Author Archive

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.

Nandsa Fragmentary Pillar Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on September 18, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 150

Nandsa Fragmentary Pillar Inscription of Mahasenapati Bhattisoma
Provenance: A pillar not far from the Sacrificial Pillar of the Malavas in the village, Nandsa, Sahara
Distt, Udaypur, Rajasthan.
Script : Western Brahmi of the 2nd and 3rd centuries A. D.
Language: Sanskrit
References: A.S Altekar, Ep.Ind XXVII, pp256 ff, Inscription C.
From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXVII, facing pp.265, No letters are visible to the left of the first five lines and Altekar thinks, there were not any.
But as the lines 6 and 7 extend to the left as far as the edge along which the lightening stroke solit the
stone Pillar it is evident that the visible letters in all the seven lines belong to their end sections.
2. The turning of the curve or the medial matra u to the right is a peculiarity shared by this Inscription,
with the inscriptions. A and B Compare kupa in A 1.4 and B 1.10.
1. ———-यस्य
2. ———-[ राम ] ग्र-लोका: (I) -त
3. ———–स्व-देशे कोटी ती [ र्थे ]
4. ————- [ पा ] श्वें शात्मलि-वृक्ष: ।
5. ————- तापत श्रेम व ने
6. ————कु ल ल गौत्र विव द्वेना धी
पुत्र पौत्र प्रतिष्ठित –
7. ———-महासेनापतित्स्य ते: भट्टिसोमस्य सोगिस्य त-गे: [ म ]

हिन्दी अनुवाद
1. ————– जिसका
2. ————- सम्पूर्ण लोक ।
3. ————-स्वदेश कोटि तीर्थ में
4. ————-निकट में सिद्धल का वृक्ष है
5. ———— तापस आश्रम वन में
6.————कुल और गौत्र की वृद्धि हेतु पुत्र और पौत्रों में प्रतिष्ठित
7. ————–सौगि वंशी महासेनापति भट्टीसोम का

English Translation of the inscription
1. ————– Whose
2. ————–All the worlds
3.————– In his own country at kotitirtha
4. ————–Nearby a salmali tree
5. ————–In hermitage forest of the asceties
6. ————–For the growth of family and lineage, stable with sons and grandsons
7. ————–Of MahaSenapati Bhattisoma of the family of sogis

Nandsa Inscriptions – Text

Written by Alok Mohan on September 17, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Text of Inscription 

1. सिद्धम् । कृतयोर्द्धयोव्वर्ष-शतयो द्दव्यशीतयो: 20 (+) ८0 (+) 2 चैत्रपूर्णमासी : = स्या ! मस्याम्पूर्व्वाया महता त्व-शक्ति-गुण मुरुणा पौरुषेण प्र [ धम -चन्द्र-दर्शनमिव मालव-गण-विषयमवतार
2. यित्वै कषष्टिरात्त्रमतिसत्रमपरिमित-धम्मे-मात्र, समुद्धत्त्य पितृ-पैताम हि ही न्धुरमावृत्त्य -त्य सुविपुल द्यावा-पृथिव्यो रन्तरमनुत्तमेन यशसा स्व-कर्म-संपदया विपुला
समु –
3. पगतामृद्धिमा त्मसिद्धि वितत्य माया मिव, सत्त्रभूमौ सव्वै कामौघ न्धारा वसोर्द्धारामिव ब्ब्रा ब्रा हमणाग्नि -वैशवानरे] षु हुत्वा, ब्रह्मेन्द्र प्रजापति-महर्षि-विष्णु- [ स्थानेषु कृतावका शस्य पाप नि
4. रवकाशस्य सित-सभी वरूध -तडाक-को कु = प देवा यतन- -यज्ञ-दानसत्त्य-प्रजा – विपुल-पालन प्रसङ्गे –ड्न्गै : पुराण ण राजर्षि -धम्र्म पद्धती
सतत-कृत-तमनुगमन-निश्च । यस्य स्व
गुणातिशय -चिस्तरैर्मनु
5. निव्र्विशो शे
भुवि मनुष्यभावं यथा तर्थ्मनुभवत इश्वाकु व्रथित राजर्षि वंशे मालव-वंशे प्रसूतस्य जयनर्तनपुर्भा प्रभा ग्र वर्धन पौत्रस्य जयसोमपुत्त्रस्य [ सोगि ] । । नेतु: श्री सोमस्यानेक-शत गो सहस्र
Inscription B

Intwa Clay Sealing

Written by Alok Mohan on September 12, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 144

Intwa Clay sealing
Provenance: The ancient site of Intwa, in Saurashtra, about 5 kilometres from the famous Junagarh rock,
which bears the inscription of Ashoka, Rudradaman, and skandgupta.
Script: Brahmi of the early Kshatrapa period.
Language: Sanskrit.
Refrences: B Ch Chhabra, Ep.ind, XXVIII, pp.174-75.
Buddhist sites at Junagadh and its surrounding area, supported a large number of Budhist monks. The caves as well as the vihara at Intwa, had a strong Buddhist presence
The edicts of Ashoka also provide us the earliest evidences of the existence of Buddhism in Saurashtra.
Along the margin. around chaitya symbol
महाराज-रुद्रसेन-विहारे भिक्षु-संघस्य
हिन्दी अनुवाद
महाराज रुद्रसेन विहार में भिक्षु-संघ की (मुद्रा)
English Translation of the inscription
(The seal) of the congregation of friars in the monastery of Maharaja Rudrasena.

