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Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.

Soro Plate of Somadatta

Written by Alok Mohan on December 3, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Maharajdhiraja Shashanka, gave administrative authority of Dandabhuktimandala to his feudatory
Maharaja Somadatta. Dandabhukti was an ancient region located between two rivers, Dwarakeswar and Subarnarekha. It was situated within the Rarh region, which was part of the Gupta’s kingdom.
There is a mention of this region in the Ramcharita of Sandhyakar Nandi, and its ruler Jayasimha was described as a feudatory of Ramapala, the Pala ruler.
Danda in Oriya means path. There was an ancient path originating from Rarh or Magadha to Kalinga. The voyage of
Rajendra Chola to Dandabhukti through Orissa reveals the presence of interstate roads connecting the Bastar area of Madhya Pradesh with Orissa and Bengal. His army had marched through Chitrakuta and passed through Binika, Sonepur in Bolangir district and following the road through eastern Keonjhar and Western Mayurbhanj, reached Dandabhukti. The territory may have acquired its name from the word path. Dandabhukti served as a connecting point between Odisha and Bengal.
Inscription number 3.
Soro Plate of Somadatta—(Regnal) year 15.
The village Bahirvataka , was granted through this copper plate charter by Sanchataka, the chief General of Maharaja Somadatta, to Dhruvamitrasvamin and Arangasvanmin of vatsya gotra
and vajasaneya charana (of the Yajurveda)
Provenance: Badkhuri, near soro, Balasore district, Orissa.
Script: A form of Northern Brahmi of 6th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: N.G. Majumdar, Ep.Ind. XXIII, pp.202-3.
First Side.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind XXIII, facing pp202.
2. Expressed by a symbol.
Footnote 2.
1. Presumably identical with the present day Barua. Which appears as Barwa, A Mahal under Bhadrak the Ain-i-Akbari. (See J.P.A.S.B, 1916, pp 44.)
2. Mahasamanta Maharaja, is obviously used here as a single designation. Had maharaja been intended as a seperate and independent title, being a senior title, it should have preceded Mahasamanta.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om ! Hail! From Sanchataka, the chief General;
Confidential Advisor, and senior Minister for Peace and war,
Somadatta, who meditates on the feet of the supreme Divinity
the illustrious sovereign (Paramabhattaraka-pada) being in
good health, offers due respect to the present and future
Mahasamanta-Maharajas, Rajaputras, Kumaramatyas, Uparikas, Vishayapatis, their Ayuktakas, Dandavasikas, Sthanantarikas and
others, (such, as) the Chatas, Bhatas, the officials of the
vallabha class and the Board of administration consisting of
the chief Mahattara of the Vishya, the Kutakolasa, the Record-
keeper and others in the varukana vishaya to which sarepha ahara
is attached, and informs them:-
Be it known to you, the Bahirvataka village, attached to this (Varukana) vishaya, since long being devoid of fallow land, has been granted with Customary terms of copper charters,
for the increase of religious merit of the supreme Divinity, the illustrious sovereign, for as long as the moon and the sun last to Dhruvamitrasvamin and Arangasvanmin of vatsya gotra
and vajasaneya charana (of the Yajurveda) Therefore, nobody
should cause hinderance, while these two are enjoying (the village)
after receiving it as (i.e With the privileges of a gift under
the proper royal gift charter. And this gift should be nourished
out of regard for the supreme Divinity the illustrious sovereign
as also for the a dharma
And it has been stated in the Dharmasastra:-
Here follows three of the customary verses).
In the year 15, on the 24th day of Magha. Written by Subhasimha. Heated by the safe-keeper (Pedapalaka) Divakara.
Engraved by Narayana.
Footnote 3.
The exact duties of a Peda-palaka are uncertain. The word peda is synonymous with peta or petaka meaning a box. Presumably Pedapalaka, looked after the safe-
keeping of royal boxes or safes containing valuables.

Soro Plate of Somadatta

Written by Alok Mohan on December 2, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 2. 
Soro Plate of Somadatta. 
(Regnal) year 15.
Maharaja Somadatta was feudatory of Emperor Sasanka and was  governing Dandabhukti with Utkala-
Desa (i.e.Midnapore to Balasore region).
Provenance: Badkhuri, Near Soro,
Balasor district, Orissa.
Now in Ravenshaw college Museum, Cuttack.
Orissa is derived from Sanskrit word Ora or Odra Desa.  Epigraphic reference to Odra is found in this Soro copper plate grant of Somadatta. Balasore district was part of Odra Visaya i.e Orissa. Natives of Odra were called as Oddaka and Odrah. In the Mahabharata the Odras are mentioned along with the Paundras, Utkals, Mekalas, Kalingas and Andhras, while according to Manu the Odras are associated with the Paundrakas, Dravidas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas, Paradas, Pallavas, Chinas, Kiratas and Khasas. 
According to General Cunningham   “The ancient province of Odra desa or Or-desa was limited to the valley of the Mahanadi and to the lower course of the Subarnarekha river. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapore. It was bounded on the West by Gondwana, on the North by the wild hill states of Jashpur and Singhbhum, on the East by the sea and on the South by Ganjam. 
The entire region from the Chilika lake to the Suvarnarekha river is identified with Odra. From the sixth and seventh centuries A. D. the whole of coastal Orissa was termed as Odra. Some historians have proposed that the valley of Mahanadi and the lower course of the river Suvarnarekha formed the ancient Odra country.
 From 700-1100 A. D. Odradesa was bounded by the Mahanadi river in the north, Daksina, Tosali in the east, Daksina Kosala in the west, and the modern Paralakhemundi region in the south.
The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang who visited Orissa in about 636 CE gives an account of the territory named Wu-Che which is very likely the same as Odra. 
Script: Northern Class Brahmi, of the 6th century A.D.
The earliest epigraphic reference to Odras is found in 
the Soro Copper Plate grant of Somadatta, from which it is 
clear that Uttara Tosali, with its Visaya ‘Sarepahara’ identified 
with Soro of Balasore District, was part of Odra Visaya. Odra was a powerful kingdom.


