Panjab Tribes

Written by Alok Mohan on June 8, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Geographical Distribution of Panjab Tribes and Their Amalgamation
The foregoing narrative gives rather a blurred picture of the geographical distribution of these tribes. It creates the impression of more than one tribe sometimes occupying the same territory, or even ruling over the same area. Consequently, it may be assumed that the territories of various tribes in the Panjab were overlapping, and that the ruling tribes were not the only inhabitants of a particular area. May be, the ruling tribe formed the majority, often a marginal one, with the result that occasions arose when a rival tribe forming another important section of the population came to power over the same area and the very same people. This co-existence of more than one tribe explains the confusion regarding their territorial distribution as also the occasional use of the same nomenclature for more than one tribe Such a situation was bound to lead to
tribal admixture resulting in complete absorption of one tribe by another. Such intermingling of tribes is presupposed by the Gautama Dharmasutra when it states that the children born of next, second or third lower castes become Sabaras, Ambashthas, Ugras, Nishädas, Daushyantas or Pärsaras. The Arthasastra holds similar VICWS. It is interesting to note that whole tribes sprang from this intermingling. Intermarriages must have been very common.
The present day Panjab presents much the same picture of co-existence of many tribes or castes in the same area. Certain areas are dominated by Malavai Jats, others by Brahmans or Sainis or Rajputs and so forth, though many other castes live side by side with them. All the same, I have attempted to fix their seats roughly about the beginning of the second century before Christ.

The Audumbaras

Written by Alok Mohan on June 7, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Audumbaras

The Audumbaras are mentioned in the Ganapatha among the Rajanya group of republics. They were the neighbours of the Rajanyas of Kangra and the Jalandharāyaņas of Jalandhara, both of whom are listed alongside in the Gana. They are placed at the head of the Panjab republics in the earlier list of the Sabha Parvan of the Mahabharata.
The Audumbras were one among most important north Indian tribes of  Himalaya region, and lived in the lower hills between Sirmaur, Chamba and Yamuna.
According to Mahabharata Audumbaras were the descendants of the sage “Vishwamitra who was founder of “Kaushika group”. Their coins have been mostly found in the Pathankot, Jawalamukhi and Hoshiarpur.
Their coins of the first century B.C. are also found in the northern Panjab in Gurdaspur-Pathankot, Kangra and Hoshiarpur districts, as well as in Brahmi. They bear legends in Kharoshthi & brahmi also. Varaha mihira places them in the company of the Kapishthalas who are a twin associate of the Kathas in Patañjali. They were somewhere between Kangra and Ambala. A branch of theirs seems to have migrated to Cutch, as Pliny locates the Adomboeres there. Their coinage resembles that of the Arjunayanas in style. Their coins show that the Audumbaras (if a republic) had an elective king. They are struck in the name of the community and king. The legend is, Mahadevesa rana Dharaghoshasa Odumbarisa.
These coins resemble hemidrachms of the Greek prince Apollodotus.
The Kharoshthi script indicates that about the middle of the 1st century B.C., like some of their neighbouring tribes, they came under the influence of the Saka satraps. Gradually were absorbed by bigger tribes and lost their identity. No further record of theirs is found.

The Salankayanas

Written by Alok Mohan on June 6, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

About the Salankayanas, we are told by the Kasika that they were in the Vahika country and that they were Brāhmaṇas.
The Sage namely Salankayana, was the founder of this ancient Hindu Brahmin tribe. According to Matsyapurana and Pravaramanjari of Purushottama, ‘Salankayana’ was the name of a rishi. He was a descendent of Salanka, who was one of the sons of Visvamitran. In the Pravarakanda, there are two gotras named after ‘Salankya’. One belongs to the Angirasa gana and the other is the Visvamitra gana. In the Ganapatha of Panini, the work ‘Salankayana’ occurs twice. In one instance, the name Salankayana was derived from a gotra descendant. In another case, the name was given after the name of a certain rulers of a territory namely, ‘Salankayanaka’. The reference to the Salankayanas and their territory as Salankayanaka in Panini’s work, indicates that the Salankayanas were an ancient tribe.
This statement is supported by the Ganapatha, which associates them with the Rajanyas and Audumbaras, They had the śastropajivi constitution. According to Patañjali, they were composed of three sections, He calls them Trikah Salankayanḥ. These three sections very likely represent an amalgamation of three small state units. Panjabi Brahmiņas of Trikha caste appear to be their descendants. Dr. V.S. Agrawala notes that Salankayanas came to be known as Trikaḥ.
The Salankayanas ruled Andhra Pradesh from 300 to 440 CE. Their territory was located between the Godavari and the Krishna rivers. Their capital was located at Vengi, modern Pedavegi near Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Salankayanas succeeded the Ikshvaku dynasty and they were also vassals of the Pallava kings of southern India. In the late 5th century, the Salankayanas were conquered by Madhava Varma II, of the Vishnukumdinas.