1. From the Pencil rubbing and the enlarged photograph in
Ep.Ind XXVIII, facing pp174.
2. Of the four lines of this name in the dynasty of Chashtana,
the reference is probably to Rudrasena-1 (199-222 A. D)
Tue paleography of the legend rather rules out the Later Kings. The historical importance of the seal lies
in the fact that this is the only evidence to the effect that the Saka Mahakshtrapa built a budhist monastery at junagarh.

Kindly Visit

Was 1947 Partition – A fraud

Written by Alok Mohan on September 11, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Was 1947 based on religion, a fraud against Hindus ?

My opinion is that
“1947 Partition of India was in fact
intentional deception, against Hindus, by Jinnah & Nehru”
Because the partition of India, was an unfair & unnatural event in the history of man kind, wherein two million Hindus were murdered in an organised manner, while many more millions of Hindus were dragged out from their ancestral homes in three cloths by the British, Jinnah & Nehru.
This well organised crime can not take place without planning & adequate resources. And the only motive of the then international forces was to create a nation exclusively for muslims.

Close to 148,460 square kilometres of land resources of Bengal &  881,913 square kilometres of land resources from panjab, Sindh Kashmir & Blochistan, were illegally handed over to Jinnahites, for the unethical mission of a nation exclusively meant for muslims.
Most of the land resources belonged to hindus’ ancestors.
On the name of compensation, the then government, came up with, mischievous compensation policies & provided one percent of land resources, in lieu of land owned by the uprooted Hindu population, of Punjab Sindh Bengal, Blochistan & Kashmir.
The only positive part of this unnatural event was that close to 25% population of the effected region, was able to reach alive in Hindu part of partitioned India & could narrate the partition horrendous events.
While the efforts to resettle the effected population by the then leadership, were limited to very few influential people.
The then, congress leadership, didn’t stop here only, consequent to this fraud.
They created waqf board, in Hindu part of partitioned India, and transferred thousands of acres of the lands, to waqf board,  belonging to those muslims,  who shifted to the devil nation created by them, along with lands owned by their trusts & institutions.
(The Waqf property details, have been entered by the respective State Waqf Boards, on their portals)
It is pertinent to mention that no similar board/facility was ever formed in Afghanistan Pakistan and Bangladesh for the lands owned by uprooted Hindus& their institutions, in newly formed muslim nations.
Rather these properties were illegally taken over by the islamic governments consequent to successfully authoring & implementing Hindu genocide policies.
Upto the month of December, 2022, a total of 8,65,646 Waqf immovable properties and 3,53,850 GIS Mapping of Waqf properties have been entered on their portals.
Thereafter the then political started some campaigns by distorting facts, in such a manner that people do not  know the truth of the partition deception. Their only purpose was to avoid legal consequences.
And various parliament acts & s, consequent to the unethical event, are crying examples:-
For example:
Land Ceiling Act etc.
And the latest being 
The displaced persons claims and other laws repeal act, 2005″ was repealed vide letter no 38 OF 2005, of government of India.
The international organisations like United Nations, World Bank & ICJ, closed their eyes while this biggest human tragedy of earth was taking place.
The then world leadership, therefore failed to provide justice, to the aggrieved Hindu population.
Therefore the 1947 Hindu land  resources theft” is a controversial and a debatable topic.
They had only one motive i.e create a nation exclusively for muslims of British ruled India.
The then act of transferring hindu’s properties to jinnahites, without their consent and with the intent to permanently deprive them of it, and creation of Waqf board, were unlawful & petty acts of theft by the then leadership.
What do you think?


Devnimori Stone Casket Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on September 11, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 143.

Devnimori, is a Buddhist archaeological site in the Aravalli district of Gujrat. The site contains archeological evidences of several international trade routes. The excavations of this site, have yielded many Buddhist artefacts.
Devni Mori also has some residential caves with water cisterns & stupas, as at uparkot in junagarh.
The Buddha images inside stupas clearly show the influence of Greco buddhist art of Gandhara.

Inscription number  143.