Language: Sanskrit 
References: N.G. Majumdar, Ep.Ind. XXIII, pp.202.
Footnote 1.
1.
From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, IT facing XXIII, pp.201.
2. Expressed by a symbol.
3. Two charters of Somadatta, dated in the Year 15, are known. One was issued from Amratakshakavasaka on the 13th Vaisakha, and the other from sanchataka on the 24th Magha. He claims  allegiance to Paramadaivata Paramabhattaraka, i.e to an unnamed Gupta emperor. These are the well-known titles of the Gupta sovereigns. He must have ruled
before sambhayasas of Mudgala gotra set-up his independent kingdom of Tosali.
4. Tosali is the same as modern Dhauli near Bhuvaneshwar, where a set of Asoka’s rock edicts is found. Sarephahara iss moden soro, the find-spot of this inscription.


English Translation of the inscription
Om Hail! From the victorious camp at Amratakshaka-vasaka cantonment, the Chief General (Maha-baladhikrita),
Confidential Advisor (Antaranga) and senior-Minister- for-Peace-
and-War somadatta, who meditates on the feet of the Paramadaivata- dhidaivata, the illustrious supreme Majesty (Paramabhattaraka), being in
good health, offers due respect to the present and future, Mahasamanta-Maharaja Raiaputras. Kumaramatyas, Uparikas,
Vishayapatis, his Ayuktakas. Dandavasikas (= pasikas), sthananta- rikas and others belonging to the class of chatas, bhatas, and
officers, and the Board of Administration consisting of the
chief Mahattara of the vishaya, Kutakolasa and Record-keeper etc
in the sarephahar a vishaya and in order vishaya in North Tosali
and informs them:-
Be it known to you that we have granted the village of Adyara, attached to this vishaya. the customary terms of copper charters and royal grants, to Dhruvamitrasvamin, Arunagasvanmin
and others, of vatsya gotra and students of Vajasaneya sakha,
(of the Yajurveda), for the increase of religious merit, for as long as the moon and the sun last, of the illustrious sovereign  (Paramabhattaraka-pada) Therefore, no one should alter (these terms) while they are enjoying it according to the due terms of a copper-charter. And this gift should be nursed out of reference  for the supreme divinity, the illlustrious sovereign. (Paramabhattaraka-pada.)
Therefore no one should alter these terms, while they are enjoying it according to the due terms of a copper charter. And this gift should be nursed out of reverence for the supreme divinity, the illustrious sovereign. And it has been stated in the Dhama sastras
(Here follows four of the customary verses. In the year 15, on the 13th day of Vaisakha. written by Kesava, the Minister of peace and war, Granted by Mahattara Suryadeva.
.

Bhadrak stone Inscription of Maharaja Gana

Written by Alok Mohan on December 1, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 1.
(Ancient Indian Inscriptions Volume IV)
Bhadrak stone Inscription of Maharaja Gana. – Regnal Year 8. (The Inscription has been assigned to the 2nd- century A.D.)
This inscription, was discovered from Bhadrak town, of 0rissa, is engraved in Prakrit language. The inscription reveals that the three idols and also eighty measure of land granted by Mulajapa in the regional year 8 of the illustrious Maharaja Gana, were apportioned in a locality called Panda and accepted by the venerable Agisama (Agni Sarman), the Mahakulapati Bhada (Bhadra), (Apavarsha?) Ma hasara (Mahasara), Ghali and Adasama (Atasarman). The Murunda dynasty ruled in the Utkal region of modern Odisha in eastern India during 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. Their territory included parts of the area around the northern districts of coastal Odisha. Murundas appeared to have succeeded the Mahameghavahana dynasty and were thereafter, conquered by the Gupta Empire.
According to some historians Murundas were a foreign tribe and entered India along with Kushanas. Maharaja Gana and Maharaja
Dhamadamadhara, were the two most influential rulers of this dynasty. During
the reign of Dhamadamadhara, it is believed that Kalinga and Funan empires had  strong diplomatic relations as Dhamadamadhara had  married the Funanese princess Soma.
Provenance: Bhadrak town, Balasore district, 0rissa,
Script: Eastern variety of Gupta Brahmi of the second half of the 3rd century A.D.
Language: Prakrit.
References: D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind., XXXIX,  pp.169-74.
Footnote 1.
1. Not known from any other source, Maharaja Gana, seems to have been an independent ruler of the Utkala country,
between the rivers Vaitarani and Kansai (ancient Kapisa) and lying between the lands of the Vangas and the
Kalingas. The sumandala plates of G.E. 250 (= 569 A.D.)
(see Ep.Ind. XXVIII, pp.79 ff, (Infra IV, L7) show that the Gupta
Suzrainty as acknowledged in Kalinga and presumably also in Utkala. Samudragupta does not claim to have conquered Utkala in his Allahabad Prasasti. Therefore, the annexation
may have been made by Chandragupta 2, after whom no further additions to the empire are claimed by any Gupta
ruler.
2. The stone shaft on which the inscription is engraved is believed, originally, to have been the lintel of the door of a temple.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXIX facing pp.174.
2. The symble which Sircar reads as सिध
is not legible.
3. Sircar data. He has missed the superscript ta, which is visible above the level of the line.
4. Traces of a letter visible before वप are nearer ढ़   than to the last letter of any other of the likely ords, kulyavapa, kharivapa, dronavapa and nalikavapa.
5. दे looks like ज
6. The word could also be read as वय लि.
7. बटित = an apportionment. पडिछिद =✓Pali. patichchhita
accepted) The settlement named पाणिद
has not been identified.

English Translation of the inscription.
Success !  In the regnal year 8 of the illustrious Maharaja Gana.
By mulajapa are given 3 (idols of) gods– – 80 adha vapas (of land). The apportionment (i.e. land apportioned) at Panida is accepted by the venerable Agnisarman, the Mahakulapati.
Bhadra, Apavarsha, Mahasara, ghali,
Atasarman,— residents of —.Kindly note that
1. Kulyavapa, Kharivapa, dronavapa, adhavapa and nalikavapa,
were the measures of land, in which grain measuring kulya
khari drona adha and nalika respectively, could be sown.
2. Klapati designated a sage, who taught and fed ten thousand
Students in his Gurukula or asrama.