The Vamarathas

Written by Alok Mohan on June 5, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Vamarathas.

Vamarathas was an ancient tribe inhabiting the north west India.
Listed in the Ganapatha and mentioned by Katyayana and Patañjali, the Vamarathas were a minor community of whose history and seat not much is known. But their origin can be established from Ganapathi Upanishad wherein there is mention of this shiva Tribe. Vamarathas are one of the oldest tribes in India, They were spread across Panjab, Himachal & Kashmir.
From time immemorial they had cleared forests, tilled the land and produced food for subsistence. They are Indo Aryan tribal people & got absorbed into the population in the northern India. They were worshippers of
Ganesha, who has been identified with the Supreme Self and is the first god to
awaken our consciousness and the first god to preside over our inner transformation.
Ganesha is also an important deity in the hindu Pantheon and is regarded as the remover of obstacles and the Lord of the Ganas
The legends that are connected with Lord Ganesha are recorded in the Ganesha Khanda of the ‘Brahma Vivartha Purana.

The Rajanyas

Written by Alok Mohan on June 4, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Rajanyas

“Rajanya” word means ‘Royal inheritance’ and is one of the Kshatriya castes, in general. Purusha – Sukta of the Rigveda, where, dwelling upon the four fold division of the society, it is stated that the Brahmana sprang from the mouth of the primeval being (Purusha), the Rajanyas from his arms, the Vaisyas from his thighs and the Sudras from his feet. The word since then has constantly been in use in literature from the Rigvedic period. Rajanya was a tribe of Kshatriyas and also a Janapada as mentioned by Panini in the Mahabharata. Goddess Rajini-devi was the god of Rajanya Janapada.
The Rajanyas reappear as a self-governing republican tribe about 100 B.C. about this period. Their coins were struck about this period.They bear the legend, Rajanyajanapadasa. They are found in Hoshiarpur district and Mathura, indicating their movement from the former region to the latter during this period of foreign invasions. One of their coins is die-struck and bears legend in Kharoshthi. It is closely allied to the North Satrap coins, bearing the same figure as the latter. From this coin Dr. Jayaswal deduced their final absorption in the Mathura satrapy. This deduction, however, is fallacious. It merely proves that up to 10 B.C., when they struck their last coins, they were independent, though for want of better skill, they had to imitate designs from those coins. After absorption they could not have retained the right of minting. Dr. Jaiswal has assumed the existence of another republican tribe in Panjab, namely, the Maharaja Janapada, on the basis of coins bearing the legend, Mahārāja-Janapadasa, in Brahmi as well as in Kharoshthi. But according to Allan this theory is based on an erroneous reading of the legend by Cunningham, on what really are Rajanya Janapada coins. Ancient coins show the complete features of bull Nandi like details of horns, face, eyes, body and tail. Jayaswal’s assertion that the Maharaja Janapada is mentioned by Paņini (IV. 1. 151) is also wrong. Neither the sutra nor the Ganapatha makes any reference to them, though of course Rajanya figures in his sutra. ‘Bull with crescent appears on the reverse of some of these coins, indicating that Saivism was the State religion of this section of the Rajanya people.

Mathura stone Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on June 4, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Mathura stone Inscription of the time of Sodasa. (10-25 A.D.)