Devnimori Stone Casket Inscription of the time of Rudrasena I– Saka year 127 (205 A. D.)
Provenance: Devnimori, near Samlaji, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat.
Script: Middle Brahmi
Language: Sanskrit
References: R. N. Mehta and S.N Chowdhary,. Journal of Oriental
Institute, Baroda, XII, pp.173 ff. P. R. Sinivasan, Ep.Ind, XXXVII, pp67-69, Sel.Ins, pp.519.
V .1: अनुष्टुभ्
V.2: आर्या
V.3: मीति
Around the body of casket.
1. नम: सर्वज्ञाय ! ज्ञानानुकम्पा -कारुण्य-प्रभाव-निधये नमः सम्यत्संबुद्ध सूर्याय पर-वादि-तमो नुदे ।। सप्ताविंशत्यधिके कथिक-नृपाणां समागते शब्द शते (T)

2. भ (T) द्रपद-पंचम-दिने नृपतौ श्री रुद्रसेने च । कृतमवनिकेतुभूतम्महाविहाराश्रये महास्तूपं -पम् । ) सत्वानेकानुग्रह-निरताभ्यां शाक्य-भिक्षुभ्या’ (भ्याम् ।।)
3. साध्वग्नि वर्म्म-नाम्ना सुदर्शनेन च विमुक्त रन्र्धेण(I) कार्म्मान्तिकौ च पाशान्तिकपकौ शाक्य-भिक्षुकावत्र (I) दश-बल -शरीर-निलय-शुभ-शैलमयस्स्वयं वराहेण (I)
At the bottom of the Casket :
4. कुट्टिम – क ( = कृ ) ता कृतोयं समुद्गकस्सेन-पुत्रेण ।। महासेन-भिक्षुरस्य च कारयिता विश्रुतः समुद्गस्य (1)
5. सुगत प्रसाद कामो वृदयर्थन्धम्र्म -सड्न्धाभ्यां (भ्याम् ) |

1. From photographs published in the Journal of oriental Institute, Baroda,.pp176 ff., figs. 4, 6, 5, 7 and 8
respectively, snd tcom EP.Ind toNI between PP.68 and 69.
2. The space below नम सर्वज्ञाय forms the left margin.

1. On the analogy of अष्टाविझति Correct form is सप्तविझति
2. कथिक means a Preacher of Buddhist faith’.
The reference apparently, is to the kings of the Kanishka house, whose zeal for the propagation of Buddhism is
well-known. They were overlords of the Saka Mahakshatrapas. Thus
the date given is in kanishka era,
which later came to be known as the Saka era and seems to have replaced the original Saka era established by
the Saka emperor Aya or Azes (see supra number 5, I,1, Number 52,1,I,j)
Menta and Choudhary, as also D.C. Sircar identify Kathika era with the Saka or Kanishka era. Srinivasan
referred it tentatively to Kalachuri-Chedi era of 248-49 A.D. following such assumption in the Arch.
He places the records in 376 A. D. and assigns it to the reign of Mahakshatrapa Svami Rudrasena III,
( 348-51 A. D. and 360-90 A D.) He identifies the subordinate ruler. Nripa Rudrasena, with Rudrasena IV, who is known from a single coin and who was the son of Simhasena the sister’s son of Rudrasena III. However, there being no ground for accepting his views on the era and the date the record,we have accepted, with Mehta, Chowdhary and Sircar.
(the Kathika era as the same as the Saka era of 78 A. D.)
3. Mirashi considers this Rudrasena as an Abhira king.
4. कार्मान्तिक = Supervisors of the construction. पाशान्तिकपकली = mod Devnimori, the two monks, Agnivaman and sudarsana built the Great Stupa in the Premíses of the great monastery
under thei own supervision.
5. is an epithet of the Buddha.

English Translation of the inscription
Salutation to the Omniscient (.e. the Buddha). Salutation to the True and completely enlightened, (Buddha)
who is the very sun that drives away the darkness of revilers,
and who is the storehouse of knowledge, Pity, Compassion and
influence, when one hundred and Twenty Seventh year of the
preacher (kathika kings (i.e. the Kusnanas) had arived on
tne fifth day of Bhadrapada and when sri Rudrasena, was the
King. the great stupa, which became banner to (.e. formost
on) the earth as constructed in the Precinets of the Maha-Vihara, by Sadhu Agnivarman by name and by the faultless Sudarsana the two Sakya bhiksus. engaged in many compassionate acts towards creatures. The supervisors of the construction
were also the two Sakya-bhikshus of Pasantikapalli (= mod.
Devanimori (And) this casket made of stone and blessed for being the receptacle of the relics of the buddha, was himself, made by Samudgakasena’s, son Varaha, the maker of the pavement.
The famous bhikshu Mhasena, who is desirous of the blessings
of the Buddha, got this casket made for the increase of Dharma and samgha.

1. Read : धर्म संघयो
The casket was made, for
interring the relics of the Buddha under the Stupa, by the sons of Varaha,the maker of the kuttima or pavement. on behalf of the monk Mahasena, who
wanted property for himself as well as the Dharma and the Sangha.
Lines.4-5, are engraved on the base of the casket. The two final dandas are followed by book like mark, indicating the conclusion of the record.