Hiregutti Plates of Asankita

Written by Alok Mohan on November 30, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized


There is mention of bhojas in Puranas, as a community, belonging to the Haihaya sub-division of the Yadavas, which was ruling from North
Konkan as contemporaries of the Shatavahanas, between 4th and the 6th centuries.
The Bhojas of Chandor had been ruling over Goa,  Uttara Kannada and Khanapur and Belgaunm taluk region. 
Devaraja, was the earliest known bhoja ruler. They had elephant as their emblem. Several of theirs copper plates charters  in Sanskrit, have been found in Belgaum district and surrounding regions. The Hiregutti
Plates speak of Ashankitaraja of the same dynasty, making a grant to a Buddist vihara in Dipaka Vishaya. Another record of the same king is from Belgaum district.
The known rulers of this dynasity are,
Devaraja, Prithvimallavarman, Ashankitaraja, Ashankitavarman,
Prithvimallavarman and Kapalivarman.


Inscription number 80.
Hiregutti Plates of Asankita.
Provenance: Hiregutti, North Kanara district, Karnataka.
Hiregutti is a small Village, of historical importance, in  North Kanara, District and is located 46 km towards south from Karat and 12 km from Kumta.
This village is inhabited by Nadavaru tribes and is also known as Nadavaru Kingdom.
Script: Brahmi of the Southern class of 5th-6th centuries A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
Meters: V.1 आर्या,  2-4 अनुष्टुभ.
References: P.B. Desai, Ep.Ind,. XXVIII, pp.70-75.
The Bhojas are mentioned in the traditional Sanskrit literature
(puranas) as 
There is mention of bhojas in Puranas, as a community, belonging to the Haihaya sub-division of the Yadavas, which was ruling from North
Konkan as contemporaries of the Shatavahanas, between 4th and the 6th centuries.
The Bhojas of Chandor had been ruling over Goa,  Uttara Kannada and Khanapur and Belgaunm taluk region. 
Devaraja, was the earliest known bhoja ruler. They had elephant as their emblem. Several of theirs copper plates charters  in Sanskrit, have been found in Belgaum district and surrounding regions. The Hiregutti
Plates speak of Ashankitaraja of the same dynasty, making a grant to a Buddist vihara in Dipaka Vishaya. Another record of the same king is from Belgaum district.
The known rulers of this dynasity are,
Devaraja, Prithvimallavarman, Ashankitaraja, Ashankitavarman,
Prithvimallavarman and Kapalivarman.




Footnote 
1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind XXVIII, pp.74-75.
2. Bhojas are mentioned as a  subdivision of the Yadavas in
the Mahabharata. ( आदि 217-18.)  They are mentioned in the Rock Edict XIII, of Asoka along with the pitinikas.
In the Hathi gumpha cave inscription of Kharavela, ( J.B.C.R.S, III, pp-425ff; Supra, I,39)are associated with Rashtrikas. The Dasakumara-charita
of Dandin places them, in Vidarbha.
According to the Aitareya Brahmana, (VIII, 14), yhe satvat clan of the
Yadavas was ruled by a republican constitution, called Bhaujya, while their chiefs were called Bojas. But later
they became monarchical. A section of them called Mahabhojas, figure in number of Brahmi Inscriptions.
(Luder’s Lists Nos. 1021 and 1082, 1054, 1111 etc.) of first and second centuries A.D. found from the western
Parts of Maharashtra. They were adherent of the buddhist faith.
 A Number of copper Plate grants of Bhoja Rulers, ranging from 4th to 7th centuries A.D., have come to light,.from Goa and North Kanara district. But these do not provide any clue to their mutual relationship. Devaraja
of siroda plates (Ep.Ind.XXVI, pp-337 ff,) and Asankita of the present ones probably represent different lines 
Dharmamaharaja Kapalivarman of Arga Plates (Supra, III,23) may represent another line of Bhoja rulers. Two charters of another Bhoja ruler,
Pritjivimalavarman, perhaps successor of the latter, are  also known. Tha seal attached to the present plate bears
the Budhist emblem of elephant and the grant made to buddhist vihara, indicates Asankita’s Buddhist faith.
Though the leanings of tne Mahabhojas, towards the Buddhi st
faith are known, no other epigraph of Bhoja rulers connects  them.with buddhism. All their other grants, are to
Brahmanas.
Footnote 2.


1. Kaikeyas seem to have migrated rom their original home in the lower Jhelum valley in the Panjab. Nandipalli may
be identified with Nandi valley of Vokkaleri plates of western
chalukya king Kirtivarman 2, dated in A.D. 758 (Ep.Ind.,V, pp.200ff, Ind.Ant., VIII, pp.23 f.) That would indicate
that Asankita’s authority extended to Dharwar district, where his subordinate Kottipegglli was ruling. The Kannad name Kottipeggili is formed of three words, kottu = strike, peggu =back, and il= not. The name means, one who is not a back-stabber.
2. Dipaka seems to have been derived from dvipa or island. It may be identified either with the Anjidev island, 8 km, South West of Karwar or the island of Divar on the north of the island of Goa. The latter is mentioned under the name as Dipavati in the Skanda Purana ( see, Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India, pp. 57)
3. विराव = roar, thunder. This is perhaps used here to connote a noisy mountain stream,
4. A curved horizontal stroke at the end indicates that the compound continues.
Footnote 3.
1. Superscript  ष is formed like वो
2. Superscript न्  in मान्यै is formed like श्
3. Note that the Budha is symbolically represented as an elephant.
English Translation of the inscription.


L1.1-3: Victorious is the Buddha, whose two feet are being licked by the rays of the shining jewels on the coronets of
the gods and the demons; who is the treasure of unlimited cluster of virtues, and is affectionate without a motive.
L1.3-6: By the king. Asaakita, who is the very moon in the firmament of the illustrious lineage of the Bhojas, having
been petitioned by Kottipeggili, who was born in the lineage of the Kaikeyas of Nandipalli, granted the village named sundarika in the district of Dipaka, for
the enjoyment of his (Kottipeggli’s or Asankita’s own monastery.)
L1.6-9: Its boundaries are in the eastern direction, the (village) Kurvva in the south, is the roaring current of Marttikattu. in the west is the water-fall on the mountain, (and) in the north upto the boulder with the mango tree.
L1.9-10: He, who confiscates this out of greed, shall be guilty of five great sins.
L1.10-16: He who confiscates land, whether granted by himself or by others, is born, as a worm in feaces for sixty thousand years. Though the land has been enjoyed by many respectable kings, beginning the Manu, the reward
for religious gift goes to the one, who is currently the owner. The person, who nurses the livelihood, granted to the congregation of the Buddhist monks, that divine soul enjoys, merriment for crores of sons after attaining
heaven.The greedy man of mean soul who confiscates the endowed land, being blinded by sin is tortured in
horrible hell for many eons.