Provenanca: Mathura
Script : Brahmi
Language: Sanskrit influenced by Prakrit.
Sanskrit, Hindi & English Translation of the Inscription by Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan –
(Ancient Indian Inscriptions- Volume 1.
Citation requested
Kindly Visit

References: R.P. Chanda, A.S.I., No. 5. pp-169-73, H Luders, Ep.Ind, XXIV, p.208, D.C. Sircar, J.B.R.S, XXXIX.
Pts. 1-2, pp. 45-46: Sel.Inss, I, p. 123.
6. वसुना भगव [ तो वासुरे ] –
7. वस्य महास्थान [के देवकु ]
8. लं तोरणं वे [ दिका प्रति ]
9. ष्ठापितं ( = तम् ) प्रीतो भ [गवान् वासु ]
10. देव: स्वामि [ स्य ( न : ) महा क्षत्र ]
11. पस्य शोडास [स्य शासनं ]
12. संवत्र्तयतां [ = ताम ]

English Translation.
1-5. —–;
6-9: The divine family, an arched gate and a platform have been established in the great shrine of the Divine lord Vasudeva by – Vasu
9-10: May Lord Vasu be pleased.
10-12: May the reign of the lord, the mahakshatrapa Sodasa continue.
1. From Ep.Ind., XXIV
2. Traces of letters visible, though illegible.
3. Chanda महास्थान [ चतु: शा ] Lüders: शै [ लं ]
4. Chanda: वेदिका
5. Chanda and Lüders:… ष्ठापितो
6. Chanda: म [ वतु वासु]
हिन्दी अनुवाद
1-5: —–
6-9: वसु ने भगवान् वासुदेव के विशाल भवन
में देव-परिवार तोरण और वेदी स्थापित की |
9-10: भगवान वासुदेव प्रसन्न होवें ।
10-12. स्वामी महाक्षत्रप शोडास का शासन जारी रहे ।


Mathura stone Inscription of the time of Sodasa. (10-25 A.D.)
Provenanca: A wall at Mora, 12 kms from Mathura
Script : Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit influenced by Prakrit.
Sanskrit, Hindi & English Translation of the Inscription by Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan –
(Ancient Indian Inscriptions- Volume 1.
Citation requested
Kindly Visit

References: Cunningham A.S.R, XX, p.49, Pl. V, J.Ph. Vogal, Catalogue of Archeological museum, Mathura, p.184, No.Q1, Luders, Ep.Ind, XXIV, p.194,
D.C. Sircar, Sel.Inss, I, p.122.

1. (स्वस्तिक चिहन ) महाक्षत्रप राजुवुलस पुत्रस स्वामि [ स्य महाक्षत्रपस्य शोडासस्य संवत्सरे
2. भगवतां वृष्णीणां पंचवी राणां प्रतिमा शैल देवर्ण हे स्थापिता:
3. यत्तोष या शैलं श्रीमद्गगृहमतुलमुदवसमधार (?)
4. आर्चादेवसं शैलां पंच ज्वलत इव परम वपुषा

English Translation:
In the year of Lord the mahakshatrapa Sodasa, son of mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, images of the venerable vrishinis, the five heroes, have been established in the roak temple.
हिन्दी अनुवाद
महाक्षत्रप राजुवुल के पुत्र स्वामि महाक्षत्रप शोडास के राज्य संवत्सर में पांव भगवान वृष्णी वीरों की प्रतिमाएं शिला निर्मित देवाल्य ( मन्दिर ) में स्थापित की गई

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXIV
2. Sanskrit: महाक्षत्रपस्य राजवुलस्य पुत्रस्य स्वामिन:
3. Vayu P. (LXXIX 1-2) names the five deified vrishi heroes.
संकर्षणो वासुदेव: प्रधुम्न साम्व एव च अनिरूद्धश्च पञ्चैते वंशवीरा प्रकीर्तिता:
4. Reading as also the meaning of lines 4 and 5, is doubtful.

The Arjunayanas

Written by Alok Mohan on June 3, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Arjunayanas.

Arjunayanas were ancient republican tribe, located in north-eastern Rajasthan.  Earliest mention of the Arjunayanas, has been made in the Rajanya group of the Ganapatha. They are mentioned in the literary sources in Afghanistan from 4th century BCE and after Alexander’s invasions in 3rd century. They have also been mentioned in Agra, Mathura and Southern Haryana region till 4th century CE, where their coins have been found too.  Coins belonging to 2nd or 1st century BCE. found in this region provide necessary evidence of their existence. They are also mentioned in brahat samhita. The Arjunayana coins resembled those of the Yaudheya coins, which show their contemporariness. The findspot of Arjunayana coins, indicates that their territory was within the triangle formed by Delhi, Jaipur and Agra.
The coins have been identified by Fleet with the Kalachuris, who traces their descent from Kartavirya Arjuna of the Haihaya tribe of the antiquity.
They were associates and friends of the Yaudheyas, the Madrakas and the Malavas of Rajputana. They are no-where associated with Panjab. Though It is possible that the splinter group from the Arigaion (Arjunava) had moved to and settled in south-east Punjab and Rajasthan under pressure from Alexander and they probably named the political headquarters of their new-found territory also as Arjunavana.  This name finds reference in the 4th century CE Buddhist tantra text Mahamayuri.
Arjunavana is derived from Arjunava, i.e  Arjun and nava. During Shunga period, this tribe was politically very active and most of the powerful positions of Shunga kingdom, were held by Arjunayanas . They had also accepted lordship of Gupta empire during samudragupta empire.   It has been speculated that the place name Arjunavana of the Buddhist text may have been somewhere near to Srughana (Yamunanagar in Haryana).