Inscription number 144
Intwa Clay sealing
Provenance: The ancient site of Intwa, in Saurashtra, about 5 kilometres from the famous Junagarh rock,
which bears the inscription of Ashoka, Rudradaman, and skandgupta.
Script: Brahmi of the early Kshatrapa period.
Language: Sanskrit.
Refrences: B Ch Chhabra, Ep.ind, XXVIII, pp.174-75.
Buddhist sites at Junagadh and its surrounding area, supported a large number of Budhist monks. The caves as well as the vihara at Intwa, had a strong Buddhist presence
The edicts of Ashoka also provide us the earliest evidences of the existence of Buddhism in Saurashtra.
Engish Translation of the inscription
(The seal) of the congregation of friars in the monastery of Maharaja Rudrasena.
1. From the Pencil rubbing and the enlarged photograph in
Ep.Ind XXVIII, facing pp174.
2. Of the four lines of this name in the dynasty of Chashtana,
the reference is probably to Rudrasena-1 (199-222 A. D)
Tue paleography of the legend rather rules out the Later Kings. The historical importance of the seal lies
in the fact that this is the only evidence to the effect that the Saka Mahakshtrapa built a budhist monastery at junagarh.

Gadhwa Stone Inscriptions

Unsung Heroes

Written by Alok Mohan on September 10, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Unsung heroes of Armed Forces.

As we are aware, the soldiers in high-altitude regions like Siachen Glaciers, require extensive training, specialized equipment, and a strong support system to overcome the challenges for survival. Soldiers stationed in high-altitude regions like the Siachen Glacier face numerous challenges and difficulties due to the harsh environment. Extensive media coverage of high-altitude conditions for army personnel serves to inform, inspire, and advocate for the well-being of those, who serve in such challenging environments. And ofcourse the soldiers deserve this caring attitude of both the media & authorities.
But, unfortunately most of the general public, is not aware that there are thousands of soldiers, (Unsung heroes) who had worked in more severe conditions, while preparing missiles for equipping ships, missile launchers etc. for war preparedness or during peace time.
if we compare their working environment, with the working conditions in high altitudes, then we shall conclude that these soldiers also deserve same media attention as well as same attention of the authorities,
as they don’t put their own lives at risk, but their coming generations are also subjected to a very high risks.
Unfortunately these jawans have so far ignored
Ofcourse, I do agree the army jawans, working on high altitudes, besides enemy threats, have to face extremely low temperatures, & may contend with frostbite, hypothermiya, altitude sickness, shortness of breath, stress and loneliness & cold-related injuries. The rugged and icy terrains pose physical challenges, making it difficult to move, carry equipment, and maintain footing & may lead to injuries and exhaustion. High altitude regions are also prone to avalanches and landslides, posing a constant threat.
While working conditions in missile fuelling points, where hypergolic propellants like G-fuel (typically unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine or UDMH mixed with nitrogen tetroxide) or Xyledene, di tri ethyl amine and O-fuel (comprising nitric acid and nitrous acid) are handled, are extremely hazardous due to the toxic and reactive nature of these chemicals. These fuels may have very dangerous genetic effects. Although the soldiers are advised to undertake precautionary measures, but it is very difficult to prevent accidental inhalation by the individuals. Especially while fuelling the rockets/missiles.
Here are some key aspects of the working conditions in such environments:
G-fuel, is extremely toxic when inhaled. Exposure to these chemicals, especially through inhalation, can have severe genetic and health effects. Extreme cases, the inhalation, may lead to death.
Here are some genetic effects of the fuel:
1. Mutagenicity: UDMH is known to be mutagenic, meaning it has the potential to cause genetic mutations. Mutations can lead to changes in DNA, which may result in genetic disorders or an increased risk of cancer.

2. Carcinogenicity: Both UDMH and N2O4 have been classified as possible human carcinogens by various health agencies. Prolonged exposure to these chemicals, including inhalation, can increase the risk of developing cancer, which can have genetic implications.

3. Birth Defects: Exposure to toxic chemicals like those in G-fuel, may lead to birth defects of coming generations of the soldiers.
These defects can be genetic in nature and may affect their child’s health throughout their life. G-fuel exposure can also lead to reproductive problems, This can result in infertility or genetic abnormalities in offsprings. Inhaling the toxic chemicals may cause direct damage to DNA, which may result in genetic mutations. DNA damage may be hereditary, meaning it can be passed on to several future generations. Continued exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals may lead to genetic instability within cells, potentially causing a cascade of genetic issues over time.
It’s essential to emphasize that inhaling G-fuel or any chemicals used in rocket propulsion is extremely dangerous and should be avoided at all costs.
Therefore employment of young soldiers or newly married soldiers by the authorities, should be considered, no less then a crime, punishable under law.
Proper employment, safety measures, protective gears, and protocols should be in place to protect personnel working with these substances. Any exposure should be immediately reported and treated, and individuals working with these chemicals should undergo regular health monitoring to detect and address potential genetic effects and health issues.
However inspite of all these precautions, avoiding these risks, for an individual is highly unlikely. As most of these fuels are highly corrosive, leading to leakages in pipes of fuelling vehicles.
Following is therefore advised:-
1. Armed forces authorities must refrain from employing unmarried or newly married individuals on rocket fuelling jobs/appointments.
(Even when they have to use this as a punitive tool)
2. Leak proof fuelling equipment/fuellers should be used
3. Safety Gear: Personnel working with hypergolic propellants must wear specialized protective gear, including chemical-resistant suits, gloves, goggles, and respirators, to minimize exposure to toxic fumes and contact with the chemicals.