The Bhojas of Goa

Written by Alok Mohan on November 29, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

The bhojas of Goa.
Inscription number 79.
Bhojas of Goa ruled Konkan and Karnataka from 3rd century AD to the 6th century.  Goa had come under the political sway of the Bhojas who ruled this territory in feudal allegiance to the Mauryan emperor of Pataliputra. The capital of Bhoja kingdom was  Chandrapura (Modern Chandor) in Goa.
Siroda Plates of Devajaja.
Provenance: Siroda de Ponda, Goa.
Script: Archaic variety of the Southern Class of Brahmi, resemblng closely the script of Kondamudi plates
of Jayavarman ( Ep.Ind, VI, pp.315 ff, & Pals) and:resemblng somewhat Mydavolu plates of Pallava
Sivaskandavarman ( ibid, pp84 ff. and Pls.)
Language: Sanskrit interspersed with Prakrit expressions.
References: Pandurango Pissurlencar, o oriente Portugues,
(Portugese language)1934; C.R. Krishnamacharlu, Ep.Ind. XXIV,
pp.143-45.
The concept of naming Devaraja, was very common in Southeast Asian kingdoms and enabled the monarch to claim his divine authority which was helpful to him for maintaining social and economic order as well as political stability.
Under the influence of the Sanatna dharma scholars many kingdoms adopted the concept of devaraja.
In the Barah inscription of his descendant Mihira Bhoja, Devaraja name appears as Devashakti. Maharajahdhiraja Devaraja was younger son of Nagabhata. He had defeated his enemies and destroyed their kingdoms, and had extend his kingdom towards south-west. He was also able to maintain the territories he had inherited. Devaraja was a devotee of Vishnu. He was married to Bhuyika-devi, and was succeeded by his son Vatsaraja.
Devaraja means that the king was a divine universal ruler and a real manifestation of Bhagawan and was often attributed to Shiva or Vishnu.Footnote 1.
1. This record represents the period of transition from the epoch of Prakrit records to that of the Sanskrit ones.
To this transitional period also belongs the Mattepad plates of Damodaravarman ( Ep.Ind, XVII, pp 327 ff, Infra, III,32)
It should be assigned to the period following the age of the Prakrit charters of the Pallavas. R. B. Krishna
Sastri has ascribed the Mattepad plates to about the 4th century A.D.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXIV, facing pp.145.
3. Expressed by the usual spiral symbol.
4. N.L. Rao corrected the reading गोमिनां  to भोजानां
( Ep.India,  XXVI, pp337 ff)
Second Plate Second Side.
Footnote 2.
1. स्थाम्य is a mistake either for स्थान्य  or  ग्राम्य.   ग्राम्य stands for villagers, in which sense other Inscriptions have the word
ग्रामिक (C I.I., III, pp-112, n.) and ग्रामेयक
(Ep.Ind,. XVII, pp-327) while स्थान्य corresponds to स्थानाधिकरणिका (Ep.Ind,.
III, pp. 323) and स्थानाधिकृता ( ibid.. VI 135 n.) of the other inscriptions. meaning local officials.
2.  According to Pissurlencar (Ep.Ind,. XXIV, pp.145)
Chandrapura is modern chandor off Goa; and Thanniyarka-Kottihkayya is Tanem-Kuttal in Salsette. Jiyaya,
indicating a territorial division. acoording to him, may be represented by Salsette.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om Hail !  From the victorious and prosperous city of Chandrapura. At the command of Devaraja of (the family of) the BHOJAS, the future Bhogikas, Ayuktakas, local officials and others be told:- Whatever income arises from the turn out (i.e Produce) of the village of Thaniyarka-Kottihkayya in the county or division of Jiyaya, or from imports (anitena) to it, has been granted by the
Bhogikamatya Prabhunaga for the increase of his religious
merit to Govinda svamin and Indrasvamin both of bharadvaja
gotra also are granted, a house site and two extensive (atatau) cow – pastures.
Arrangements for herding of cows
(go-prachara) Grass, fuel-wood, etc   should also be properly fixed.
Whosoever whether belonging to our family or an outsider, damages it out of infatuation, hostility, greed
or ignorance, may be joined to the five great sins and the
minor sins and it has been said:-
Here follows two of the customary verses)
Executor of the charter is the very pious and truthful Amaresvara, the Superintendent of all the Departments.
The Plate was written by Prabhakara, the Confidential Secretay
at the command of Devaraja, who is like the king of gods, in the twelfth victorious and prosperous year of the reign, on the twelfth day of the dark fortnight of Magha. May the
bearer, the reader and the listener be blessed.

Barganga Rock Inscription of Bhutivarman 

Written by Alok Mohan on November 28, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 78.
Barganga Rock Inscription of Bhutivarman (6th century A.D.)
Provenance: In Tekegaon, Near Dakmaka,on the bank of Barganga
rivulet and about 30 km Dabaka Bazaar, in the Nowgong district Assam.
Script: Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
References:  N.K Bhattasali, Journal of the Assam Research Society, VIII, 1941. pp.138-39, Ep.Ind, XVII, pp.18-23, D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind, XXX, pp-62-67.