Mathura Stone Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on June 3, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Mathura Stone Inscription of the time of Sodasa. (C 10-15 A.D.)

Provenance : Jail Mound, Mathura, U. P.
Script : Brahmi.
Language : Sanskrit influenced by Prakrit.
Sanskrit, Hindi & English Translation of the Inscription by Dr Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan –
(Ancient Indian Inscriptions- Volume 1.
Citation requested
Kindly Visit

Dowson, J.R.A.S., N.S., V, p. 188, No. 29:
Cunningham, A.S.R.. III, p. 30, H. Luders, Ind. Art, XXXIII, p. 149, No. 24; Ep-Ind. IX. pp.246-47; D.C. Sircar,
Sel.Inss. I, p. 121.
1. स्वामिस्य महाक्षत्रस्य शोंडास्य गंजवरेण ब्राह्मणणेन शेगर्व -सगोत्रेण (पुष्क)
2. रणि इमायां यमउ- पुष्करणीनं पश्चिमा पुष्करणि आारामो स्तम्भो इ [ मो ] *
3. शिला 3 पट्टो च
संस्कृत छाया
स्वामिन: महाक्षत्रपस्य शोडासस्य गञ्जवरेण
( कोषाध्यक्षेण ) ब्राह्ममणेन शैगर्व -सगोत्रेण (पुष्करिणी)
पश्चिमा ( = पश्चिमायां दिशि स्थिता ) पुष्करिणी उदपानः (कूप: ) आराम: स्तम्भ: अयं शिलापद: च कारित:
1. From the facsimile in A.S.R., III.
2. The name was possibly pronounced both ways, with and without nasalisation. Compare, Rajula and Ranjuvula.
3. The Rajatarangini, V. 177: VII. 42 (Sten. Intro, pp. 37-38) and Kahamachandra’s Lokaprakasa, refer to the offices of the Ganjavara (treasurer) and dibira (secretary) both the words are of Persian origin.
4. According to the ganapatha, the Saigrava Gotra is referred to by Panini in II. 4, 67 and IV, 1, 104. Kern, Ceschiedenis van Let budhism in India, Vol. II, p. 266; identifies Salgarve with Palli Siggava (Dipav, V, 57; 69 etc.), the name of the patriarch, who conferred the upasana pada on the great Tissa Moggaliputta.

English Translation of the Inscription.
By the treasurer of the lord, the Mahakshatrapa Sondása, a Brahmana of Segrava gotra, a tank i.e The western tank of these twin tanks — a reservoir (or well), a grove. a pillar and this stone slab (was caused to be made)
हिन्दी अनुवाद
स्वामी महाक्षत्रप शोंडास के कोषाध्यक्ष गंजवर शेग्रव -गोत्रण ब्राहमण ने यह सरोवर अर्थात इन युगल सरोवरों के पश्चिम (स्थित ) सरोवर कूँआ उधान स्तम्भ तथा यह शिल-पट्ट बनवाया |

The Sibis

Written by Alok Mohan on June 2, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Sibis

There are few references of Sibi or Sivi tribe in the Mahabharata epic.
There was a king named Shivi, whose kingdom was also named after him. He was known for for his caring attitude.
The legend about his truthfulness and compassion goes as follows: King Shivi protected a dove who was chased by a hawk (which wanted to eat the dove as its midday meal), and gave flesh from his thigh, as a substitute meal to the hawk.
It is also mentioned in Mahabharata that Jayadratha also belonged to this tribe and ruled Sauvira which was close to Shivi kingdom. Jayadratha subsequently conquered Shivi also which is located in western Rajsthan.
Jayadratha was an ally Duryodhan, and husband of Duryodhan’s sister Dussala. Yudhishtra’s wife (Devika) was also from Sivi tribe. Yudhishtra was king of hastinapur after the kurukshetra war. She later later begot a son to him, Yaudheya, who founded Yaudheya tribal kingdom.