4. Ventilation: Fuelling points require excellent ventilation systems to remove toxic fumes and gases released during the handling and fuelling processes.

5. Chemical Compatibility: Extreme care is taken to ensure that equipment, materials, and tools used are compatible with the hypergolic propellants to prevent chemical reactions or fires.

6. Training: Workers must undergo extensive training in handling hazardous chemicals, emergency procedures, and safety protocols. They must be well-versed in the properties of the fuels they are working with.

7. Strict Procedures: Precise procedures are followed for mixing and fuelling rockets. Any deviation from these procedures can lead to accidents.

8. Controlled Environment: Fuelling points are usually controlled environments with limited access to authorized personnel only to prevent accidents and unauthorized access.

9. Emergency Response: Well-equipped emergency response teams are stationed nearby to deal with any chemical spills, fires, or accidents that may occur.

10. Monitoring: Continuous monitoring of air quality and chemical concentrations is crucial to detect leaks or releases promptly.

11. Remote Handling: In some cases, remote handling systems or robotics are used to reduce the risk to human operators.

12. Strict Regulations: Stringent regulations and safety standards are enforced at missile fuelling points to ensure the safety of personnel and the surrounding environment.

Overall, working in missile fuelling points with hypergolic propellants is a highly specialized and dangerous job that demands rigorous safety measures, extensive training, and strict adherence to protocols to prevent accidents and minimize risks to personnel and the environment.

The media often provides coverage of the challenging conditions faced by army personnel stationed in high-altitude regions like Siachen, but neglect these unsung heroes of Armed forces. Here are some reasons for extensive media coverage, for such soldiers:

1. Human Interest Stories: The extreme conditions, sacrifices, and dedication of soldiers in such harsh environments make for compelling human interest stories that capture the public’s attention.

2. National Pride: Media coverage highlights the bravery and resilience of the soldiers, fostering a sense of national pride and respect for these soldiers. Media coverage often emphasizes the safety and well-being of soldiers, drawing attention to the need for adequate resources and support for troops by the authorities.

Stories about the struggles of these soldiers as regards their risks, may evoke empathy and support from the public, leading to discussions about improving their working conditions. Media coverage may also hold governments accountable for ensuring the welfare of their troops, pushing for better equipment, better facilities, and improved policies as regards soldiers’ employment.

Gadhwa Stone Inscriptions

Written by Alok Mohan on September 10, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Gadhwa Stone Inscriptions, are early 5th-century Sanskrit inscriptions discovered in different parts of ancient India.

These Inscriptions highlight the fact that the Indian kings were aware of their responsibility towards society, as these Inscriptions are the evidences, of existence of institutions, looking after the poor .
The tradition of charitable feeding houses for Brahmins and the needy can be traced to the mid-2nd century CE in several Kushana inscriptions.  The inscriptions suggests that the Hindu temples had charity-based community kitchens shich fed the poor and sadhus. and the destitute.

Inscription no 142
Gadha (Jasdan) Stone Inscription of Rudrasena I
Saka year 127 (=205 A D.)
Provenance: Garha, near Jasdan, Rajkot distict. Gujrat.
Now in watson Museum of antiquities. Rajkot.
Script: Brahmi early Southern gupta variety.
Language: Sanskrit influenced by Prakrit.
From the facsimile in EP.Ind. XVIII, facing pp.340.
Bhau Daji, J.B.B. R.A.S VIII, pp.234 f.
Hoernle, Ind.ant, pp-32f, -Bhagwanl lal
Indraji and Rapson J.R.A.S, 1890, pp.652, Rapson, B.M.C., pp 1xii. Number 42, Luder’s list no. 967; D.R Bhandarkar. A.S.I. Reports. W, Circle, 1914-15.
pp.67-68, R. D. Banerji and V.S. Sukthankar. Ep. Ind.XVI, pp.236-39
D.C. Sircar Select.Inss, pp.185-86.
From the Facsimile in Ep.Ind.. XVI,pp 237,
2. Bhandarkar and Sukthankar alternatively suggest.
The Mulwasar stone inscription now in
the Dwarka Library, has the date
राझो महा क्षत्रपस स्वामि रुद्र तेनस्य वर्षे वैशाख बहुल पँचम्या
and records the
erection of a Sila-Yashti by the sons of Vanijaka.
See Luđers’ list, number. 962.

1. भद्रमुख = having an auspicious face: cf. the Abhijnanaa-Sakuntalam VII.
2. Bandarkar reads शव त्र
and others शत्र
Bhau Daji translates it as tank.
Hoernle connects it with सत्र a kind of expensive some sacrifice extending
over many days and takes in the sense of liberality munificence. Luder takes it to be the सत seat of a cave Inscription.As already pointed out by
Banerji and Sukthankar, the word ऊथावित clearly implies the erection or raising of a structure.