Footnote 1.
1. 
Bhutivarman figures as the eighth king of the Bhauma-Naraka dynasty of  Kama-rupa of Prag jyotisha i.e.
modem Assam, in the seals of Bhaskaravarman (600-650 A.D.)
who was according to Bana Bhatta (Harsha charita), a contemporary and and an ally of Harsha.The earliest king,
Maha-raja-dhiraja Pushyavarman was a
contemporary and a subordinate of Samudragupta. This is deduced by Sircar from the fact that his son and successor Samudravarman 
and the latter’s queen Dattavati, are obviously named after the former’s overlord, Sircar refers to other
instances of feudatories naming their sons after their overlord (see also his successors of the Satavahanas
1939 pp-176f, 248 n). This accepting Pushyavarman as a conttemporary of Samudragupta and the probability of
Susthitvarman and Supratishtitavarman having brief reigns, Sircar has tentatively fixed the chronology
of the Bhauma-Naraka kings as under:-
1. Maharajdhiraja  Pushyavarman, lord of Pragjyotisha, descendant of Naraka as also of the Bhagadattta of the
Mahabharata fame and Vajradatta
350-74 A.D.
2. Maharajahdhiraja Samudravarnan, Son of No.1. 374-98 A.D.
3. Maharajahdhiraja Balavarman, son of No-2, from Dattavati. 398-422 A.D.
4. Maha-raja-dhiraja kalyanavarman son of No 3 from Ratnavati. 422-46 A.D.
5. Ganapativarman, son of No.4 from Gandharvavati 446-70 AD.
6. Mahendravarman, son of No 5 from Yajnavati. 470-94 A.D.
7. Narayanavarman performer of two Asvamedhas, son of No 6 from Suvrata.494-51 A.D.
8. Butivarman, Son of No 7 from Devavati. 518-42 A.D.
9. Chandramukhavarman son of No 8 from Vijnanavati 542-60 A.D.
10. Sthiravarman, performer of two Asvamedhas, son of No 9 from Bhogavati. 566-90 A.D.
11 Susthita- varman son of No.10 from Nayanasobha 590-95 A.D.
12 Supratishthitavarman son of No 11 from Dhruvalakshami. 595-600 A.D.
13. Bhaskaravarman, younger brother of No 12 from Dhruvalakshami 600-650 A.D.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXX, facing pp.67.
Bhattasali’s readings from his defective impressions and doctored transcript has several mistakes.
2. Bhattasali: Paramabhagavata.
3. Bhattasali Asvamedha yajnam Sri-Bhutivarmmadeva-padanam.
Note that Bhaskaravarman’s seals do not credit Bhuti-Varman, with the performance of an Asvamedha. Sircar 
suggests that his father’s Asvamedhas
must have been performed, when Narayanavarman was too
old to undertake them, himself and Bhutivarman ruling on his behalf carried out the actual performance.
Narayanavarman’s Asvamedhas probably signalled declaration
of independence from Gupta suzerainty.
4. Bhattasali:
200 (+) 30 (+) 4 ma, where he thinks ma stands for the month of Magha.
5. Bhattasali: Aryagunasya or Adyagunasya. All the rules of sandhi being optional are ignored here.
English Translation of the inscription.
Hail !  Peace This asrama (lit. rest-house) is of (i.e. constructed by)
the district governor, Avaguna, for the longevity of the illustrious Paranadaivata Paramabhattaraka, the Maharajadhiraja, Sri Bhutivarman, the performer of the Asvamedha Sacrifice.
Under his reign, “Kamarupa became a powerful kingdom
The King Bhutivarman of Bhauma-Naraka dynasty ruled Kamarupa from 518-542 A.D. ..He was the most important figure of the kingdom and  was given a divine status. &  titles like, Paramabhattaraka, Parama-daivata, etc 
The Varman dynasty  was the first historical dynasty of 
Kamarupa and was established by Pushyavarman.


Bhutivarman married Vijnanavati and had successor to throne namely Chandramukhavarman.
There after He married Bhogavati and had successor to throne named Sthitavarman.


Umachala Rock Inscription of Surendra-varman (470-94 A.D.)

Written by Alok Mohan on November 27, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 77.
Umachala Rock Inscription of Surendra-varman (470-94 A.D.)
Provenance: Umachala, Asrama on Umachal Hill (North-eastern)
slope the Kamakhya or Nilachal hill) near Gauhati, Assam.
Bhauma-Naraka Dynasty of Kamarupa. 
This Inscription records construction of a cave  temple of Lord  Balabhadra Svamin by the illustrious king Surendra-varman. The rock Inscription is one among the early epigraphic evidences of bhauma dynasty, discovered in Assam.
The mention of this dynasty is found in various sanatna dharma epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Yogini Tantra etc.
As per hindu religious scriptures, this dynasty was established by Naraka (Narakasura) of Videha consequent to removing the kirata chief Ghataka, of Danava dynasty.
As per hindu mythology, Satyabhama killed Narakasura and freed 16000 girls, captured by him. Lord Krishna married these girls in a gesture of retrieving their lost honour.
However subsequent embellishment of the Naraka legends point to legitimization of the three dynasties of the Kamarupa kings.
Naraka is regarded as the legendary ancestor of all the three dynasties of Pragjyotisha-Kamarupa, and the founding ruler of the legendary Bhauma dynasty of Pragjyotisha. The Bhauma dynasty is the second legendary dynasty of Pragjyotisha, after the Danava dynasty.


Footnote 1.
1. D.C. Sircar tentatively identified him with Mahendra-varman. (Surendra and Mahendra being synonyms) of
the Bhauma-Naraka dynasty, which flourished in Pragiyotisha or Kamarupa, from about 350 to 650 A.D.
The founder of the dynasty, Pushyavarman ruled £rom
350 to 374 AD. His son Samudravarman, from
374 to 398 AD., grandson Balavarman from 398 to 422 A.D.
great-grand son Kalyanavarman from 422 to 446 A.D. and
Great great-grandson Ganapativarman from 446 to 470 AD.
Ganapativarman’s successor was Mahendra-varman,
(470-494 AD) whose son Narayanavarman (494 to 518 A.D.)
and grandson Bhutivarman or Mahabutivarman (518 to
542 A.D.)  both performed horse sacrifices. Barganga
inscription of the latter seems to be slightly later than the present record.


Script: Eastern variety of Gupta Brahmi of 4th to 6th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
Reference: D.C. Sircar and P.D. Chaudhary, Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp.67-69.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXXI, facing pp.68.
2. Vasudeva (Krishna) Balabhadra-sankarshana Pradyumna,
Aniruddha and samba are the five defied heroes of the
Yadava-Satvata-Vishni clan. The first four of these came to be worshipped as the four vyuhas by the
Bhagavata or Pancharatra sect of early Vaishnavism.
Krishna and Balabhadra of the four were held in higher esteem than the other two. We have enough evidence to
the effect that Balabhadra was Independently worshipped
before the rise of the Imperial Guptas.
The inscriptions of the Gupta age do not refer to such worship though the
Vyuha doctrine finds a prominent place in the Pancharatra samhitas, some of which were composed between the
fourth and eighth centuries of the christan era. The  Amarkosha composed during this period speaks
of all the four vyuhas. Gradually Balabhadra came to
be recognised as one of the avataras of vishnu. The present record testifies to his worship in Assam about
the fifth century A.D.
English Translation of the inscription.
This cave (i.e. Cave – temple) of Lord  Balabhadra svamin is constructed by the illustrious Maharajadhiraja Surendra-varman.
(Balabhadra is the god of the Vaishnavite pantheon)

