalipadra here on the eastern road in the district of Govardhana. So get this village, salmalipadra meant as a perpetual endowment for the expansion of the cave dwelling – the bridge of piety–
transferred as a gift to tne monks of the order of the Bhadrayaniyas.
Living in the cave- dwelling by (an authentication from) our
maternal grandfather Auda. And of this village salmalipadra,
We confer the immunities associated with monk’s lands. namely,
with entry, interference, salt-digging, and enforcement of penal
laws (of royal officials) forbidden.( in short we confer) all kinds of immunities.
With all these immunities, you must invest it and have the immunization of the village Salmalipadra registered and also that of the village Sudarsana.
Ordered by the registrar’s of Sudarsana.
Caused to be written by the
Reei st ans of SudarBana. Caused to be dtten by the MahaSenapati Maithuna.
written by——
The (copper) plate is done (i.e engraved) by engravers (named)
The copper plate as delivered in the year 22, on the 7th day of the 5th fortnight of summer.
Done (i.e. donation given)
by Satakarni for the wellbeing of the residents (mendicants)
of Govardhana. Vishnupala carried the royal order. Salutation
to the Baddha the excellent jina exalted in excellence and majesty.
Inscription number 167. Karle Cave Inscription of Vasishthiputra Pulumavi-
Regnal Year 24 (C. A.D. 154)
Provenance: Karle, Pune district. Maharashtra. North of the
Chaitya cave in the wall of the second cell.
(from the south of a vihara, right of entrance top.
Script: Brahmi.
Language: Prakrit influenced by Sanskrit-
Refrences: Burgess and indraji “Inscriptions in the Cave- Temples
in Western India”, pp-36 f, Number 26, Buhler – “Archeological survey of western India”. 1V, pp.113, Senart Ep.Ind.. VII, pp.71, Number. 20, Luders list Number 1106, (for other
references) Sircar Select Inss,-I, pp-210-11.
Footnote 1
1. From the facsimile in Ep.ind., VII,
P1.III.20. Note the looped and developed medial 3 also words like
Haraparna was probably on a pilgrimage from the north.
2. Nine-celled hall. The hall (मंडप) is flanked by nine cells
3. Some read परिगहे
4. Some read एकतिसे
5. Some read मातरखिय
6. Some read पाटो or पाठो
Footnote 2
Sovasaka of the text has been taken to mean Sauvarshaka
another name of the Kasyapiya branch of the Sthaviravadins
(I-H.Q, XXIV, pp.256) But sircar, op.Cit- pp.210, n.6. disagrees, since Haraparna was a lay buddhist and not
a monk of the Sauvarshaka order.

English Translation of the inscription
Success ! On the second 2nd day of the third – 3rd fortnight of winter in the year twenty-four 24 of king
Sri Pulumavi, son of vasishthi, this pious gift of the lay worshipper Haraparna, son of Svetaparna a perfumer residing (the city of) Amburama, a nine-celled hall, has been given for the benefit of the Samgha of all directions as a property of the
Mahasamghikas in honour of his parents and for securing the
welfare and happiness of all beings in tne twenty first year. It had been completed jointly by me (i.e Haraparna), also Budharakshita and his mother Upasika.
The pious gift of the mother of Budharakshita is another temple (or
Pedestal for an image)

Inscription number Inscription number 168.
Silver coin of Vasishthiputra Satakarni, (c.159-166 AD.)
Script: middle Brahmi of Southern class.
Language: Prakrit.
Footnote 1
1. Vasishthiputra Satakarni, also called vasishthiputra
Siva Sri Satakarni, on some coins, Succeeded his brother,
Vasishthiputra Pulumavi. (c.130-59 A.D.) to the Satavahana empire,
with capital at Pratishtnana (mod. Paithan in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra) Silver coinage of the
Satavahanas was imitated from that of the Saka Kshatrapas of western India and was meant for circulation in the areas wrested from the Sakas, namely the Nasik, Pune region and
the Konkan. Formerly only Yajna-Satakarni ‘s coins of
this type were known. (cf. Rapson, BM catalogue, pp. xci, 45).

References D. C. Sircar, Ep.Ind- XXXV, pp.247 ff, A.S. Altekar ibid, pp.13 ff,
Obverse
Bast of king to r with frizzled halr tied with a ribbon (diadem) crest Jewel (offering a side view and looking like a flower to front.
above the forehead. Prakrít : Legend to right of head to left of head
Reverse: Ujjayini symbol surmounted by a crescent to the
left end six-peaked hill surounted by a crescent to right wavy line below and rayed sun between the
two crescents above: Continuous circular legend
(in Dravidianised Prakrit and modified Middle Brahmi) around, starting from and ending at XII.
Footnote 2
The Palaeography and language of the coin legends exhibit
considerable Dravidian influence.
Tamil, arasan (king) Ancient tamil
makan (mod makan) (=son); Tamil Skt. : Note the
change of
and of also to
Forms of . , are different from those in the
ordinary Middle Brahmi of the South.

Inscription number 169
Silver coin of Vasishthiputra Satakarni (c. 159-166 A D.).

References: D.C. Sircar Ep.Ind. XXXV, pp-447 ff. and Select Inss pp.520,. of. Dinkar Rao JNSI,, XXI, pp-9, ff, A.S. Altekar ibid.. pp.13ff. .
First side: Bust of king to right- frizzled, hair tied with a ribbon (diademd) crest jewel (offering a side
view and looking like a flower to front) above the forehead legend in two parts above the back of the head and to the front of the bust. The right part beginning from XII and ending at IV,
वासिष्टीपुतस
=Skt राझ: वासिष्टीपुत्रस्य
and the left part beginning at VIII and ending at XII.सिरि – सात कणिस (skt श्री शातकर्णे )
In the normal Prakrit language and the middle Brahmi script of the Southern class.

Second side: Ujjayini symbol surmounted by a crescent to 1
and six peaked hill surmounted by a crescent to right.
wavy line below and rayed sun between the two crescents above. continuous circular legend in Dravidianised Prakrit and modified Middle Brahmi.

Inscription number 169
Silver coin of Vasishthiputra Satakarni (c. 159-166 A D.).

References: D.C. Sircar Ep.Ind. XXXV, pp-447 ff. and Select Inss pp.520,. of. Dinkar Rao JNSI,, XXI, pp-9, ff, A.S. Altekar ibid.. pp.13ff. .
First side: Bust of king to right- frizzled, hair tied with a ribbon (diademd) crest jewel (offering a side
view and looking like a flower to front) above the forehead legend in two parts above the back of the head and to the front of the bust. The right part beginning from XII and ending at IV,
वासिष्टीपुतस
=Skt राझ: वासिष्टीपुत्रस्य
and the left part beginning at VIII and ending at XII.सिरि – सात कणिस (skt श्री शातकर्णे )
In the normal Prakrit language and the middle Brahmi script of the Southern class.

Second side: Ujjayini symbol surmounted by a crescent to 1
and six peaked hill surmounted by a crescent to right.
wavy line below and rayed sun between the two crescents above. continuous circular legend in Dravidianised Prakrit and modified Middle Brahmi around starting from the ending at XII.

 

 

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