Banerji connects the word सत्र with
the change of सत
“almshouse” but the change of स into श is difficult to explain.
According to D.C. Sirkar, it apears to indicate a lath or pillar raised in memory of Kharapartha by his brothers.
In that case, the last word in l .6 should be read as
3. Hoernle Bhau Daji मान तु तुंगोत्रस्य प्रता र थक Bahu Daji सप्रनाधक
4. Bahu Daji and Hoernle:खरपौंत्रस्य
Bhandarkar: खरपीत्थस्य
Banerji and Sukthankar खरर्पत्थस्य
apparently redundant र is inserted after and above खर
5. Banerji and Sukthankar भ्रात्रभि Bhandarkar भ्रात्त्रभि
6. Bhauji Daji. उत्थाविथास्व Hoernle उत्थावितास्ति
7. Sirkar स्व र्ग followed by सुखार्थ, I agree with
Sircar that there are tracees of three aksharas below line 6.
Banerji and sukthankar think that.
1. व [र्ष ] 100(+)20+(2) [7] [भा ] द्रपद बहुलस (1) the Dwarka Library, has the date
राझो महा क्ष(त्र) पस

2. भद्रसु = मु खस स्वाम चष्टन-पुत्र प् (र ) पौत्रस्य राझो क्ष(त्र) पस
3. स्वामी [ज] यदम पुत्र पौत्रस्य राझो महाक्षत्रपस्य। भद्र मुख (स्य)
4. स्व म रुद्र दाम पौ (त्र) स्य राझो महाक्षत्रपस्य भ
(द्रमु ) खस्य स्वामि
5. रुद्रसिंह (पुत्र)स्य राझो महाक्षत्रपस्य स्वामि रुद्रसेनस्य इदं
6. मानस-सगो [त्र ] स्य प्र [ता ] शक-पुत्रस्य खर व [T] त्र्थस्य
भ्रातृभिः उत्थावित स्त [ म्भ ]
7. स्वर्ग सुखा त्र्थ
English Translation of the inscription
In the year 127, on the 5th (day of the dark fortnight of Bhadrapada (in the reign of the king Mahakshatrapa, Lord
Rudrasimha. (son of the king, the Mahakshatrapa, Lord Rudrasimha,
of auspicious appearance and son’s son of king, the Mahakshatrapa, Lord Rudradaman of auspicious appearance; (and) grandson of the son of the king, the Kshatrapa Lord Jayadaman,
(and) great-grands son of the son of the king, the Mahakshatrapaa, Lord Chashtana of auspicious appearance, is this stone pillar.
This (pillar?) has been erected for a happy life in heaven?
by the brothers of Kharaparttha. the son of Pratasaka (Pratyasaka) of the Manasa gotra.

Ram Charit Manas

Written by Alok Mohan on September 9, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Ram Charit Manas.

According to sage Valmiki, the Ramayana period was the golden age of India. Ramayana is the best book in all the literature of the world. Its impact has been deeply imprinted on the life of people. Shri Ram Chandra is considered to be the ideal embodiment of respect for parents, teachers, brotherhood, emotion, sacrifice, social organization and best governance.
Indian culture had existed before the Vedic period. The kingdoms of Surya dynasty and Som dynasty were established in Bharat Varsh.
Those kingdoms were Ayodhya, Vaishali, Kashi, Panchal, Kanyakubj, Mahishmati, Turvasu, Hastinapur, Kadhar, Titakshu and Kalinga. These kingdoms were interconnected & united culturally.
There were ashrams of sages, at various places. Vedas, Upanishads, Ayurveda, astrology etc. and usage of weapons were taught in these ashrams/gurukuls.
Four types of ashrams, were established, by these kingdoms, initially to meet requirements, of society, based on one’s stage of life, & address individuals’ requirements.
For example brahmacharya Ashram was meant for education of children,
Grihastha Ashram was meant for counseling of adults, Vanaprastha for welfare of middle aged people
and Sanyas ashram was for spiritual & welfare needs of elderly people.
For effective management of the ashrams, a social system was created/constituted based on skill sets of people. Understand that varnas got evolved, subsequently from this social system, only.
These Ashramas also provided a framework for the various stages and responsibilities in a person’s life and served as a guide for leading a balanced and meaningful life, ultimately leading to spiritual growth and liberation (moksha).
The concept of Ashramas, subsequently represented the four stages of life that an individual typically goes through.
These stages are:

1. Brahmacharya Ashrama: This is the stage of student life. During this period, individuals focus on education, self-discipline, and celibacy. It is a time of learning and preparing for adulthood.

2. Grihastha Ashrama: This is the stage of householder life. In this stage, individuals marry, raise a family, pursue a career, and actively participate in society. They are responsible for their family’s well-being and contribute to their community.

3. Vanaprastha Ashrama: This is the stage of retirement or forest-dweller life. After fulfilling their duties as householders, individuals in this stage gradually detach from material possessions and worldly responsibilities. They may choose to life in seclusion, devote more time to spiritual pursuits, and pass on their knowledge and wisdom to the younger generation.

4. Sannyasa Ashrama: This is the stage of renunciation. At this point, individuals completely renounce worldly attachments and live a life of spiritual contemplation and detachment from material possessions. They may wander as ascetics, focusing solely on spiritual realization.