Baigram Copper Plate Inscription 

Written by Alok Mohan on November 26, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 76. 
Baigram Copper Plate Inscription of the Gupta Year 128. (=448 A.D.)
Provenance: Baigram, Bogra, Bagura district, Bangla Desh.
Script: Northern Brahmi of 5th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
This copper plate was, discovered, while excavating a tank at Baigram. The Baigram copper plate inscription refers to the reign of Kumaragupta 1. however the name of the king does not appear in this copper plate. Baigram Charter year G.E.128 was issued from two district offices, Vishayadhikarana, located at town called Panchanagati & was issued by  the district officer  namely Kulavriddhi whose title was Kumaramatya. 
Metres : Vv-1-3 श्लोक (अनुष्टुभ)
References: R.G. Basak, Ep.Ind.. XXI, pp.8 f. D.C. Sircar, Sel.Inss, I, pp.355-59.
First Side.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind, xxi, compare the text with that of the Nandapur copper plate inscription,
Ep.Ind, XXIII,. pp-54f.
2. Apparently the headquarters of Kumaramatya Kulavriddhi’s
Vishaya. Through the Process of phonetic evolution, the name changed into पञ्चनअरी then into पंचनारी.
Under Muslim influence, nari was translated into persian,
bibi and the town is now namad as Panchbibi. It is located in the Bogra district. It is probably identical
with Ptolemy’ s Pentapolis.
3.  Allegiance is expressed without naming the sovereign, who in the year 128 of G.E. of this record was Kumaragupta 1.
4. Vayigram = the same as modern  Baigram. Trivrita and
Srigohali belonged to the administrative circle of Vayigrama.
5. Agricultural householders. संव्यवहारिन = Administrators (Particularly judicial.) Apparently the reference here
is to the head of the village jury (of 8 or more members)
Called   अष्टकुलाधिकरण.
Footnote 2.
1. Read देवकुलम तददोल्पवृत्तिकम् 
2.  समुदय-बाहय  = not yielding income in crops. आद्यस्तम्ब = Land covered with original shrub, i.e. fallow. अकिञ्चित्प्रतिकर =  yielding little (i.e. no) tax to state.
प्रति कर  = कर   = tax
3. Total area sold for 6 dinaras and 8 rupakas was 3 kulyavapas and 2 dronavapas (or 3+1/4 kulyavapas) at the rate of 2 dinaras a kulyavapa, or 6+ 1/2 dinaras= 6 dinaras & 8 rupakas.That means 2 dinara 8 rupakas. Thus 1 dinara (i.e. Gupta Gold) = 16 rupakas (i.e silver.)
4. Presumably an alternative form of the name was भोयिल, which appears to be a Prakritisation. This form is used below in 1.14.


Footnote 3.
1.    तलवाटक  = तलभूमि = तलवृत्ती  etc. i.e the land granted to a religious establishment at the time of its
consecration. In some cases तलवाटक
has been explained as a class of persons serving in temples, see C.I.I,. III, pp 216-17.
2. स्थलवास्तु =  homestead land.
3. Thus the duty of the Pusta-pala (Record-keeper) was to
determine, whether, near about the donees place, there was
unproductive waste land belonging to the state, which could be sold rent free, without any loss to the state.
The reclamation of the waste land was a gain to the state, in as much as it led to expansion of economic
activity and the king got religious merit as a result.
Second side.
Footnote 4.
1. Read नीव्या  ताम्र.
2. Prakritisation of sanskrit 1   निम्न = निम्न- भूमि: कुल्यवाप and  द्रोणवाप 
are used in masculine as well as neuter
gender.
3. In places where there is no conflict with your own agricultural work i.e. 
in places, which do not belong to any of the villagers.
4.  Seems to be the designation of the official who actually measured out the land or the entire phrase दर्वी – कर्म-हस्त 
may stand for a cubit of specific length. In Faridpur plate of year 3 and another undated one of Dharmaditya (See supra, III, 69,70) and also faridpur plate of Gopachandra (see supra, III, 72)
the word हस्तेन is preceded by the names of persons indicating that दर्वी  कर्म  may have been the designation of the measuring Officer or may be, the technical term for the measure itself.
Footnote 5.


1. The Dharma-Shastras recognise various types of markings for delimiting lands. According to Manu, VIII, 250-51,
अश्मनोस्थीनि गोबाला सितुषान्  भस्म कपालिका: !
करीष मिष्ट काडन्गारा-ञ्छर्करा वालु कास्तया !!
यानि चैवंप्रकाराणि कालादभूमिर्न भक्षयेत ! 
तानि सन्धिषु  सीमायामप्रकाशानि कारयेत !!  According to Brihaspati.,प्रक्षिप्य कुम्भेष्वेतानि सीमान्तेषु निधापयेत !
Yajnvakya व्यवहाराध्याय, 150-151 ordains an examination of these marks whenever a land dispute is referred to a court. सी म्नो विवादे क्षेत्रस्य  सामन्ता: स्थ विरादय:  ! गोपा: सीमा कृषाणाश्च सर्वे च वन गोचरा: !! नयेयुरेते सीमानं स्थलाड़न्गार तुष दुमै: !
सेतु वल्मीक निम्नास्थि चैत्याधैरूपलक्षिताम !!
Narada speaks of the following kinds of
boundaries 1) ध्वजिनी (marked by ags) 2) मत्स्यिनी (marked by fish, i.e by watercourses supporting fish)
3) नैधानी (marked by buried objects like charcoal)
4).  भय वर्जिता    (free from fear of boundary disputes, i.e well-settled by the parties and 
5) राज शासन नीता ( fixed by government order.) For latter opinions see
Kulluka on Mamu and Vjnanesvara on Yajnavalkya.
2. Basak:  भगवद्वेद
English Translation of the inscription.

L1.1-31.  Peace ! From Panchanagari, Kumaramatya Kulavriddhi
who meditates on the feet of His Majesty (the Emperor)
and the Administrative Board of the vishaya, after mentioning their good health, inform the agricultaral
householders, headed by senior Brahmanas and officers
(of the adhikarana) of (the two localities named)
Trivrita and Srigohali, belonging to vayigrama.