The circumstances that led the Malavas in the 2nd century, B.C. to migrate towards Rajasthan seem to have compelled their neighbours, the Śivis, also to do the same. Their presence in Rajasthan is known from their coins found at Nagari near Chittor. These coins are struck in the name of the country (or Nation) of the Sibis of Madhyamika’. Dr. Tarn’s hypothesis that the Sibis “must, it seems, have been settled at Madhyamikä by Apollodotus”, does not sound convincing. Simultaneous migration of the neighbouring tribes to adjoining areas can be attributed to identical causes. No record of theirs of a period subsequent to the first century B.C. has yet been discovered.”


Mathura votive Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on June 2, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Mathura votive Inscription of the time of Sodasa Year 72 (AD 15)

Provenance: Kankali Tila at Mathura
Script: Brahmi
Language: Prakrit Influenced by Sanskrit.
References: G. Bühler Ep.Ind,II, p.199, Luder’s list No 59, D. C. Sircar, Sel.Inss, I, p.120.
1. नम अरहतो वर्धमानस ( 1 )
2. स्व मिस महक्षत्रपस शोडासस स वत्सरे ७० + 2
हेम त – मासे 2 दिवसे हरिति – पुत्रस पालस भयाये सम (न)
स विकाये
3. कोछीये अमोहिनिये महा पूत्रेहि पालघोषेन पोठघोषेन
घनघोषेन आर्यवति प्रतिधापिता (1) प्रियं तां भग
4. आर्यवति अरहत पूजाये
1 Mound of Kankali,One of the 64 yoginis of Jain literature
2. From the facismile in Ep Ind II Page- 199, Plate. No. 2.
3. 24th January Tirthankara also known as Jina and Mahavira.
Definition of Arhat:
सर्वेझो जित-रागादि- दोषस त्रैलो वय-पूजित:
यथा स्धितार्थवादी च देवोऽर्हन् परमेश्वर:
4. Buhler 80(7) 2
Refers to old Skytho Parthian era, now identified with the Vikrama era according to Sircar
S.I.I page – 120
5. So named because of the figure of Arya or Arhat on the sils.
6. Buhler: प्राय भ intended reading seems to be “प्रियतां भगवती”
नमः अर्हते वर्धमानाय | स्वामिन: महाक्षत्रस्य शोडातस्य संवत्सरे ७२ द्विसप्ततितमे () हेमन्त-मासे { द्वितीये ) ( = चातुर्र्मासिकस्य हेमन्तर्तो: द्वितीये मासे दिवसे नवमे हारीती-पुत्रस्य पालस्य भार्यया श्रमण श्राविकया ( जैन भिक्षू – शिष्या ) कोत्स्या (कोत्स – गोत्र – जातया ) अमोहिन्या सह पुत्रै पालघोषण, प्रौष्ठघोषण , घनघोषण (च) आर्यवती ( जैनाना आयागपटा छया पूजाशिला प्रतिष्ठपिता [ प्रीयतां भगवती आर्यवती अर्हत पूजाये (II)
English Translation
Salutation to the Arhat Vardhamana. In the year 72 in the reign of the lord, the Mahakshatrape Sodasa, in the second
month of winter, on the 9th day, the Aryavati was set up by
Amohini of Kautsa Lineage (gotra) a famale lay-desciple of the
ascetics (and) wife of Pala, the son of Hariti, together with
her Sons Palaghosha Praushthaghosha (and) Dhanaghosha.
May the vulnerable Aryavati be pleased for the worship of the Arhate.
1. Sanskrit rendering of the Saka title meaning ‘lord’, of.
Saka-murunda. Indian title Bhattaraka (from Bhartri), used
by Satavahana and Guptas, presumably traceable to the Saka title.
2. The three seasons of the year ended with a chaturmasi.
ग्रीष्म consisted of चैत्र, वैशाख, ज्येष्ठ, आषाढ:
And वर्षा consisted of श्रावण भाद्रपद आश्विंन & कार्तिक
हेमन्त consisted of मार्गशीर्ष पौष, माघ & फाल्गुन