Vedas were composed by Rishis and sages, & knowledge was transferred orally. Storytellers used to narrate stories of kings, kingdoms & the ashrams, to the general public orally, They used to change or improve the stories according to general interest of public and the then social needs.
As we are aware that India has been bound in the chains of slavery for almost 1200 years, but the morale and moral courage of the Hindu race remained intact, due to oral transfer of a very rich history of India, to successive generations. Even during colonial era, the story of Ram was narrated in the village chaupalas. Every child wanted to follow the ideals of Ramayana.
In this period too, literature based on Ram Katha had been continuously being composed.
These stories contributed in increasing the morale of the Hindus.
Such legends emerged in the field of religion, culture and literature, which subsequently led powerful movements for the protection of religion and culture. Our ancestors made sacrifices, but did not allow their culture to be affected, by invaders.
It is pertinent to mention here that
today in independent India, if someone raises his voice for the protection of Hindu religion, he is not only silenced by being called a fundamentalist, but he is also tortured, so much that he cannot raise his voice at all.
Is there any other country in the world whose majority people have to be humiliated at every step.
We had sages like Swami Vivekananda, who worked to gain the lost prestige of Sanatana Dharma from time to time.
But I pity on some of those unrighteous Hindus, whose corrupt mind is now hell-bent & have been insulting our common ancestors.
They may name their children as Ram, Krishna, Hanuman etc, but still say that all these are myths.
Such people forgot the teachings of Ramayana. The “Ram Charit Manas” is an epic poem written by the Indian saint and poet Tulsidas. It is a retelling of the ancient Indian epic, the Ramayana, which narrates the life and adventures of Lord Rama, an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. The teachings and themes of the Ram Charit Manas include:
1. Devotion to Lord Rama: The primary message of the text is devotion and surrender to Lord Rama as the supreme divine being. It emphasizes the importance of a loving and unwavering connection with God.
2. Dharma (Righteousness): The Ram Charit Manas underscores the importance of upholding dharma (righteousness) in one’s life. Lord Rama is portrayed as the embodiment of dharma, and the text encourages individuals to follow his example in their own lives.
3. Morality and Virtue: The epic promotes moral and virtuous living. It teaches the values of truth, honesty, humility, compassion, and selflessness through the actions and character of Lord Rama and other key figures.
4. Role of Satsang: The text highlights the significance of satsang, which refers to the company of the virtuous and the spiritually inclined. Associating with those who are on a spiritual path is believed to help individuals on their own spiritual journey.
5. Detachment and Surrender: Ram Charit Manas teaches the concept of detachment from material desires and the surrender of one’s ego to God. This surrender is seen as a path to liberation (moksha).
6. Importance of Hanuman: The text also emphasizes the importance of Hanuman, Lord Rama’s loyal devotee. Hanuman serves as a symbol of unwavering devotion, strength, and humility.
7. Narration of Lord Rama’s Life: Ram Charit Manas provides a detailed narrative of Lord Rama’s life, including his birth, exile, battles against evil forces, and his return to Ayodhya. These stories serve as both a source of entertainment and spiritual instruction.

8. Bhakti (Devotion): Bhakti, or devotional love for God, is a central theme. It encourages individuals to cultivate a loving and personal relationship with God through prayer, worship, and selfless service.

9. Importance of Ram Rajya: The Ram Charit Manas envisions the ideal society, known as Ram Rajya, where justice, equality, and righteousness prevail. It serves as a model for good governance.
These teachings and themes in the Ram Charit Manas have had a profound influence on Hindu spirituality and culture, and it continues to be widely read and revered by millions of people in India and beyond.
After independence, secular governments not only removed the story of Ram from the curriculum of school text books, but also started throwing mud on the ideal characters of Ramayana. It is unbearable.
There had been a conspiracy to destroy religion and culture. No self-respecting person would like to defame his revered great men. Therefore, anti-Hindu religious statements should be immediately removed from school syllabus.
If we want to establish an ideal society, we will have to follow the ideals of Ramayana. Ramayana should be recited daily in every home. Ram Van Gaman Marg should be developed from Ayodhya to Sri Lanka. Yatras should be organized on festivals like Ram Navami, Sita Navami, Dussehra, Diwali etc.
We have to teach a lesson to those who call our great men, incarnations and our religious texts as myths.
Myth means an idea of the general public about a natural or historical event, which is infact a pure imaginary plot.
We should create more and more Ram Katha literature.
Wake up Hindus, listening to insults of your ancestors is a heinous crime. If you remain silent, God will not forgive you and future generations will curse you.

Astronomy & Astrology

Written by Alok Mohan on September 8, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Astronomy and Astrology

While astronomy and astrology share historical origins in India, they have evolved differently. Astronomy is now a well-established scientific field, whereas astrology continues to be practiced as a belief system for predicting human affairs based on celestial observations.
Both, however, continue to be culturally significant in India.
Astronomy and astrology have deep roots in India, with their development spanning thousands of years.
1. Ancient Vedic Period (1500 BCE – 600 BCE):
The earliest mentions of astronomy and astrology in India can be found in the Vedas, ancient sacred texts. They contained astronomical references for calendrical and ritual purposes.
The Rigveda includes hymns related to celestial objects and their movements.