L1.3-6: Two householders Bhoyila and Bhaskara, residing in this very localiity have petitioned to the affect:-
The temple of Lord Govindasvamin, erected by Sivanandin,
the father of both of us, is poorly endowed. In this vishaya prevails the practice of sale of fallow fields
covered the primeval shrub, which yield neither income in crops/ any revenue (to the state) at the rate of
two dinaras for each kulyavapa, in accordance with the principle of perpetual endowment, to be enjoyed for all time to come, as long as the moon, the sun end the stars endure.
L1.6-1O:  So deign to make a grant to (me) Bhogila of three kulyavapas of khila i.e waste) land in Trivrita
for the purpose of repairs of damages and breakages  and for introducing perfumery incense, lamp and
lowers in the temple of Lord, Govindasvamin and one
dronavapa of vastu, i.e. (home stead) land for use as a residential enclosure in sri gohali and to (me) Bhaskara
also, one dronavapa of homestead lands after (duly) receiving from the two of us, six dinaras and eight
rupakas (i.e silver coins.)
L1.10-13 Wherefore, we inform you that as determined by the
record-keepers, Durgadatta and Arkkadasa there exists  in this vishaya the practice of sale at the rate of

two dinaras for each kulyavapa of production-less, fallow primeval shrub-land, which can be (allowed to be) enjoyed in perpetuity as long as the moon the sun, and the stars endure and there is no conflict with
the interests of the state (lit. king), rather there is gain in the sale of such khila lands, yielding no taxes, and (further) there is gain to His Majesty of
one-sixth share of reward for the pious act. Hence, the land be granted.
L1.13-18: After collecting into revenue account six dinaras and eight (silver) rupakas from the two, Bhoyila and
Bhaskara, three kulyavapas of waste-land in Trivrita or the temple of Lord Govindsvamin and a dronavapa
of home stead land in srigohali for residential enclosure, have been granted to Bhoyila and a dronavapa of home-stead land in this very locality to Bhaskaras, this three kulyavapas of waste-land) and two dronavapas of
homestead land have been granted in perpetuity by (this) copper-plate charter, as below: kulyavapas 3,
house-site dronavapas 2.
L1.18-21: (so ) you shall hand over (possession of land) by fixing their boundaries on (all) the four sides
with long-lasting marks of chaff and charcoal, after

getting it measured out with reeds graded in both eight fold an nine fold Calibration, through the agency.of the Darvikarman, in places which have no conflict, with your own agricultural work and shall nourish it for all time to come under the laws applicable to
perpetual endowment. The Present and future administrators and others should also preserve it, out of regard for dharma.
L1. 21-25 And the great soul venerable Veda vyasa has
stated:- 
(Here follows three of the customary verses)
L25 The year 128, the 19th day of Magha.

Vappaghoshavata Plate of Jayanaga

Written by Alok Mohan on November 25, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 75.
Vappaghoshavata Plate of Jayanaga
Provenance Uncertain.Now in the Museum of Perth. The provenance of this charter appears to be either improperly recorded for a long time or was unknown and was therefore handed over to Museum of Perth. This was followed by several unsuccessful attempts to translate and annotate the plate. Morrison had also committed similar mistake when he
referred to the find-spot of another Jayanaga’s copperplate.
L. D. Burnett and R. D. Banerji, the two editors of the plate,· regarding identification of the localities mentioned in the record. Burnett sug-
gests that The names of places mentioned by them, besides
Karrasuvarqaka, are the Audumbarika
is the village of Vappaghoshavata.
There were a few serious efforts recent studies on the provenances & archeological sites of
Bengal.
Jayanaga is also not known from any other source, except some coins. bearing the abbreviated name Jaya’ on
the obverse, and Lakshmi standing on lotus, elephants, on either side with trunks raised over her head
possibly emitting showers (see . Allan, B.MC. cat. of coins of the Gupta Dynasties, pp.1, xi, civ, cxxiii,
150-51 and Pl.xxiv) These coins, Allan has attributed to this king.
Jayanaga seems to have been one of the successors of the Imperial Guptas in east Bengal. Like Dharmaditya, Gopachandra and samacharadeva, assumed the imperial title, though,not ruling over a big kingdom. Possibly all these rulers were pretenders to the Gupta throne & their imperial
status.

Greig, who presented it to the Museum
has.left a signed note prefixed to a crude translation of the plate, made in the year 1854, *Translation of
a copper Plate found in the indigo Estate at Mallia,
etc. –” Mallia could not be located.
Script: Gupta Brahmi, of the later half of the sixth century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: D. Banett, Ep.Ind., XVIII, pp. 60-64.
Footnote 1.

  1. From facsimile in Ep.Ind, XVIII, facing pp, 63.
  2. Expressed by the spiral symbol.
  3. H Beviridge identifies Karnasuvarna, the capital of the ancient kingdom of the same name, with the
    modern city of Rangamati near Murshidabad, which was earlier known as Kansona. These latter names correspond phonetically to Karnasuvarna.

Footnote 2.

  1. The Gangini, now known as the Jalangi in Nadia district of East Bengal is mentioned by the Bengali poet Bharata chandra Raya (1740 AD.) in his
    Ananda-Mangala (Ed. M.R. Vidyavagish Calcutta, 1857, pp.136 and 151), as flowing by the village of Andulia,
    which still exists.
    English Translation of the inscription.

Om ! Peace ! In the year of the rise – – – of the Paramabhagavata, divine Maharajadhiraja Sri Jayanaga, when
he was resident in Karnasuvarnaka, and during the period when
his illustrious feudatory chief Narayanabhadra, who meditates
on his feet, is in enjoyment of the Audumbarika district
(vishaya), his Commissioner Mahapratihara Suryasena, is
functioning as administrator of justice, the illustrious chief
i.e Narayanabhadra, gave him ( the commissioner ) the order,
The village of vappaghoshavata has been given as a perpetual
endowment by me, to Bhatta Brahmavira svamin of Kasyapa lineage
and a student of the chhandoga sakha (of the samaveda), for
the increase of merit of my mo ther, Father and myself, You are

to issue (him) a copper-plate charter (duely) marked (lit. adorned) with the District seal, (and) specifying the boundaries.
The boundary marks in this respect are:- on the west, the
boundary of the existing copper-chartered land of the Brahmanas of Kutkutagramas, on the north is the Ganginika river, on the
east the same Gangikikas issuing thence and running along the
western boundary of Amalapautika-grama (the boundary mark) is the mustard road it is limited by the same boundary as far
as Bhatta Unmilanasvamins grant and from the southern section.
thereof, again turning along the very same boundary to the
north direction, reaches as far as the boundary of Bharani- svamins grant thence also zigzagging (pragunena enters the temple-pond of vakhatasumalika (located) on the boundary of Bhatta Unmilanasvamin’s grant (and) goes as far as the same
boundary of the Brahmanas of Kutkutagrama.

Line 15 and 2 or 3 Syllables at the end of 1.14 have been deliberately erased, according to Barnett.

testtttt

Written by Alok Mohan on November 25, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 72.
Faridpur Copper-plate Inscription of the time of Gopachandra –Regnal year 18.
Provenance: Faridpur district, Bangla Desh.
Faridpur is one of the seventeen districts in the Dhaka Division and is a major commercial hub of Bangladesh.
It is located on the banks of Padma river.
It is pertinent to mention here that during ancient times i.e the early period of Indian history, the region of Bengal covered vast territorial
area including the modern state of West Bengal and some parts of the adjoining
districts of Assam and Bihar and included most of the parts of present day of Bangladesh.
Script: Late Brahmi of the Northern class of the middle of the 6th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit,
Metre: Vv.1-2 श्लोक (अनुष्टुभ)
References: F. E. Pargiter, Ind.Ant, XXXIX, 1910, pp.204
D.C. Sircar, sel.Inss, I, pp. 370–72, Bhandarkar’s List, No. 1724 (for other references).
Footnote 1.

  1. Pargiter read the date as 19, and deduced from the developed form of य in this record that Gopachandra was
    later than Dharmaditya. His relation with the latter is unknown. His dominions extended from the Faridpur
    District of Bangla Desh to south-west Bengal in India.
    Apparently like Dharma-ditya, he was independent of central Gupta authority. His identification, is suggested with the king of the east called Gopa, in the
    Aryamanjusrimulakalpa (ed. sankrityayana, v. 780)
  2. From the facsimile in Ind.Ant. XXXIX.

Footnote 2.

  1. Read: तदनुमोदनाल्लब्धा-
  2. Pargiter interprets व्यापारण्डय as the business of managing trade. But Sircar suggests the emendation
    व्यापार – कारण्डीय (See supra, III, No.70,L5, n.4)
  3. Pargiter क्रियामात्य
  4. Read कालेवारक
  5. Pargiters स्वामि (ना). ष्ट (स्य) and suggested स्वामिना तस्य
  6. Sircar amends to विनय कुण्ड
    Footnote 3.
  7. Note that Individualss like Ghoshachandra and
    Anachara and officials like Dharmasila and Siva-chandra, referred to here also figure in the grants of Dharmaditya,
    (Supra III, Nos. 69-70) indicating a close continuity between Dharmaditya and Gopachandra. The latter appears to be the Immediate successor of Dharmaditya.
  8. Read
    गुणवते काण्व – वाजसनेयि – लौहित्य – भटट – गोमिदत्त स्वामिने प्रतिपादयितुम्
  9. Pargiter suggested अंशमडिन्कतुमिति and Sircar प्रसादड़न्कत्र्तुमिति
  10. The first side of the plate is worn out and mostly illegible. Only the first 6 to 10 1etters in the first ten lines and the last few letters in the last five lines,
    are legible. Hence, the reading in worn out part of the plate is conjectural. The same is true about the 1st line on the second side.

Footnote 4.

  1. The central lower loop of ण is rubbed out, so it appears to be two letters.
  2. Pargiter: नयभूतेस्तु स्थूलावधारणया
  3. N.G. Majumdar read
    (Those who are acquainted with administrative affairs). Sircar suggests
    करणिक – जनान्
  4. कुलवार possibly means an arbitrator.
  5. Appears to be the name of a village.
    English Translation of the inscription.
    Seal: (The seal) of the government of the district of Varakamandala
    L1.1-5: welfare !
    During the sovereignty of the Supreme king of great Kings, Sri Gopachandra, the emperor, who is a matchless
    warrior, is equal in steadfastness to Yayati and Ambrisha, during the administration in Navyavakasika
    of the firmly rooted Kumaramatya-
    Uparika Nagadeva, (who is also) the chief warden of the Gate and Executive 0fficer incharge of Business, who
    gained his position on having been confirmed by him
    (i.e. Gopachandra) ( and when) Vatsapalasvamin is the
    Commissioner of Business in the district of Varakamandala,

L1.5-10s During his (vatsapalasvami’s) term of administration, the Board of Administration headed by the senior most kayastha Nayasena, the Mahattaras beginning with
Mahattara Vishayakunda, Ghoshachandra, Anachara, the Mahattras (and) the chief
Merchants were petitioned, according to their Jurisdiction
(yatharham) by Vatsapalasvamin)
L1,10-15: I desire through your honours favour, to buy at the proper price, a kulyavapa of farmland from your
honour– named Mahakottika
and, in order to augment the religious merit of my mother and father and my own to bestow it to the virtuous Bhatta Gomidattasvamin, who belongs to Kanva sakha Vajasaneya, charana, Lauhitya gotra. Therefore, let your honours deign to collect the price from me, who am of Bharadvaja gotra and do me the favour (of selling the land).
L1.15-21: wherefore giving heed to this petition, since there is a previously established rule coming down (to us)
that farms are sold at the rate of four dinaras per kulyavapa, we have after getting the land determined through the check-up of land (records) by the record keeper Nayabhuti (and) after the Board of administration, had appointed the arbitrators, well-versed in administrative rules sold one kulyavapa of farmland to Vatsa-palasvamin after getting it marked out with measuring
rods of ashtaka and navaka standard through the agency of
Pratita, Dharmasila and Siva-chandra.
He has also, after having purchased, bestowed it on Bhatta Gomidattasvamin with the legal right of ownership to the succession of his sons grandsons etc.
L1.21-25: And the boundary marks in this respect are: To the
east is the boundarY of Dhruvilati agrahara; to the south is (the village of)
Karanka; to the west is the
boundary of the village of Silakunda; to the north is the boundary of Karanka.
An imprecatory verse is inserted here).
L.25: the year 18. The sumvat 18 is engraved before the second half of the imprecatory verse.
Footnote.
The date should follow the verse.
Sircar takes the word संवत in the sense of a regnal year. It is an abbreviation of संवत्सर, meaning year and is normally used in the sense of a dynastic year or an era. Possibly Gopachandra expected his regnal reckoning to be continued as an era.