2. Siddhanta Period (5th – 18th Century):
The Siddhantas were significant astronomical texts that laid the foundation for Indian astronomy. The most famous among them is the “Surya Siddhanta,” believed to have been written around 400 CE.
Aryabhata’s “Aryabhatiya” (499 CE) and Varahamihira’s “Pancha-Siddhantika” (6th century) were notable works during this period.
3. Medieval Period (7th – 18th Century):
– The works of astronomers like Brahmagupta, Bhaskara I, and Bhaskara II contributed to the development of mathematical astronomy and trigonometry in India.
Astrology became increasingly prominent, with texts like “Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra” by Parashara and “Brihat Jataka” by Varahamihira gaining popularity.
4. Kerala School of Astronomy (14th – 16th Century):
Kerala, in southern India, was a center for astronomy and mathematics. The scholars of the Kerala School made significant advancements in trigonometry and calculus.
Madhava of Sangamagrama, a prominent figure from this school, developed series expansions for trigonometric functions.

5. Modern Period (20th Century – Present):
– India has made significant strides in modern astronomy with institutions like the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), and the establishment of several observatories.
ISRO’s achievements include launching satellites for Earth observation and space exploration.

The ancient belief that the celestial bodies influence fate and future of mankind, and that future can be predicted on the basis of the influence of these bodies, can be traced to a very early period of Indian history. And this belief of predicting the future events led to the development of the sciences of astronomy and astrology. The Babylonians were the first to study the stars. Though very little reference to the astrological study is made in the literature of the Vedic period, method of reckoning of the year, however vague, was known at that time. By the close of the Vedic period a calculated calendar was developed; and a calendar, arranged on the basis of a five year Yuga with a 366 days a year was in use. Though the position of the sun and the moon at the solstices, and at new and full moon with regard to Naksatras was known, there was yet a general ignorance regarding the motions of the sun and the moon, resulting in the faulty calculation of months and years. But, in spite of the limitations of this early system of reckoning, it did bequeath to the posterity the idea of a Yuga, a period during which a complete change of the heavenly bodies occurs and that of a lunar day or tithi the thirtieth part of a synodical month. However insignificant, this contribution may be, it has its importance in as much as it provides a base for future development of these sciences.
Saka Samvat has come down to our times and declared the national calendar of India. The astronomy which the Greeks introduced in India was Saka rulers from the centre they made the meridian for propagated extensively by the of their capital Ujjayani which astronomical calculations.
Reference: The Sakas in India & their impact on Indian life & Culture by Dr V M. Mohan.

Evolution of Bharat

Written by Alok Mohan on September 8, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The term “Bharat” is an ancient name for India, and its evolution spans thousands of years of history.

While the word India originated during british colonial rule.
History and cultural diversity of India are incredibly rich and complex, reflecting the contributions of numerous ancient dynasties, Sanatana cultures, and an advanced ancient civilization.
Hindu part of 1947 partitioned India, adopted its constitution in 1950, & consequent to becoming a republic of Bharat. However it continued with the tradition of calling it India on different platforms. Hindu part of India, inspite of parting with one third of its geographical territory to an erring Jinnahites’ population, had subsequently faced challenges such as regional conflicts, and social issues, while consistently working towards development and progress.

Here is a brief overview of the evolution of Bharat:

1. Ancient India (Prehistoric to 6th Century BCE):
– The earliest evidence of human habitation in the Indian subcontinent dates back to prehistoric times.
– The Indus Valley Civilization (circa 3300–1300 BCE) was one of the world’s oldest urban civilizations, located in what is now Pakistan and northwest India.
– The Vedic period (circa 1500–500 BCE) saw the composition of the sacred texts known as the Vedas.
– The emergence of various kingdoms and dynasties in different regions, such as the Maurya Empire under Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka.
2. Classical India (6th Century BCE to 7th Century CE):
– The founding of religions like Buddhism and Jainism by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) and Mahavira.
– The Gupta Empire (circa 4th to 6th centuries CE) marked a golden age in Indian history, with advancements in science, mathematics, and arts.
– The spread of Indian culture and influence to Southeast Asia.

3. Medieval India (8th Century to 18th Century CE):
– The arrival of Islam in India through traders and unethical invasions, leading to the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and later the Cruel Mughal Empire.
Simultaneously Bharat witnessed the rise of regional patriotic kingdoms and empires, such as the Vijayanagara Empire, Marathas & Rajput Empires.
– European colonial powers, including the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and ultimately the British, established trading posts and later colonized various parts of India, by deception.

4. British Colonial Rule (18th Century to 1947):
– The British East India Company gained control over India, which led to a period of British colonial rule.
– The Indian struggle for independence, led by figures like Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Subhas Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai, Savarkar brothers, culminated in India gaining independence in 1947 & becoming Bharat.